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The processes of regionalization as a new factor of development of interstate cooperation
Material posted: Publication date: 16-11-2019
The transitional period of transformation of the main components of international relations in the framework of the concluding phase of globalization is coming to its logical conclusion. This, in turn, enhances the processes of regionalization as an alternative to the existing structure in the context of the development of the next technological era. Some institutes international-political system lost its efficiency.

The most serious evidence of significant changes in the field of international relations there may be a disregard for international law, the desire to expand its sphere of influence, the use of secret diplomacy, increase of the role of the security services as a means of doing politics in a digital and global space. Many States are switching to a hard line of dialogue that promotes awareness of the possible danger to the sovereignty and national interests. Such circumstances stimulate synergies and networking between the participants of the world community to ensure effective regional cooperation.

To date, previous mechanisms for addressing global problems become unclaimed. There is a tendency develop a system of interaction of States within international relations, aimed at resolving issues that require the unification of all forces and resources. Great importance is given to "ensuring sustainable manageability of global development, which requires collective leadership by leading States, which should be representative in geographical and civilizational relations..."[1].

Given the recent geopolitical changes, comes the breaking of the overall structure of the existing world order. International law is ignored. Some States are increasingly using the tools of power diplomacy when interacting with their partners. Western countries lose their former geopolitical position. Concepts, developed to explain the General provisions of public administration, shows its ineffectiveness and inconsistency. The economic and political center is shifting towards the Eurasian and Asia-Pacific regions (APR).

People's Republic of China (PRC) seeks to take the place of a new global leader of the world economy. To curb the expansionary trends of China and the preservation of their geo-economic positions of the States put severe economic pressure on its partners. A trade war between the two world powers has a significant impact on foreign policy of other countries. Constant clashes, China and America are undermining the common standards of the world trading system. The hegemony of the US and its allies comes to an end, that is the desire of certain political forces to Express themselves. The end of one of the stages of globalization marked the beginning of a new period in international relations. It should be noted that to talk about a possible dominance of China as the world's sole economic centre (YEC) is not advisable. This is indicated by the number of reasons. First, it is unlikely that the yuan can become dominant world currency. Secondly, it is necessary to consider that the economy of China is already suffering from over-consumption of natural, labor and financial resources on the background of sufficient serious imbalance of ecological system of the country.

Reinforcement of regional trends indicates a radical revision of the basic principles of international cooperation. Aggressive policy towards developing countries carried out by the representatives of the Old world, facilitates the transition to a different format of interaction. To ensure the security of sovereignty and the right of realization of the national interests of the state to build common principles of communication within the individual macro-regions.

It is important to note that through globalization has been formed, the following features of the system of international relations:

  1. The strengthening of regionalization;
  2. The increasing role of transnational actors in making foreign policy and foreign economic decisions;
  3. The shift of economic center to the South and East;
  4. The reduction of the role of international law;
  5. Using methods of power and regional diplomacy;
  6. The strengthening of geopolitical positions of the countries of the Eurasian and Asia-Pacific region;
  7. Reducing the effectiveness of some mechanisms of regulation of international conflicts;
  8. The increasing geopolitical rivalry between China and the United States;
  9. The increasing importance of scientific-technological complex to the conditions of the international instability;
  10. The risk of global war;
  11. The emergence of a single global information space.

Most of the players in the international arena are aware of the possible consequences of the situation. Disregard for international law leads to political anarchy. The use of techniques of power diplomacy by the U.S. and its allies complicated the restoration of relations with other States. The pursuit of the illusion of unipolarity leads to chaos. There are new centers of power.

It is important to note the following:

  1. The previously developed rules of communication has lost its practical value;
  2. The previous foreign policy concept does not reflect today's reality of foreign policy clashes;
  3. Existing institutions are not able to provide full functionality of all elements of the international political system;
  4. The ideological position of Americanocentrism not represent a complete picture of the current geopolitical trends[2];
  5. You need to improve the mechanisms of multilateral partnerships in the framework of the Eurasian and Asia-Pacific regions;
  6. The development of digital technologies contributes to regional security.

The field of international relations goes to the next historical stage of regionalization that can be expressed in the new system of simultaneous existence of several regional economic centers (RECs). This is due to the decrease in the interference of the external field players and limiting the foreign activities of the most developed countries in certain geographical locations. Regional cooperation creates new challenges for partner countries in political and economic spheres. It is important to note that the presence of certain conflicts not only complicates the dialogue, but also stimulates the search for effective ways of tackling controversial issues. The special geographical situation of the countries dictates the characteristic conditions for the formation of certain of the foreign trade policy, taking into account geopolitical trends of macro-regions. The existence of common cultural and historical and political ties is an important factor for the successful building of mutually beneficial cooperation and implementation of joint projects. The state may consist of several regional areas to ensure the security of its sovereignty and national interests.

In the framework of these associations is the cooperation of the main parties to address a number of topical issues. Expansion and strengthening of regionalization becomes a natural phenomenon, a matter of reformatting fundamental component of international order.

Trends in geopolitical and geo-economic dominance is shifting to the Eurasian and Asia-Pacific regions. New centers of power to challenge the old system of world order. The outcome of the opposition is unknown.

The movement of economic center in the direction of Eurasia and the Asia-Pacific indicates great potential of the considered macro-regions. There are certain prerequisites for the formation of a different format of cooperation. This suggests the possibility of strengthening political and economic positions of major participants, geographically located in these regions. Accordingly, they get access to new sources of Finance and preferences. The concentration of the geopolitical and geo-economic opportunities will increase the role of regional organizations that provide domestic stability and the blocking of international pressure.

The constant transformation of the international system force us to say that the stabilization of the world economy today is directly dependent on the formation of regional unions. The most striking example is the Eurasian economic partnership.

The development of "greater Eurasia" gives States certain opportunities. So the Central Asian countries form the core of regional cooperation.

The common historical-cultural and socio-political relations supports the previously established relations and promotes their further development. Eurasian macro-region concentrates enormous potential in the fields of geo-Economics and geopolitics. "Middle earth" becomes a source of new forces[3]. Conductors such phenomena are enterprises, which are clearly expressed to function as new actors of regional diplomacy. Such structures include the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Eurasian economic community (EurAsEC), the Organization of collective security Treaty (CSTO), the Eurasian economic Union, the Shanghai cooperation organization.

In the framework of the Eurasian space data Association provides broad economic and political integration, taking into account the interests not only of countries, while also implementing joint projects with States that are outside of the considered structure.

Today one of the most significant geo-economic initiatives is the project "Big Eurasia" or "the Great Eurasian partnership". The essence of this project is to develop the fundamental components of the system of free trade zones (FTZs) are able to create a well-developed scheme of trade and economic infrastructure in the framework of this macro-region. In the context of this initiative, States have a unique opportunity to promote their inter-regional projects. In many ways, their task is to establish the necessary mechanisms to ensure geopolitical interests of the developers of this idea.

It should be noted that in the region of Central and Eastern Asia, the most serious visible competition between two key players – people's Republic of China and the Russian Federation. Both powers struggle for geopolitical primacy in the region. Promoting their projects, representatives of regional economic centers consolidate its influence in certain points of Eurasia.

This opposition is dangerous for economic and political security of the countries of the former Soviet Union. The Central Asian States are forced to devote considerable attention to ensure its national interests.

To address security issues and building communications is actively working in the relevant regional organisations through the involvement of a third force in the person of representatives of other international organizations. Thus, maintaining the overall balance in the framework of this macro-region.

It can be argued that, despite the clash of interests of two key players in the Eurasian space, this does not prevent development of strategic partnership in a number of directions. The joint development programme of the region, promoted by Russia and China, have common ground. The most prominent example is the pairing of certain areas of the EAEU with the project "One belt and one road". The goal of this initiative is to stimulate the economic modernization of the States concerned and the implementation of the basic concept of the above mentioned project[4].

To ensure the operability of the main elements of the developed system of interaction with stakeholders was selected in the special format of communication, the Eurasian economic Union – the Economic belt of the silk road (SREB), to enable the pairing of certain areas through the signing of the Agreement on trade-economic cooperation between the parties October 1, 2017[5]. Ratification of the fundamental points of this standard has provided the opportunity of establishment of cooperation of key players in ASEAN – SCO – EEU.

In most cases, to achieve any form of agreement on the basic suggestions required to conduct more detailed analytical and practical work which aims at the establishment of a specialized institutional framework and basis for further harmonization.

Despite the development of a multipolar cooperation format, some of the great powers attempt to preserve a dominant position in certain geographical areas of the world. As confirmation of the above thesis can be considered foreign policy of the USA in Central and East Asia and the Asia-Pacific region. The government of the United States of America aware of the benefits and control over Middle Earth[6].

 

To enable the Eurasian region in the sphere of American influence was to develop the relevant projects. We should also highlight the Asia-Pacific free trade area (tsst) and the TRANS-Pacific partnership (TPP). The purpose of these initiatives promoted by the USA, was to build a unified Pacific.

The inclusion of the Asian region in the sphere of interests of America proceeded through the formation of a common institutional framework, the creation of a free trade area, ensuring the integration processes. It is important to note that to date the implementation of such projects is suspended. The coming to power of the forty-fifth President of the United States marked a radical change of the old foreign policy course. However, it is understood that heartland has not lost its geo-strategic importance in the context of foreign policy pursued by Washington.

Directly today taken another attempt at the promotion and consolidation in Central and Eastern Asia from representatives of the us-centered unipolar model that is directly expressed by the resumption of active operations in Afghanistan and Pakistan, as well as moving large groups of militants in the direction of the border of the Central Asian republics of the former USSR.

A potential partner for the US in East Asia in the process of opposition to China has become India, as China is increasing its presence in this part of the planet. The increasing foreign policy activity of the people's Republic of China creates a certain threat to the national interests new Delhi, therefore, the development of bilateral cooperation between the US and India can be seen as a special deterrent to China. The specificity of the foreign policy of the Republic of India is maintaining the leading position in East Asia and maintaining the balance between the various parties in the international arena. The main purpose of foreign policy new Delhi for the welfare of the Indian people. Over a long period of time, India has managed to maintain a position of neutrality on many issues of regional confrontation, with the exception of the protracted conflict with Pakistan.

To achieve the above presented goals of Bharat takes advantage of its political and geographical position[7]. The above features are the basis for building multilateral cooperation with other States.

A possible partnership between the US and India may have common ground, the main of which is China. Its regional expansion of the territory covered by the Republic of India as its own sphere of influence, forcing new Delhi to abandon some of the principles of the policy of maneuvering and not joining the military-political alliances. It should also be noted the General condition of the arms of the Indian army. This, in turn, is an additional factor to enhance closer cooperation between the two powers. The actual over the last ten years, India increased its purchases of American weapons worth up to $ 15 billion. However, the policy of protectionism from the United States may not please the representatives of the political elite and the leadership of the Indian Republic, so the argument about the growing threat of China is not able to act as a long-term incentive among States. Despite all the contradictions in the interaction,

India is trying to adhere to certain principles of his previous foreign policy positions. Therefore, the project of development of the Indian-Asian region, with relevant geopolitical challenges at the moment is in limbo.

Considering the General dynamics of the integration processes, it becomes clear that to achieve significant results requires a certain common ground between the participants of the world community. One of those points of development of multi-stakeholder partnerships is the cooperation in the field of information technology. As mentioned earlier, digital space is becoming the next battleground between the warring parties. To ensure their own security, States are required to engage in a new era of technological transformation. Support for digital formats of the global economic and financial cooperation will, to some extent offset the geopolitical costs. Especially today, this factor becomes decisive in the formation of a digital economy and a new system of government that involves the Union of different stakeholders: large-scale technological enterprises, research centres, universities and the relevant departments of the state structures. This generates a huge potential in attracting significant funds for the implementation of innovative projects aimed at the creation of a single system, uniting different supporters of different views of the world.

Over the last two years it should be noted how an increased level of expenditures of world powers in the development of technological systems for defense applications. The U.S. desire to maintain its position as the sole global Empire, provoking a reaction from China, India and Russia. Trade war, the rupture of the Treaty on the elimination of intermediate and shorter-range missiles (INF Treaty), the issue of Sino-Pakistani economic corridor and a number of other factors indicates a radical change in the world political system.

The strengthening of the position of China as one of the leaders in the technological race indicates a radical change in the situation on the market of digital technologies. Mutual claims from China and the United States create an unstable situation for monetary system and world trade. This in turn causes the majority of States to consider all possible implications when negotiating trade agreements and development of future cooperation. Realizing the geopolitical situation, countries of the Eurasian space reviewing the basic principles of foreign economic activity.

It is necessary to note that the development of the digital economy is the determining factor of state's competitiveness in the international arena, as "monopoly always means the concentration of income of the few at the expense of everyone else, and in this sense attempts to monopolize the new technology wave, to restrict access to its result output to a completely new and different level to the problem of global inequality between countries and regions and within countries. Well, it is, as we understand, is the main source of instability"[8].

Most of the countries possesses significant technological capability to create the necessary components high-tech information systems.

It is an acknowledged fact that most financial and monetary operations are carried out through an electronic platform controlled by us entities. All major data centers owned by Amazon, positioning itself as one of the main global monopolies, engaged in the storage and processing of user data. Data is a tool to exercise control over society. We're not aware of that may voluntarily or indirectly to transfer personal information to interested parties. Such interference can create certain consequences for citizens and for the state. They can have a dual character. So starting in 2014, the compilation of large databases becomes more and more popular. There are certain applications of digital information.

As example, a security and marketing. Use of user information in the above mentioned areas identified separate areas: the detection of information attacks; control of conduct of employees of the companies in the Network; detection of a mass leak of client databases; analysis and market research; competitive intelligence; search for negative content; evaluation of PR and marketing; budget optimization companies.

Constant work with the user data opens for public institutions and corporations limitless possibilities. It is worth mentioning that different platforms are constantly engaged in monitoring such content. As examples of the work of such giants as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Google.

Maximum control over the dissemination of information flows and data sets means a full-blown monopoly in the field of digital control. This thesis can be supported by the words of Henry Kissinger, the national security adviser of the United States: "the Balance of power prevents to break of the international order; agreement on common values prevents the desire to destroy it. Force devoid of legitimacy, provoked the test of strength; legitimacy without power, provokes empty posturing"[9].

Escalation of confrontation between the global players is transferred to the digital space. Fixed a lot of cyber attacks, whose aim is to destabilize the work of important elements of the economic infrastructure and full access to the database management system the most important companies of the industrial sector.

The presence of a permanent digital threats is forcing most States to think about their digital sovereignty, as no mobile operating structures, search engines, email applications and instant messengers, and most importantly its own payment system and a secure Internet does any member of the world community extremely vulnerable. The above circumstances indicate the need for security and the formation of a system of interaction between States during the lifetime of the system universalist model of world order[10].

Global clash between supporters of the unipolar us-centered models, and representatives of potential regional economic centers indicates the priority of designing digital platforms to prevent terrorist activity, political cooperation and economic integration.

Technological and economic security remain relevant in the framework of growing geopolitical competition. The inconsistency of the foreign policy of a majority of the members of the world community creates new conditions of existence. The growing rivalry between the countries makes it difficult the development of a multilateral format of cooperation. Partners not sticking to agreements, trying to impose their point of view on certain issues and making attempts to attack the sovereignty of another state.

Such actions cause a reaction that is expressed through hard diplomacy to protect the national security of individual States. In terms of coordination of international structures special role of regional associations and unions that serve as new sites for building mutual dialogue between States.

Rapidly developing events in the international arena shape the new foreign policy reality. The format of the Eurasian partnership is of particular interest from world powers. Given the recent geopolitical trends, the countries of Central and Eastern Asia are establishing closer contact with neighboring States. The major initiatives proposed by leading regional players, aimed at curbing the influence of geo-economic competitors pursuing aggressive policy towards these countries, and strengthening political and economic cooperation.

The most urgent issue is the development and maintenance of multi-stakeholder partnerships in the development of digital space. Information technology capacity of countries is the basis of innovative economic development, strategic resource in determining their role and place in the world community. Innovation is the core of the transformation of the socio-economic system, define the scope and pace of political processes as well as the related structural and technological changes that affect today's propagation dynamics of regionalization.

Bibliography

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Links

[1] the foreign policy Concept of Russia // the Official network resources of the Russian President. [ http://kremlin.ru/acts/bank/41451].

[2] Frolov A. "Centers of power" and multipolarity: a view through time. the magazine "international life". No. 11. Moscow. 2016.

[3] Dugin, A. G. osnovy geopolitiki. The large space. 1997.

[4] proceedings of the second International forum of "One belt, one road". Beijing. 2019 // "One belt, one road" portal [ https://rus.yidaiyilu.gov.cn/ ].

[5] negotiations on the conclusion of the Agreement on trade-economic cooperation with the people's Republic of China - the Eurasian economic Commission // Eurasian economic Commission. 02.10. 2017 [http://www.eurasiancommission.org/ru/nae/news/Pages/2-10-2017-4.aspx].

[6] Dugin, A. G. osnovy geopolitiki. The large space. 1997.

[7] Mahabharata. Ramayana. Series the Library of world literature. Fiction. 1974.

[8] Vladimir Putin's Speech at the plenary session of the St. Petersburg international economic forum. Saint Petersburg // the Official network resources of the Russian President. [http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/60707].

[9] Mr. Kissinger Diplomacy. Per. from English. Vladimir City. Afterword. G. A. Arbatov. — Moscow: Ladomir, 1997.

[10] Sergeev, V. M., Kazantsev A. A. the Structure of the world order: a historical typology. Cosmopolis. No. 1 (20). 2008.

 

Shapovalov A. E.


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