Center for Strategic Assessment and forecasts

Autonomous non-profit organization

Home / Defence and security / / Articles
Russia and Islamic fundamentalism
Material posted: Valetskiy OlegPublication date: 24-02-2018

Studying the role of Islam in Russia, you should understand the fact is quite clear and obvious change in the relationship of Russia and Islam lies in the revolution of 1917. After the establishment of Soviet power in Russia, the latter was to conduct foreign policy in exactly the opposite way than tsarist Russia. Politics in pre-revolutionary Russia during the struggle for the liberation of "Eastern Christians" were distinguished often prone to idealism, which, of course, the last and used to their advantage and which led to strained relations with the Islamic States. However, Soviet policy has consistently idealized Muslims in any conflict against European colonial forces, and against the Eastern Christians from the Balkans to the Middle East.

One of the first examples - the support of the Soviet Russia and Kemal Ataturk, the slogan of which was "the people and Islam is one," which led to mass expulsion and extermination of the Greeks in Asia Minor. That Turkey in 1920 from inevitable defeat by the Greeks saved the help of Soviet Russia, did not prevent Turkey to 30 years to shift to Germany and to hold during the Second World war troops on the Soviet border. The heir to Kemal Ataturk as President of Turkey and the head of the Republican people's party Ismet Pasha inönü, without much hesitation, launched the foreign policy of Turkey at 180 degrees, taking a reference not to Moscow, and Berlin. True, and Germany during the Second World war, dealing a blow to the USSR, lost the opportunity of a quick victory by hitting on the British territories in the middle East under the code plan "Manula" and Hitler's Directive No. 30 (to ensure neutrality of Bulgaria) and No. 32 (to support the Arab liberation movement), using the capabilities of the Islamic world [1].

However, even more inconsistent was the policy of the Soviet Union, and a good example is the middle East. Here almost the entire foreign policy of the USSR was based on the sending of arms and military equipment to Israel first and then Egypt and Syria, and it is unclear what purpose would reach the Soviet leadership such a policy?! The creation of Israel, initiated by the Soviet Union, plunged the entire middle East in a long war caused by the aggressive policies of the Israeli leadership, which has not changed since its inception, Israel. In the beginning of the First Arab-Israeli war, the Zionist movement was close to defeat. Then the basis of the forces of the Zionists before the First Arab-Israeli war was only six teams of the "Haganah", including two brigades of the elite "Palmach" [2].

The Zionists constantly received new manpower and supplies of weapons and military equipment from Eastern Europe, which was under the control of the Soviet Union. The plan for the defeat of Israel, which envisaged a simultaneous attack of Egypt, TRANS-Jordan and Syrian-Iraqi troops from the three parties failed, and the only one who managed to achieve success - the TRANS troops, whose strike force was led by British officers, "the Arab Legion" [2].

Eventually, in April 1948, the Zionist forces were able to establish control over Tiveriada, Haifa and Jaffa, expelled from the controlled territories, including Jerusalem, several hundred thousand Arabs [2]. Only of the 70-strong Arabic population of Jaffa fled 65 thousand [2]. It was then, and not in Yugoslavia in the 90-ies, were tested a model of modern "ethnic cleansing" is in this case justified itself. The power of the Arabs in Jerusalem numbered about three thousand, and made them two-thousand contingent of the Palestinian "jihadists" and more than polutysyachi squad Iraqi volunteers [2].

But the situation quickly changed when, after the failure of the attack on 25 may 1948 at the village of Latrun, the Zionists in Jerusalem faced the threat of defeat, for by that time the forces of "Warriors of Jihad" under the command of Fawzi al-Qutub and the "Arab Legion" were able to storm the Jewish quarter in the Old city [2]. At the same time, Egyptian troops then came 40 miles to Jerusalem, and Iraqi troops approached Janino [2].

The political leadership of the Arab countries under pressure from its ally the United Kingdom agreed to sign the 11th June, 1948, a truce that allowed the Zionists to dozens of tanks and guns. By early July, their army has already reached fifty thousand people, and on 9 July began a new offensive of the Zionist ethnic cleansing. One week the Palestinian resistance was crushed, and almost a million Palestinians were left without land and houses [2]. Obviously, all this was a consequence of Stalin's decision to create the state of Israel whose policies did not change in the future ("East – a close, Jerusalem is Holy". M. I. Medvedkov, S. L. Medvedko."Griffin", Moscow, 2009).

In 1967, the Israeli army fired air strikes and artillery of the Arab villages of the province of Quneitra, which had no military facilities, and the survivors of the Arabs expelled from their homes even after the signing of the armistice. Israel's policy has caused widespread discontent in the Arab world, which tried to use the Soviet leadership. In practice, however, this particular success had not. So, the coup of 1958 committed in Iraq by General Kassem, took advantage of the discontent in the army of king Faisal, has led only to increased in Iraq role of the United States, but not to the victory of the Communist revolution.

Beginning in 1965, a guerrilla war with the Palestinian Fatah against Israel, further destabilize the middle East and has already resulted in direct Soviet intervention in the Arab-Israeli war.

By the beginning of the 1967 war in the armed forces of Syria and Egypt were nine thousand Soviet military advisers, often commanding units of the Arabs at the front ("East – a close, Jerusalem is Holy". M. I. Medvedkov, S. L. Medvedkov. "Griffin", Moscow, 2009). For the defeat of the Arab armies in 1967 a large part of the guilt of the bear and Soviet military advisers, and, consequently, the General staff of the Soviet army, because not corresponds to the logic to describe the important role of the Soviet military assistance in the war of 1956 and at the same time to declare the absence of any responsibility for the Arab defeat of 1967. Moreover, according to estimates by the General staff of the Soviet army, the armed forces of Egypt and Syria outnumbered Israeli forces in the two and a half times the number in the tank – two times, on combat aircraft - and a half times [1].

Commander of the armed forces of Egypt Marshal Amer, who showed that war low leadership, still the decision of the Soviet leadership was hailed as a Hero of the Soviet Union. Without denying the often low combat qualities of the Arab troops, after all, it should be noted that in some cases in the 1973 war the Syrians and the Egyptians successfully resisted the Israeli army, in particular, in crossing the Suez canal and in the battle for al-Quneitra. Moreover, the "Arab Legion" under the command of British officers, headed by General Glaba who played an important role from the Arabs during the hostilities of 1948, in Jerusalem, showed himself in the battles with the best hand. Of course, it was absurd at first to create Israel, then to support his enemies, then these enemies to be accused of betraying the ideals of the struggle against imperialism. The issue of betrayal in this case is complex, as illustrated by the actions of the USSR against the Christians of Lebanon and Syria, the cradle of Christianity. In the same Syria in the village of Maaloul near Damascus there is the world's first women's monastery of Saint Clare - a follower of St. Paul.

For the Soviet leadership the interests of the Christians of these countries regardless of the religions was not just unimportant, but more than that, these interests were in conflict with the interests of the USSR. There is no sense, of course, to idealize those same Lebanese Maronite, but it is obvious that they had no other choice but to join the war against the Palestinians, whose leadership was dominated by the Muslims, and against the Lebanese Shiites.

The Lebanese President is a Maronite Bashir Jemail - before his death, said: "We, the Lebanese Christians, in the name of all the Christians in the East can say ... we must protect this Lebanon. We want to live always on this earth, to the bells in our churches called when we want. We want to be baptized according to our will. We want to preserve our tradition, our customs, our faith and beliefs that suit us. We do not want to live "simie". We don't want to live under the protection of someone else. ... as part of Eastern Christians, we have a homeland where they can live with their head up where we are ordered to walk only on the left side of the road just because we are Christians" [3].

Already armed clashes of the Lebanese communities 1958 and 1969 showed that Lebanon will go to war for destruction, which happened in 1975. In such circumstances, without external ally of the Lebanese Christians was simply impossible to survive. That ally was Israel that was the basis for Soviet media to expand the campaign against the Maronites as accomplices of the Zionists, although it was the Soviet Union and embodied the goal of the Zionists in the life of the creation of the state of Israel. Israel only sought to use the Maronites and other Lebanese Christians, including the Orthodox, for their own purposes. Absurd only that of the Maronites who for centuries fought for the right to live on their land, the Soviet media was associated with the European concept of fascism.

The civil war in Lebanon to the Soviet propaganda was a hard thing, because it gave a clear assessment that only in the face of Shiites, Druze and Palestinians see the true "patriots" of Lebanon.

However, in 1987, the "patriots"of the Shiite "Amal" with the support of the Syrians went to war against the other "patriots" from among the Druze and Palestinians.

Probably even greater complexity would be for the Soviet propaganda assessment emerged later in the Shia community of Hezbollah, the emergence of which had on 90-e years. In Lebanon, "the Army is protecting the South of Lebanon" were, from the point of view of Moscow, "a treacherous place," but in 1983 she was given the opportunity to shelter Christians from Sidon, fleeing from occupied the city of the Shiites. Such examples full of all such conflicts, and therefore to award one of the parties to the epithets of moral character, based on foreign policy interests, short-sighted.

While Moscow, presenting itself as the only guarantor of peace, paid no attention to the fact that of its strategic allies in the region - Syria and Egypt - chased believed Moscow Communists, killing them and torturing them. So, after the creation of the UAR leader of the Lebanese Communist Nicolas Chaoui was arrested by the state security organs the United Arab Republic from Syria and died in prison, while the leader of the Syrian Communist Khaled Bagdash escaped a similar fate, fled to Moscow [1]. It showed how in fact used the Soviet authority in Syria and Egypt.

It is obvious that Israel and the United States enjoyed great influence among the Lebanese Maronites at a lower cost. The Christians of Lebanon much of a choice was not given in the war, and because in this period there was a consolidation of all Christian denominations [1].

In Lebanon on the side of the Christians the main force was represented by the party "Kataib", headed by Gemayel, which included fifty thousand people in the armed forces, and its allies were the forces of "Tigers" Christian National liberal party, headed by K. Shamuna, military organization "front for the protection of the cedars" led by Fidel Shimali, the organization of the Maronite monasteries headed by Bishop S. Cassis, as well as individual units of the Lebanese army led by Christian officers, beefed up by Christian volunteers [1]. The basis of the opposing forces was Army for the liberation of Palestine of Yasser Arafat, that was in Lebanon and Syria, units of the AOP to a greater extent subordinate to Syria than Arafat [1]. Arafat had a subordinated ten-the formation of al-Asifa, whereas the armed forces of the popular front for the liberation of Palestine (PFLP) and the popular democratic front for the liberation of Palestine (NDFAP) have been set up in opposition to Arafat. Of the USSR directly supported Syria, and therefore sided with her allied forces from the ranks of Palestinians and Lebanese in the first place, the Lebanese Shiites movement Amal. The Soviet Union and its allies GDR, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, North Korea provided assistance to Syria and its allies in Lebanon, and periodically fought among themselves, the Palestinians, both financially and with arms and ammunition. While Marshal Ogarkov proposed, according to the memoirs of L. Medvedkov And [1] to send troops to Syria, establishing there a military air and naval bases.

Meanwhile, the Alliance with the USSR did not prevent the Hafez al-Assad, which is supported in Syria, the Syrian community of the Shia-Alawite, to give orders to his troops in Lebanon and allies – the Lebanese Shiite movement of Amal - the beginning of hostilities against the forces of an ally of the Kremlin Kamal Jumblatt. The Syrians were for the Lebanese Christian opponents, as they were brought to power allies of the Shiites, which is particularly popular with Lebanese Christians did not use. In Lebanon, the main ally of the Soviet leadership was the Front National-Patriotic forces headed by the leader of the community of Muslims-Druze, Kamal Jumblatt, who supported the Union with the Lebanese Communists. Kamal Jumblatt sought a total military victory over the Maronites, which, of course, would lead to the fact that the Maronites followed the fate of the Greeks in Asia Minor and the Soviet Union could be proud of the creation of a "Socialist Republic of Lebanon," where he has definitely had to create military bases.

However, knowing the balance of power in Moscow, it is unlikely that these bases would be built for attacks on Israel, but rather pulled Moscow in the war with the Sunnis in Lebanon, especially that the Sunni fundamentalists in 1982, raised a rebellion against Hafez Assad in the city of Hama in Syria, where was the main base of the organization "Brothers Muslims", depressed with great sacrifice [4].

In this conflict of Palestinians moved to the side of these fundamentalists that actually happened in 2011, when the Palestinians EN masse opposed the government of Bashar al-Assad on the side of the opposition, and in the composition of private armed groups like the "Brigades of Yarmouk" and "Islamic Jihad". The Palestinian movement was quite complex and lightly managed even for the Arafat. The degree of real Soviet influence on the Palestinians shows the capture of four of the hostages from the Soviet Embassy in Beirut, Arkady Katkov, Nikolai Svirsky, Oleg Spirin Valeria Marikova. Organized the seizure of the aide, Yasser Arafat and Imad mughniyeh, one of the leading commanders of the "Fatah", and the chief of group of protection of Arafat's "Force 17"[1]. Imad mughniyeh until the seizure has already participated in the attack on base Housing us Marines and French paratroopers in Beirut. Then after the explosion of a truck Packed with explosives and the subsequent attacks by both Palestinians and militants of the movement "Amal", killing 242 American Marines and 58 French paratroopers. He also participated in the attacks on the American Embassy in Beirut in 1983 that killed 63 people, and in capturing and killing CIA agent in Lebanon, William Berkeley. He subsequently took part in attacks on the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires in 1992 and a Jewish cultural center in Buenos Aires in 1994 that killed, in total, 117 people, and a number of other attacks.
As he wrote in his book "East – a close, Jerusalem is Holy" a participant in that event L. I. Medvedko, who participated in negotiations to free the hostages, the resident of the KGB of the USSR in Lebanon, Colonel Yuri perfilev told him that a group of gunmen stopped two cars of the Embassy directly at the entrance to the Embassy and giving the queue and wounding in the leg Arkady Katkov, seized the four hostages. In his interview with "Time". Suponina, a former employee of Mossad Eliezer Tsafrir declared the version that one of participants of capture of Soviet commandos cut off the head and sent her relatives.

In the book "East is close. Jerusalem is Holy" L. I. Medvedko, who was then an employee of the GRU, says that after Arkady Katkov was shot by Imad mughniyeh, and the terrorists threatened to shoot the remaining hostages, "Moscow" instructed the President Hafez al-Assad to cease operations of the army of Syria against the PLO in the North of Lebanon in Tripoli [1]. The hostages were released, and, according to Perfilieva, Imad mughniyeh during the operation, he received instructions personally from Yasser Arafat. However, in the Islamic world of the 60-70-ies of the growing influence of the Soviet Union caused the emergence of a kind of Islamic socialism. If the USSR had remained a stable government and began to pursue a more pragmatic policy, perhaps, today in the Islamic world was dominated by the idea of "Islamic socialism". However, the inconsistent foreign policy of the USSR caused fluctuations in the Arab countries.

Writes Ignatenko A. A., the wave of Salafism in the Arab world, especially in Egypt arose because in some parts of the Arab leaders began the prevailing view about the fragility of the Soviet Union and about the need to prepare forces to fight for the Soviet legacy, [5]. About the Afghan war in which the Soviet leadership violated the foundations of Marxist-Leninist ideology, overthrowing the more "progressive" Amina in favor of "traditionist" Babrak Karmala, can not mention. The Soviet party leadership was then in his dogmatic atheism didn't know how to act towards Islamic fundamentalism. It was eventually applied the usual it solution – all that against the Soviet Union, reactionary, and all of the Soviet Union, a progressive. Followed the invasion of Afghanistan, in which the first combat operation – the storming of the Palace Amin was not conducted against accumulated 70 years in Vengerskoi the valley of the Islamists, and against consistent opponents of Islamic fundamentalism of members of the group "brocade" and its leader Amin. The traditional accusations Amin's links with the CIA concealed the fact that the government in Afghanistan was a given, relatively speaking, the conciliatory faction of the "Halk" in order to try to use the Islamic religion in the interests of the USSR. Today it is obvious that instead of a "Trojan horse" in the Islamic world in the face of Afghanistan, the Soviet Union received in the war in Afghanistan "Trojan horse" in the face of the functionaries of the faction "Khalq", to sabotage the struggle against the Islamic opposition.

With the collapse of the Soviet Union any conclusions about the war in Afghanistan was not done, and none of them have been done. The failures of the Soviet foreign policy explains it imposed from top to the ideological line of the ubiquitous combat the influence of "imperialism" and "colonialism", which gave the opportunity to the Islamic movements to a powerful ally in the struggle with their old enemies in the face of "Western Christians" seem to be winning in the early twentieth century. However, after achieving victory over them and ousting them from the region, representing the Islamic world increased interest, particularly from Africa and from South-East Asia, interest in the Alliance with the Soviet Union in the Islamic world began to weaken.

The decline of Soviet influence in the Islamic world to some extent can be explained by saying that "the moor has done his job – the moor can go." Unfortunately, in the Russian Federation did not understand neither the reasons nor the fact of Islamic fundamentalism and individual researchers emerged not because of "academic science", but rather in spite of it. Expect another it was impossible, as the main purpose of the Soviet historical science was the handling of the "masses" for their belief that the teachings of Marx and Lenin's true because they are true. Soviet historians held fast to this course, and he's ably supported as academic leaders and party bodies. Of course, this does not mean that in scientific institutions engaged in humanitarian work in history, sociology, philosophy, were not good people, but they had to withstand in all his studies the course of the party. Any accusation on the part of one or another colleague that a scientist does not adhere to this course could cost him his academic career. Because of this huge bureaucracy "of the Soviet Humanities" was not able to inform the party about the obvious fact of the emergence of Islamic fundamentalism - Salafism.

In Soviet times the foreign policy of the USSR was determined to impose Islamic values to the world of Marxism-Leninism, as he writes in his book "East – a close, Jerusalem is Holy" Leonid Medvedko, who participated in the implementation of this policy in the middle East as a member of the Soviet GRU [1]. The absurdity of this policy was obvious to anyone who lived in the Islamic environment, which was guided by other values. Of course, the similarity with ideas of world revolution in the Islamic ideology is. Islam is largely learned the ideas of leftist ideologies, but from the religious priority of the Muslim upper classes to give up never going and atheistic values of the proletarian revolution in the sense in which they were represented by Marx and Lenin in their works, was not acceptable to them. Of course in those countries where Muslims were not a majority and where the nature of the government was secular, there has been a process of "secularization", but in this case they cease to be Muslims, that showed the examples of the USSR, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia. However, where Muslims were the majority and where the apparatus of power was in the hands of Muslims, created this social and political climate in which Muslims become supporters of Communist ideas, even if its secular nature could not have so easily cease to be Muslims, not in the face of opposition from their own environment.

However, for the leadership of the Islamic countries, the Soviet policy was easy, because there were some similarities in the ideas of Islam and communism, and in the commonality of enemies in the face of the West, personified for the world Islamic world European Christian Nations or, more simply, "the crusaders". However, the leadership of the Islamic countries saw the Soviet Union only powerful "infidels", which should be exploited. The state atheism of these "infidels" to Muslims was only a Testament to their stupidity that opened the way for unfettered manipulation of these "infidels" in their own interests. It is not surprising because the rapid progress of Soviet foreign policy in concurrent fragility of its achievements. Blame the "democratic changes" in the Soviet Union in the fall of the Soviet influence in the world of unfair, because even one example of Egypt, in which the Soviet Union has invested huge funds, and its management headed Sadat then expelled Soviet military experts, is very significant. In science of the USSR there was no trend impartial research, and it all comes down to propaganda, which had only two contending parties – the "progressive forces" and "reactionaries". In the end, the latter denied all the virtues, and first declared the bearers of absolute good.

In the end, the foreign policy of the USSR was declared the best friend of both Jews and Arabs, Iraqis and Iranians, Pashtuns, and Tajiks. Naturally, victims of foreign policy became the public interest, as this policy demanded lavish gifts to foreign allies, which is a heavy burden on the economy. In Moscow, where everything is decided "Cabinet right" and corridor intrigues, were never able to understand it. Not surprisingly, once after 1991, when the leaders of the Russian Federation, they are unable to understand the conflicts of Yugoslavia, the main battlefields which Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as Kosovo and Metohija was still the East, albeit a little westernized. The experience of the Yugoslav war, apparently, learned nothing, because once again, as in the 70-ies, with the conflict of religions and worldviews in other Russian analysts viewed only "machinations of Western imperialism."

In the 90-ies the representatives of the Russian humanitarian science have made frequent trips to Yugoslavia, and they were open archives, but despite this, any work analysing the emergence of Islamic fundamentalism in Yugoslavia, and since then has not appeared. For Marxists "being determines consciousness", and therefore on consciousness of the specialists chose not to work. Today it is obvious that to any real opposition to Islamic fundamentalism on a global level the government is simply not able, because they do not have the required number of trained personnel. Law enforcement agencies of the Russian Federation simply does not perceive the overall picture of what is happening in the Islamic world, and continue in the mass to believe that Islamic fundamentalism is only a tool in the hands of the CIA and other Western intelligence agencies, not an independent force. Of course, in the Russian Federation there is the possibility for authors to freely print the papers in the Humanities on their own, without going through the procedures of agreement and approval. However, these works before making them as benefits in the state apparatus a large distance.

The war in Afghanistan and the former Yugoslavia was a kind of "trial balloons" of Islamic fundamentalists, possibly temporary tactical Alliance with the US and the UK against the decaying socialist countries. Of course, for a more global plans needed more power and more reliable frames, which explains the "Islamic" revolution, which began as a continuation of the "Arab spring" movement liberal nature emerged with the support of the United States. The Russian Federation first encountered the prototype of similar "spring", when the "anti-bureaucratic" revolution in Chechnya later served as the means for the emergence on the territory of the Russian Federation armed groups of Wahhabites. Introduced in Chechnya, the Arab Wahhabis mercenaries were not, and served as the backbone of the world of Islamic fundamentalism – Salafism - establishment of its influence in Russia. Naturally, they acted primarily in the ranks of the Chechens, but the national factor here was not so important. For the Wahhabis, perhaps, a greater interest was the "missionary" activity in the Slavic environment, which gives a much greater scope of action. In the environment of the Chechen Wahhabis acted in the same way as they operated in their countries, systematically destroying all who disagree with the policy of radicalization.

In 2002 in Chechnya, there was a revolution in the movement of the militants and the authorities then came the Arab Wahhabis, under the full influence which came Basayev, Maskhadov, Udugov, Zakayev [5]. From the point of view of the Wahhabis, the war in Chechnya failed, as they were able directly to control the actions of Chechen rebels, creating from them a springboard for the spread of Islamic fundamentalism in the North Caucasus. With the idea of Chechen independence war after 2002 have not had an actual connection, and the actions of Chechen militants was carried out in accordance with plans from the same Saudi Arabia. The obvious fact of aggression against Saudi Arabia and Russia in Moscow, and analysts did not seem to notice, and the leadership of the Russian Federation received the soothing reports. The smooth actions of the Saudi organization of the Wahhabi Islam and holding them in the life of the project "Russian Islam" can not be explained by the interests of oil companies. However, certain forces in the Russian leadership, at least in the 90s, worked closely with the Arabs in the arms trade, and policy, and the term "Arabs" in this case means the same forces in the Arab world who patronize the Wahhabis.

The Arab world is closely related tribal ties, and in this world all areas related to the security issues, "hold" the same people. It is obvious that those who organized the terrorist attacks in Iraq and Morocco, kept in close touch with those who are the same attacks conducted in Russia: explosion in 1996 on the stretch of station Tulskaya, Nagatinskaya that killed 4 and injured 12 people; the attack on Dubrovka 23 October 2002; the terrorist attack in Tushino July 5, 2003; the attack in Znamenskoe on 12 may 2003; the bombings in 2004 in the underpass at Pushkinskaya metro station, when 11 people died and 60 people were wounded. explosions in the tunnel on the stretch between the stations Avtozavodskaya and Paveletskaya, which killed 40 and injured 134 people; explosions at the entrance to Rizhskaya metro station that killed 10 and injured 40 people. It was then in a very limited scale was demonstrated by the knockdown in the subway attacks and their serious consequences, affecting the operation of urban services. Metro has provided a new, before unseen possibilities for conducting terrorist activities. Huge cities are so dependent on them that a few terrorist attacks in the subway in a position to block the normal life of the big city. It is obvious that in such terrorist activities, as a rule, formed a unified military structure to carry out such attacks, obeying a single centre and funded from a single source. It is equally clear that for the Wahhabis, the entire territory of Russia thereby was considered as a field of hostilities.

Perhaps the most dangerous movement for Russia was then the movement "Hizb-ut-Tahrir", which appeared in Central Asia and different from the "Islamic movement of Uzbekistan" and the "Front for the liberation of East Turkestan" that quickly crossed the borders and has expanded its activities in the Russian Federation, primarily in the Volga region. This movement is directly supported by the intelligence services of Saudi Arabia, which operated freely on the territory of the Russian Federation. Known was the relationship of the head of the Saudi intelligence Turki al-Faisal, and a number of staff of British intelligence, infamous in Russia and the former Soviet Union a group of "Far West", which had strong support in the apparatus of military intelligence of the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Uzbekistan.

It is clear that the territory of the former USSR is a place for the next "Islamic spring", then here will test the strength of Islamic fundamentalists in a new guerrilla war.

Underestimation of the threat of Islamic fundamentalism, or Salafism, is very dangerous. Do not forget that the rapidity with which troops before unimportant in the "politics" of the Arabs, only converted to Islam, conquered huge areas from Iran and India to Spain and Sicily.

At the same time, somehow became unpopular in Russia to raise the issue of the Islamic revolution as applied to Russia itself, and not just the US or Western Europe. Meanwhile, Islamic radicals, or, as they call themselves, probably not without reason, supporters of "pure Islam", the Russians are no better than Americans or Europeans. The fact that someone in Moscow at their political conference invites those or other representatives of this direction in Islam, does not mean that these same representatives will then endorse armed attacks on Russian soldiers and the Russian population in the North Caucasus, and, in the future, and in the Volga region, for the dissemination of ideas of the Islamic revolution, including among Russian. Islam is a different path in its development does not know. It is worth mentioning that the current Islamic countries in the Middle East and North Africa — former provinces of the Orthodox "second Rome," Byzantium, where the Christian population was either exterminated or expelled, or transferred to the Islamic faith.

Islam began its new offensive already in Europe in the XIV century. His first victims were the Orthodox peoples of the Balkans, when America, which now write off a new offensive of Islam in Europe, leading again, through the Balkans, was not. Of course, radical Islam there are powerful allies in Western Europe and in America, who contribute to this expansion of Islam in the world.

However, it is obvious that the same allies of Islam are among the Balkan peoples, otherwise Islamic fundamentalism would be quickly suppressed by the state authorities before the intervention of the UN and the European community. However, in the Balkans, in this case the situation is different in that, although local nomenclature and oligarchs and carry out, in the most part, policies that directly or indirectly contribute to the strengthening of Islamic fundamentalism, yet there does not appear to be political movements that offer to enter into a "geopolitical alliances" with the "world of Islam". The Balkans Islamic fundamentalism permeates through a number of political and economic groups in the West, and because, from the point of view of the balkanites to offer world-Islamic Alliance against the West is still unreasonable.

In Russia such unions think it is possible, based on the contradictions of a number of Islamic States, primarily Iran and the United States.

But Iran is a Shiite state, which is kind of a pariah of the Islamic world. Meanwhile, based on the actions in the North Caucasus, and on the basis of the analysis of the political activities of Islamic fundamentalists throughout Russia, it is known that the funds they receive from such Islamic countries as Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Jordan, Turkey, Pakistan and Malaysia. As in the North Caucasus, the local militants are fighting for their interests, it is not clear what they would have them to do to capitulate to the Russian authorities. Moreover, Islamic fundamentalist organizations have more than a dozen years leading the work to create all their cells throughout Russia, in the first place, its Volga and Central regions, including the traditionally Russian regions, such as Nizhny Novgorod and Penza.

It is obvious that such activities are subversive to the Russian character. It is equally clear that it is funded by the various centres of the Islamic countries, whose intelligence is equally clear not only to permit such activity, but also directly supervise her. Hardly a "geopolitical" Alliance of Russia with the Islamic world will stop such activities, because it would be contrary not only to the political interests of the Islamic world, but also the religious principles of Islam.

Unfortunately, the atheistic period in the life of the Russian people learned of many Russian understand the nature of religious relations between Christianity and Islam, why there are different ideas about the geopolitical Union of Russia with the Islamic world. The last main goal of its policy sees the violent spread of his faith. About the moral condition of their society in the Islamic world is not so baked, as is commonly believed, using brutal violence in the name of faith for the sake of this society in full obedience to the authorities. The history of the Islamic world knows more of social upheaval, revolutions and civil wars than the Christian world. Together with poverty, epidemics and the cult of power and money all this makes the Islamic world is the ideal source of a new world war. To expect such conditions to any Alliance with this world is impossible.

Even Iran with the collapse of the Soviet Union tried to spread Azerbaijani ideas of its Islamic revolution, and then the soldiers and officers of first the Soviet and then the Russian army fought not only against the militants of the popular front of Azerbaijan, but against troops of the Iranian Islamic revolutionary guard Corps. Then there were mass killings of Russians in Tajikistan without any interference from the outside, the forces of former Soviet citizens - Tajik. Prior to this, in Dushanbe in the second half of the 80s there have been several massive collisions with the Russian Tajiks. There were frequent attacks on Russian - murder, rape, beatings.

These facts were sent to Moscow security agencies, but all went under the carpet in the Kremlin offices for the interests of the Tajik leadership, because at that time in the name of Leninist internationalism on all senior positions nominated Tajiks, and their deputies were appointed by the Russian. We can assume that if the Russian Federation again economic crisis like the one that survived the Soviet Union in 1991, the presence of numerous Islamic fundamentalist organizations in its territory and militant groups in the Northern Caucasus can affect Russia in the same way, as reflected in Soviet developments in the Caucasus, and perhaps with much more dire consequences. This should take into account on the basis of the experience of the wars in the Balkans, the North Caucasus, in Iraq and in Afghanistan that even technically moderate governments of Islamic countries resort to the help of Islamic fundamentalist organizations in its foreign policy. Time it was acceptable in Iraq and Afghanistan, where the organization's data, mainly, to destroy their political opponents among the Muslims, there is no reason to believe a different scenario in military operations on the territory of the Russian Federation.

In the end, the main age-old enemy Russia was Turkey supporting all its enemies — from the Kazan and Crimean khanates and Karl XII before Shamil, the German Kaiser and Napoleon III. Just Turkey and showing great aggression in the Caucasus, in the Crimea, and the Balkans, speaking out against Russia's interests. Just with the support of Turkey are the terrorists in the North Caucasus, which, remaining the territory of the Russian Federation formally became a persecution of the Russian population, what important role is played by Islamic fundamentalists.

According to A. A. Ignatenko in his book "Islam and politics": "...Explosions, murder, attempt on the life of law enforcement officers and ordinary citizens are happening in the North Caucasus almost every day. These horrors have become for us as the daily backdrop of political struggle, statements of heads of state on modernization and reform of the political system. We put up with this terrible concept as "terrorist underground", prefer to think about the events in the South of the country is remote and we are not related. However, they occur on the territory of our country and affect our citizens. And because it is important to understand the causes".

Oleg Valetsky


  1. "East – a close, Jerusalem is Holy". L. I. Medvedkov, and S. L. Medvedkov . "Griffin", Moscow, 2009;
  2. "The Arab-Israeli war". Smirnov, Moscow, 2003. "Veche".
  3. Extraits du discours du president testament martyr pronance une heure avant le son assassinant" 14.09.1982 – "s libanaise etudiant Les chretiens en France.
  4. Translation of a report us intelligence agencies Defense Intelligence Agency on the activities of the Muslim brotherhood in Syria
  5. "Islam and politics". Alexander Ignatenko. Institute of religion and policy. Moscow. 2004

RELATED MATERIALS: Defence and security