The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula. The state has positioned himself as a religious center of the Arab world, because on its territory there are two Muslim shrines – Mecca and Medina. The absolute monarchy of Saudi Arabia is the only country where the official religion is considered Islam Wahhabi direction.
This certainly gives reason to consider CSA in the role of distributor extremist movements and, according to many religious scholars, the corrupter of Islam. Despite this, Saudi Arabia has high influence in the Islamic world. Huge hydrocarbon reserves make the country a logical target of increased attention from Western countries and primarily the United States of America. The relationship between the CSA and USA were established in the 30s of the last century and for several decades already and have a strategic Alliance, but also a very difficult character. This is also reflected in the support of Washington's rigid and absolutely non-democratic regime "House of Saud", even despite periodic criticism by the White house KSA ties with the international terrorist network.
1. Saudi Arabia and terrorism
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia – the country with the "chest of secrets". The visual solidity of the system of internal and external policy, the CSA has not escaped the problems in our society and in the religious environment. The Saudi Royal family divided into two groups: the first with acts of radical Islamic positions, implying a rupture of relations with the West and more tightening of domestic policy; the second, headed by the current monarch Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz, believed that ties with Washington and not against some liberalisation of the public sphere, following the example of neighboring UAE. However, such differences do not affect the official and dominant form of Sunni Islam practiced by nearly 85% of the population − Salafism. About it makes sense to tell in more detail.
Salafism (from "Salaf," ancestors, predecessors) – the doctrine, calling for focus on lifestyle and behavior of the first three generations of Muslims ("ancestors"), and follow their example. Salafism is directly linked to hanbalism, which is the most conservative school in Islam (mazhab) and protruding from the standpoint of purification of Islam, opposition to any innovations in the sphere of religious doctrine and law that have no direct justification in the Koran and the hadiths. At a later time "pure Islam" of Salafism and hanbalism was taken over and revived by Wahhabism, which emerged in the mid-eighteenth century. Adherents of Wahhabism, or as they are called – fundamentalists, non-criminal call for a return to the Qur'an, as well as the jurisdiction of the standing Jihad not only against pagans but also against Muslims who do not support the Wahhabis and, thus, in the eyes of the latter, as apostates from true Islam. In fact Wahhabism is a development of the ideas and principles of Salafism (hanbalism) in their extreme manifestation. Among the characteristic traits of Salafism and Wahhabism, experts usually distinguish the following: the pursuit of detailed unification of the lifestyle of all Muslims; intolerance of dissenters; the highlighting of the ideas of the permanent Jihad, including against "apostates from Islam" Muslims; active use of organized forms of political and social activities (in particular terrorism), etc. (2).
Among the followers of Salafism/Wahhabism there are not only many wealthy, rich people who use political influence (as, for example, leaders of organizations "Muslim brotherhood" or "al-Qaeda"), but also the poor, the disadvantaged members of society, for which this ideology is a kind of protest against the government, the way to solve economic problems. From this point of view it is not surprising such prevalence of Salafi ideas from Saudi Arabia. Compared with the end of the 1970s to the present time the standard of living in Saudi Arabia did not increase (GDP per capita - 21 thousand dollars. and 20.3 thousand USD. respectively). In addition, an important signal to the turbulent situation in the Kingdom is a very high unemployment rate − 39% of young people aged 20-24 years, which becomes even more alarming for the authorities in the context of rapid population growth – about 70% are younger than 25 years. (3). These factors make fully possible the active involvement of young people in many religious centers, preaching the principles of fundamentalism. This, in turn, leads to a quite natural increase in the level of terrorism in the country.
Saudi Arabia is called "spiritual cradle" and the main sponsor of (international) terrorism. However, the attitude to domestic threats and terrorism "abroad" among the Saud very ambivalent.
It is no secret that Saudi Arabia financed the creation of the radical organization "al-Qaeda", whose main purpose at the time of establishment was to fight against Soviet troops in Afghanistan. Later, after the Soviet Union's withdrawal from Afghanistan, with the direct involvement of the CSA was created and another Islamist force – the Taliban. The leader of "al Qaeda" became a rich Saudi W. bin Laden. Leading "loud" of a "foreign" operation, bin Laden had his own view on the political situation. Most leader of the organization was not satisfied with the fact that in Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of the Prophet, American forces are based, and monarchist forces supported allied ties with Washington. So he called for a Jihad against all Americans, issuing a fatwa that essentially had no right, as I have not received religious education. While Osama bin Laden was counting on the support of religious leaders of Saudi Arabia, however, has not found a proper response. This was a pretty good reason: the publication of the fatwa bin Laden actually violated Islamic tradition by not conforming to the Quran, what religious leaders saw a threat to the prerogative of educated theologians to issue fatwas. The main goal beladen – the overthrow of the Saudi dynasty – remained unfulfilled, although the members of the Royal dynasty are still the main targets of terrorist acts of al-Qaeda, after the death beladen new leader of the organization, Ayman al-Zawahiri urged Saudis to revolt and overthrow the Royal family.
Active the activities of radical elements in Saudi Arabia (mainly of cells "al-Qaeda") that highlighted the 1990s and the first years of the 2000s, put an end to powerful terrorist attacks in 2003 and 2004, when terrorists killed several Saudi secret service officers, as well as the building exploded of the Ministry of security. It became obvious that the extremists sent forces on the "near enemy", making the targets and oil infrastructure. Saudi authorities seriously undertook the suppression of terrorism on its territory, but don't skimp on the financing of anti-terrorist units. This activity gave considerable results: the Ministry of internal Affairs of Saudi Arabia periodically announce that we have successfully prevented terrorist acts in the country, of the destruction of underground networks of al-Qaeda, and state media and then update the information about the release of former members of "misguided sects", have undergone the process of psychological and religious-political rehabilitation. At the conference held in Mecca on 23 July 2011, the crown Prince of Saudi Arabia Abdullah bin Abdel Aziz announced that his country "has achieved a decisive success in repelling the attack "creatures of terror" and the destruction of his misleading organizational structures" (as you know, in the Kingdom there was a special programme for the rehabilitation of radical Islamists). (6).
Nevertheless, Saudi intelligence agencies have failed to eliminate the cells of al-Qaida, activity and potential which is still lower than in the late 1990s To 2009. branches of al-Qaeda in Saudi Arabia and Yemen merged after the defeat of cell organization in Saudi Arabia to form "al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula" (AQAP). The structure quickly began to pose a threat to Saudi Arabia, since the main declared purpose of the destruction of the power "house of Saud" and "liberation" of the territory from foreign troops. Attracting a significant number of unemployed youth, including through active activities in the Internet and social media, AQAP has been able to capture the propaganda vacuum after some "slowdown" activity leader who lost the head structure of al-Qaeda, thus playing an important role in the wave of uprisings of the so-called "Arab spring".
In addition to "al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula" instability in Saudi Arabia is invoked and the existing opposition in the face of less influential actors, such as the movement of "al-Sahwa al-Islamiya" ("Islamic revival"). It originated in the 1970s, however, the stirrings of protest manifested in him at the beginning of the Gulf war of 1991, when the CSA gave the Western allies their ground and air territory, essentially making the possible war against Iraq. This position of the Royal family caused an uproar among many religious leaders and social layers of society. The leaders of the "al-sahwa the" today show questioned the religious legitimacy of the Saudi regime, leaving the ability of monarchs to speak on "the true face of Islam" is open to question. However, at issue is the ability of the movement, divided into several competing currents, unity and cohesion in action, manifested in calls for real political change, not in the latent character of their actions, which is actually in the shadow of an aggressive Wahhabi ideology of AQAP.
The leadership and secret services of Saudi Arabia do their best to suppress a terrorist movement in the country. However, the effective suppression of internal threats does not mean the same attitude to terrorism abroad and reduce its funding. Such a policy was carried out since 80th years of the XX century, when the CSA began supporting radical Islamic organizations around the world (including, in the Russian North Caucasus). U.S. officials have repeatedly stated that they consider Saudi Arabia a major financial contributor to terrorism, primarily al-Qaida, the Taliban and other Islamic fundamentalist organizations. So, in the words of U.S. Secretary of state Hillary Clinton, "Saudi Arabia takes very seriously the threat of domestic terrorism, but it is very difficult to convince officials to consider funding of terrorists from Saudi Arabia itself as a serious threat requiring urgent attention". (15). Extremist groups use the annual Hajj to Mecca for their financial transactions because the status of a pilgrim allows you to import and export large sums of money. There is information that the financing Wahabi operating outside the KSA, are members of the Royal family, most often through building of mosques and the organization of allegedly charitable funds. (2).
A clear confirmation of support for Saudi Arabia radicals abroad is the situation in Syria. From the point of view of most Western officials and media representatives, the Syrian opposition is a rebellion against years of dictatorship the masses, demanding an expansion of their rights and establishing democracy. Omitting reasons for the part of Syrians to take to the streets, note that fact in the ranks of the so-called opposition is involved a huge number of immigrants from other countries in the region, including from Saudi Arabia and members of al-Qaida and other terrorist organizations. So, according to the fighter of "al-Qaeda" and one of the field commanders of the Free Syrian army, today international terrorists to influence the situation in Syria is not less than the Syrian opposition. Despite the fact that al-Qaida is much better financed FSA, according to British The Times, Saudi Arabia and Qatar have secretly agreed to Fund the Syrian opposition and began supplying arms to the "rebels" in the middle of may 2012. (7). The CSA has repeatedly stated officially about its support for the Syrian opposition by all means possible. An important fact is that in Syria penetrated about 6 thousand fighters, "al-Qaeda" and the Syrian leader of the local cell of the organization is the native of Saudi Arabia. (8).
Active support of the "House of Saud" terrorist organizations in Syria is understandable: the Assad regime has long been causing ideological hostility both on the part of the Saudi Royal family and al Qaeda. In understanding the radical past of the Syrian ruling elite, hostile to the Alawite sect of Shiite, is "a gathering of heretics and apostates from Islam". In the eyes of the Saudi Royal house secular Syria is a real alternative fundamentalna dogmatic, largely expansionist ideology of the Saudis for the entire Arab community. In addition, in the VII-VIII centuries Damascus was the capital of the Caliphate of the Umayyad dynasty, which means that the spread of its influence in Syria to "House of Saud" is equivalent to the final occupation of leadership positions in the Arab world.
The support of the Saudi Arabia terrorist groups within the Syrian opposition forces are not criticized by the West largely because Western countries, primarily the USA, are providing various kinds of assistance to the "rebels". Also "overlooked" in the Western corridors of power remained and the direct support of the Saudis are joining radical "Muslim brotherhood" to power in Egypt. Immigrants from the CSA for many years was a substantial contingent among the militants in Iraq and Afghanistan (40%). In Saudi Arabia there are many organizations and foundations, guides its shares on a foreign state (for example, the Fund "al-Haramayn" under the guise of a charitable organization conducts subversive activities against Russia, focusing on the radicalization of the Muslim population in several Russian regions), or Finance international terrorism.(9). However, unlike Libya, Afghanistan and Iraq, an accusation which (sometimes not entirely truthful) with supporting terrorism was sufficient to start military actions against these countries, in the case of Royal Saudi Arabia these facts are not a strong argument for tougher measures by the West and particularly the United States.
2. The relations between Saudi Arabia and USA
The relationship between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United States of America go back decades in history, in the pre-war period. The state of Saudi Arabia was established in 1925. the family of al-Saud, and it was the first instance in history when the country received its name from the ruling dynasty of Saudi Arabia. Some years later, in 1933, America (or rather, the American oil company "Standard Oil of California"), seduced by the prospects of existence in this country of energy resources, concluded with the government of Saudi Arabia of the concession agreement, establishing the "Arabian American Oil Company" − "Aramco". USA's hopes were not in vain – in 1938. in Saudi Arabia have discovered the first major oil field, which explains the increased interest of Washington to the Kingdom.
While America was not a monopoly in the region – Saudi Arabia held tightly in the grip of financial dependence of great Britain, whose economic impact worried "oil giants" of the US. So Washington has set a goal of a course for a replacement for England in that region as the dominant power, and began to actively implement from the beginning of 1943.: Roosevelt ordered the assistance under lend-lease to the government of Saudi Arabia, the protection of which was vital to the United States.
1945. was a turning point, which laid a solid Foundation in bilateral relations. On 14 February 1945. on Board the American cruiser "Quincy" took place the meeting of President Roosevelt and king Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia, which culminated in the signing of the so-called "Covenant Quincy". The essence of the document was as follows: the United States has exclusive rights for exploration, field development and purchase of Saudi oil, in turn, guaranteeing the Saudis protection from any external threats. (1). Thus, Washington has received from the leadership of the KSA construction permit in Dhahran a major American air base under the pretext of its necessity for the war against Japan, and in 1951. both countries signed an agreement "on mutual defense and mutual assistance".
Economic relations between the US and Saudi Arabia, although the Kingdom is a very important market for American products, is fundamentally limited to the energy sector. America is the second largest importer of Saudi oil (after Asia). The share of "black gold" in the total export of KSA is over 90%, it is not surprising that in 1980. the government bought all the shares of "Aramco", changing its name to "Saudi Aramco". However, it did not cause any significant damage on the U.S.: a few years before, in 1973, the leadership of the White house agreed with the House of al-Saud on the sale continue throughout Saudi oil in US dollars, which, of course, brought to Washington a huge benefit. In 2011. there is evidence about certain difficulties the CSA in the future. So, according to Wikileaks, the real oil reserves in Saudi Arabia may be 300 billion barrels, that is 40% lower than the officially declared. In this context, the Kingdom can not cope with the task of curbing the growth of oil prices. (14). Despite this, the oil factor was initially a priority in building the U.S.-Saudi relationship and today still plays in the continuation of the dialogue "the first violin", though not the only one.
The relationship between the U.S. and Saudi Arabia, on the right bearing the status of "special" along with American / British, us / Israel or us-Japan relations, have a number of characteristics. So, the relationship is "systemic" in nature, due to the overall consistency of the tone of the dialogue in connection with the change of power in Washington: for decades, despite the rule of the Republicans or Democrats, the relationship was seen as allied. In addition, they have the characteristics of publichnosti, high personification and the limitations of the involved actors. This is confirmed by frequent contacts between the two leaders of States in their minimal light in the media. In the relations between Washington and Riyadh is guided by a set of mutual interests and mutual benefit. So, in addition to vast oil reserves, Saudi Arabia is actually one of two spiritual centers in the Muslim world (Saudi Arabia is Sunni, Iran for the Shiites). Islam is a cornerstone in the Foundation of domestic and foreign policy of the Kingdom that makes possible the leadership of the state in the region. The significance of Saudi Arabia for the Arab countries, and characterizes the fact that the head of CSA has the title "custodian of the two Holy places" (Mecca and Medina). All this makes Riyadh important support for Washington in its middle East policy. "Special" relations determine the strength of the global position of the USA not only in economic but also military-strategic dimension. The last factor is very important for Saudi Arabia, which has acquired in America to be the guarantor of national security.
Bilateral relations between the US and KSA could not be considered outside the context of the global policy of the United States in General, and their middle East policy in particular, characterizing the White house's desire for world leadership. The important geopolitical location of Saudi Arabia, which is practically at the junction between Eurasia and Africa, promotes the occurrence of Riyadh in the number of U.S. allies. This determined and high degree of cooperation in military-political sphere.
The Iran-Iraq war, and then the expansion of Iran to the territory of Kuwait, showed the vulnerability of Saudi Arabia in military terms, its inability to repel possible threats. The US operation in the Persian Gulf in 1991. allowed Washington to expand its military involvement in the region through the use of Saudi territory. In Saudi Arabia on a permanent basis was available, American military contingent, which, on the one hand, protecting the security of the country, but on the other, made a rift in the spiritual and political elite of the Kingdom. However, it is not forcing the country's leadership to completely abandon the "war shield" USA: in the KSA there are 9 thousand American military personnel and airbase "al-Kharj", "Prince Sultan". Military-technical cooperation of America and Saudi Arabia is more than 40 years. The US played a key role in the creation of the Saudi army, contributing to the preparation of national military personnel and supplying a large consignment of us weapons. Billions of dollars of contracts would put the Saudi government in the long-term dependence on the USA as a vendor-monopoly for many years.
Assistance and the U.S. presence in the region (at the end of January 2012. The United States has in the region of two carrier strike groups led by the aircraft carrier "Abraham Lincoln" and "Carl Vinson") plays into the hands of the House of al-Saud in relations with neighbouring countries, especially in the context of the historic rivalry between Saudi Arabia and Iran, which always possessed a powerful in a regional armed forces. From this point of view it would seem quite logical statement from the leadership of the Kingdom, presented at joint U.S.-Saudi press conference in April of this year, the establishment of the Commission for consideration of placement on the territory of the Gulf States of the us ABM systems. As the tasks of the regional anti-missile system was marked by the need to protect against potential "Iranian nuclear threat". (10). It is obvious that the real purpose of this project is to strengthen the position of Washington by establishing another element of the global U.S. missile defense system. In this regard Saudi Arabia as a steward of the interests of the White house in the region.
Given the significant position of Saudi Arabia in the Arab world, USA for a dozen years and consider the Kingdom as a strategic partner. In 80-ies of Saudi Arabia and the United States has been "hidden" counteraction to the Soviet forces in Afghanistan. Today such cooperation is clearly manifested in the middle East policy of the White house. For example, both States coordinate actions regarding Iran, the radical Shia leadership in Iran is the goal, both Washington and Riyadh. For the first it would mean "the suppression of rebellious Tehran" and take control of its huge energy resources, the second is the elimination of the strongest ideological and military opponent. That is why the CSA has unreservedly supported the oil embargo of the West against Tehran, saying that it was ready to fully compensate for the resulting shortage in supply of raw materials to Europe. The Kingdom is also ready to raise its production quotas "black gold", thereby lowering oil prices in order to undermine Iran's economy. Additionally, in 2011. The white house and the House of al-Saud concluded a "deal", according to which Saudi Arabia supported the introduction of a no-fly zone over Libya and pledged "to persuade" a number of Arab States to the same decision during the voting in the Arab League in exchange for "approval" of the introduction of Saudi troops in Bahrain to suppress the manifestation here of the "Arab spring" in the face of protesting the Shiite population. (13). This cruel actions of the Saudis in the neighboring state of Western media in fact "closed eyes".
However, despite the importance of mutual collaboration, the relations between Saudi Arabia and USA are not without difficulties. The first time they became apparent after the events of 11 September, when it turned out that 15 of the 19 terrorists come from Saudi Arabia. Then Washington has intensified criticism of Riyadh on human rights, the extremely high level of corruption, lack of democratic freedoms, and the involvement of the Saudis in international terrorism. The grounds for criticism really are (in Saudi Arabia there is a very low threshold of intolerance towards representatives of other faiths: Sheikh Abdullah banned the construction of churches and temples, the wearing of a cross you can go to jail; the country is severely restricted women's rights, there is strict censorship of media, as well as practiced public executions, in fact, "without trial", as written penal code in the country does not exist, and sentenced by the judge on the basis of Shariah law and their own interpretations of the Qur'an), but it is transient in nature, being a sort of the indicator of bilateral relations. Saudi Arabia also did not stay aside: the Saudis are also very critical about the policy of double standards of Washington, which among other things is evident in his support of Israel in the middle East conflict. Saudi press supported a General atmosphere of growing anti-Americanism in the media appeared the message about the need to review relations with the United States and the reorientation of neighboring countries, mainly Pakistan, which is able to replace U.S. strategic shield. (5). However, despite bilateral tensions in the dialogue between the two countries, there are many important factors firmly linking the US and Saudi Arabia: large-scale economic and financial cooperation, largely a coincidence of approaches on a wide range of international and regional issues, a direct dependence of Saudi Arabia on military assistance from Washington.
However, the "special" status of U.S.-Saudi relations does not mean that U.S. foreign policy and the CSA always coincide. Saudi Arabia is not willing to support all initiatives of the White house, especially as they pertain to regional stability. For example, the House of al-Saud was against the forceful removal of Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq. The Saudis seek, on the one hand, to maintain a close dialogue with Washington on the other, to avoid excessive dependence on him, trying to increase foreign relations, particularly with China. Riyadh to Beijing is very promising and attractive source of resources, which pushes the latter to the intensification of bilateral relations: in 2007. between the countries there was signed a Memorandum on cooperation in the field of oil, gas and minerals. At the end of March 2012. the governments of the two countries reached an agreement on the construction of a huge oil refinery in Yanbu, which is scheduled to enter into operation in 2014. The most important objective of China in the context of relations with the KSA is the "conclusion" of the Kingdom of the petrodollar settlement system and transfer it to the settlements in Chinese yuan, as was done in dialogue between Beijing and Tehran. This would lead to the collapse of the U.S. dollar as the world reserve currency. This, of course, Washington cannot let that happen; from Saudi Arabia such a step is questionable due to a number of reasons.
The plans of the House of al-Saud was responsible for the overthrow of the ruling clan in Syria that will be an important step in the "fall" of Iran. However, it is clear that this step is still far: the Syrian regime is still strongly holds the Fort, and Washington's plans for forceful intervention in Iran, given the US experience in Afghanistan and Iraq, apparently, will remain mere rhetoric. In addition, the wave of "Arab spring" has not reached Tehran. But put in a difficult position Riyadh: the authorities had to tighten the course in relation to the attempts of national demonstrations within the state and even blood to suppress protests against the monarchy in neighboring Bahrain. New Islamist forces that came to power in several Arab States are unlikely to support the Saudi Royal house, despite his help in their formation. The preservation of the regime in Iran and the achievement of its main goal – the acquisition of nuclear weapons will force the KSA to implement its "mirror" in relation to Iran's nuclear program that will lead to arms race in the region. Further complicate this situation is the fact that Washington will not be able to support the desire of Riyadh to the acquisition of Yao, because this is clearly dissonant with the international position. However, to prevent Saudi Arabia he can.
Plans for reformatting of the geopolitical space of the greater Middle East has received wide discussion in the American expert and political circles from the beginning of the XXI century, although they appeared long before that. The main objective of the global project the United States was the territorial separation of States with a view to their weakening and better control. According to some reports, even an ally of Saudi Arabia will escape the "sword" of the White house, bringing "democracy" all "dictatorships oppressed" peoples. So, in the article, former employee of the U.S. military intelligence Ralph Peters, published in 2006. it is stated that "Saudi Arabia will undergo the same large-scale partition, as Pakistan". (4). Moreover, the theoretical basis for this step include: the United States has repeatedly accused the Kingdom in supporting terrorism and involvement in terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. According to American experts M. Davy, and R. Peters, to kill Saudi Wahhabism will help to divide Saudi Arabia into several States, which, moreover, "will destroy her monopoly on the supply of oil". (12). This would allow US to better control delivery of the Saudi energy resources in other States, mainly growing in China.
Oil areas of CSA play a direct role in the project of capturing Washington that state under its full control. In Saudi province of al-hasa, concentrating the main oil sources of the country, predominantly Shia minority of Saudi Arabia, exposed to political and religious discrimination by the authorities. On this small territory has been repeatedly unhappy rebellion broke out, requiring advancement. In this regard, at the end of 2001. in Washington, the document, which the authors, members of the American political and expert community of D. Frum and R. Perle, offered "to find justice" in the Saudi Kingdom by threats on support of the Shiite population of El hasa on the issue of independence. (11). It is obvious that "salvation" the Shiites of Saudi Arabia is only a smokescreen to conceal the true purpose – the capture of the strategically important oil fields in the Persian Gulf. However, the military isolation of the Eastern province of KSA is possible only in the case of the fall of the regime Pro-us House of al-Saud, in which case armed intervention in the country would be relatively adequately look at the context of the "protection" of Shiites from the Sunni majority and to maintain the capacity of CSA to fulfill their "duties oil". Thus, demographic characteristics of Saudi Arabia was a good "discovery" of the leadership of Washington from the point of view of the planning prospects of U.S.-Saudi relations. However, not the fact that the Shiite minority will be welcomed by Western "liberators": here the example of Iraqi Shiites, whom the Iranian leadership staked in the issue of weakening in the Iraq war 1980-1988. Also largely discriminated Shiites of Iraq have rallied the Sunni majority and have responded to the Iranian armed forces. When under threat existence of the state, warring at first glance, social groups tend to unite against a common threat.
In any case, the existence and periodic "leak" of such plans Washington is an effective means of pressure on the House of al-Saud, which will allow them to "gamble" on the world political arena and far away from cooperation with the US of course. Despite the fact that the Shiites in Saudi Arabia do not require separation and independence, the Shia unrest — especially financed and directed from abroad — can be an additional destabilizing factor in an already very difficult situation of the Saudi leadership. Obviously, if Saudi Arabia and is the White house plans to reform the region, then certainly in position after Iran: Washington will not allow the fall of the regime in Riyadh and will not conduct the operation "liberation of the Shiites," at least until the fall of Iran, otherwise the destabilization of Saudi Arabia will only strengthen the position of Tehran. Until that time, the US would support the Saudis, to use them as a conduit for its interests in the region and to "close their eyes" on posobnitsey role of Saudi Arabia in the spread of extremist currents and the functioning of terrorist organizations. At this stage of time the benefits of us-Saudi cooperation to Washington exceed the "problem" from him.
- A. M. Vasiliev, History Of Saudi Arabia (1745 — 1973). M.: Nauka, 1982. [Electronic resource] http://rikonti-khalsivar.narod.ru/Saud16.htm
- Or looking for the lost: Salafite the ideology of the Wahhabi movement. http://www.vahhabizm.ru/stat/ideolog_salafit-1.html
- Unnoticed threat. http://www.vahhabizm.ru/stat/n_ugroza.html
- Reformat the political space of the Middle East in a neo-colonial context. 25.05.2012. http://geopolitica.ru/Articles/1429/
- Saudi Arabia and the United States: a divorce? 9.09.2002. http://www.profile.ru/items_7798
- Saudi Arabia: king speaks about the successful counter-terrorism. 29.07.2011. http://www.ru.journal-neo.com/node/8052
- "Sacred Union" of the United States and al-Qaida. http://telegrafua.com/world/13179/
- Syrian rebels, who are they really? 26/07/2012. http://www.inosmi.ru/world/20120726/195552162.html
- Cm.read more: International Islamic organization in Saudi Arabia. Interregional public Fund of strategic security. http://www.fssb.su/terror/terror-organizations/23-zarubezhnye-islamskie-organizacii-saudovskaya-araviya.html
- The United States is developing a missile defense system in the Persian Gulf. 09.08.2012. http://www.newsland.ru/news/detail/id/1013194/
- Faheem A. the U.S. wants to "liberate" Saudi Shiites, and along with their oil. http://virtualeconomics.narod.ru/saudi-shia.html
- Riyadh in the risk zone. Strategic Culture Foundation. 09.07.2012. http://www.fondsk.ru/pview/2012/07/09/er-riyad-v-zone-riska.html
- Exposed: The US-Saudi Libya deal. Asia Times online. Apr 2, 2011. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/MD02Ak01.html
- Wikileaks: Saudi Arabia overstated data on its oil reserves by 40%. http://top.rbc.ru/economics/09/02/2011/540527.shtml
- Wikileaks: Saudi Arabia is funding the militants. http://www.bbc.co.uk/russian/international/2010/12/101205_wikileaks_saudis_sunni_militants.shtml
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