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The Syrian conflict as an arena of confrontation of the Iranian Republic of Iran and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Material posted: Publication date: 10-11-2017
Today the entire political world is uncertain: in the international arena there are global changes. On the one hand, the United States of America present yourself as the only superpower on the world political arena, which is quite a popular opinion, especially in the Western world. This position is due to the fact that the United States together with its allies (NATO) won the "cold war".

On the other hand, China, which has become the most powerful economy in the world, trying to change the status of a regional power in East Asia the status of a world leader using various, especially economic, resources, an example of which was the creation of the project "New silk road", as well as the policy of investing in the economies of various countries around the world. Equally Russian Federation as a state–successor of the USSR is planning to enter the global arena in a new role of a regional power, thus expanding the zone of its political influence to other regions.

All these points of view more all intersect in the middle East, a region that throughout modern history been an important element in politics of almost all world powers, as well as connected to the world rivalry of States in the region. Currently, the situation in the middle East remains critical, first, in connection with which the positions of extremism and radical movements of Islam, and secondly, in connection with the several States in the Middle East region, coupled with religious struggles in individual countries and throughout the Middle East. This situation is observed in Syria, whose civil war is the battleground for such countries as USA, Russian Federation, China and Saudi Arabia, Iran, Turkey, Qatar, etc. because of their greatest interest in this conflict we have chosen such regional powers as Iran and Saudi Arabia, and also examined their policy towards developments in Syria.

Fig.1. The Syrian conflict (caricature).

The relevance of the study lies in the fact that currently the middle East is the most striking example of the opposition not only of the great powers, but the States of the region in the struggle for strengthening their own position in the competition for regional dominance (Iran, Saudi Arabia), which in the future have the desire to actively influence world politics through the support of various radical or nationalist organizations or play "on the decline" in the international market resources. This change can not affect the foreign policy of the Russian Federation and international relations in the region.

 

1.Participation the Islamic Republic of Iran in the Syrian civil war.

 

There's a few countries whose efforts would be aimed at supporting the regime of Bashar al-Assad in the Syrian civil war. Most from the overthrow of Assad will hurt the only ally of Damascus in the region — the Islamic Republic of Iran. Although today the Islamic Republic is under process of lifting tough economic sanctions over its nuclear program, its constant economic, military and humanitarian support is critical to preserve Alawite power structure in Syria. For Iran, the Syrian conflict is important not only because of the issue of control over Damascus. The conflict became the center of ideological, religious and geopolitical struggle of Tehran with a variety of opponents: the radical jihadist Sunni, Gulf States, Israel and the United States.

For several millennia on the territory of modern Iran there were States that, in General, has a huge impact on the developing in that time the international situation, that translates into a huge aggressive hikes, usually ending with the success of the attackers. This historical parallel also applies to modern Iran, which every year is growing stronger in the Arab middle East, implementing the policy bequeathed by leader of the Islamic revolution of 1979, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

Is more to consider this event. The Islamic revolution is an important milestone that influenced the development of not only Iran but also neighboring countries such as Iraq. The main result of this revolution can be called the first modern Shiite state, where the religious aspect takes a Central place. A Prime example supporting this point of view, is the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, where at the legislative level, the highest political power in the country, according to article 5 of the Constitution, remained a clergyman, Rahbar. In other words, despite the presence of normal for the world of political practice President, in the modern realities the Iranian regime is a theocracy. According to article 107 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Supreme leader, or faqih, was chosen by the Council of experts, a body made up of influential scholars (ayatollahs) who are elected in popular elections for a period of 8 years.[1]

Elected from among the experts of the applicant, shall be delivered or lifelong power over the state or power before the return of the twelfth hidden Imam, whose Messianic figure is in this direction of Islam as Shiism (this is a lot about the Muslim religion being preached in the Islamic Republic of Iran).

Rahbar not only forms the internal policy of the state taking care of its citizens, but also plays a major role in the adjustment of foreign policy, allowing the President to follow the chosen foreign policy and to strictly implement all the recommendations of the Supreme leader–the faqih.

It is undeniable that today Iran is a major middle Eastern player, whose influence extends from Lebanon to Tajikistan from Yemen to Azerbaijan. Much of this impact was provided in connection with a specific religious policy of Tehran.

A key role of this policy, first and foremost, is to protect fellow Shiites from different countries, hard primenyaemyh throughout the Muslim world, much of which believes that Shia are heretics, in the past, a breakaway from the mainstream Islam and created a sectarian organization.[2]

In our opinion, based on this religious policy, the Islamic Republic got involved in the Syrian civil war due to the following reasons:

  1. a regional conflict with Saudi Arabia on religious, political and economic level;
  2. the fight against radical Islam in the face of the gangs of the Islamic State, Jabhat al–Nusra[3] , etc.;
  3. attempts to prevent the formation of Absheronskogo state;
  4. hardening of the positions of Shi'ism in the middle East.

A detailed look at every reason.

At the moment, as never before, the situation in the Gulf region is tense. It is, first of all, connected with the Iran–Saudi confrontation is expressed in the "cold war" between the States. In this struggle can be traced not only religious and ideological traits, but also by economic rivalry, as both countries literally are buried under a huge layer of resources, mainly oil and gas. It should be noted that, according to researchers Malysheva D. B. and V. V. Naumkin, until the end of the 1970s, relations between the two countries were completely neutral in nature, as both countries substantially depended on the assistance of the capitalist countries, that slowly unfolded in the countries of the Westernization process, which is more concerned with Iran. An example confirming this position, you can call it that the female population of this country by the early 1970s almost managed to change their traditionally closed outfits to skirts and breeches, stitched on the European model.[4]

More, the conflict escalated after the Islamic revolution of 1979, the result of which is called the coming to power of radical Shiites, led by Ayatollah Khomeini who declared themselves defenders of the rights of Shiites in the world. In this regard, the Shiites of the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia is abundantly supported by the Iranian authorities, also worth mentioning is the fact that this region has major oil reserves of Saudi Arabia.

Fig.2. The Shiites in the Muslim world.

Also, the new Iranian authorities objected to the economic and cultural partnership with the United States, which, according to R. Khomeini, "contribute to the degradation of the entire Muslim community (Ummah) and indulge in material values."[5] thus the country began embracing the rejection of the Western elements of everyday life and clothing, which led to anti-American demonstrations in different cities of Iran, and soon to the rupture of relations with the United States.

A new round of escalation of this confrontation is observed in recent years in connection with this phenomenon as the "Arab spring". This series of revolutions, whose sponsors researchers call Qatar and Saudi Arabia,[6] has completely changed the old image of the Middle East that has forced Iran to transform its foreign policy to gain support of the Shiite population in middle Eastern countries (Syria, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain).

The support of these countries, Iran could favorably affect the role of Iran in the middle East, as today projansky minded forces have a significant impact on the SAR government headed by the Alawite Bashar al–Assad, the Lebanese Shiite party Hezbollah, as well as on the housetop, the Shiites in Yemen, not to mention the fact that in Iraq since the overthrow of Saddam Hussein in power are Shiites.

However, we should point out that over the past years, the Islamic Republic engaged in a dialogue with international mediators on the removal of international economic sanctions, most of which were introduced in the late 1970s of the twentieth century. In return for the lifting of sanctions, Iran is going to stop developing nuclear weapons. However, this "warming" of relations between Iran and Western countries, especially the US, should not be interpreted as the normalization of the dialogue between the two countries. Most likely both countries will not be able to form any mutual Union, like, first, between Tehran and Washington lack of confidence desired level, secondly, this action of the United States puts in danger their middle Eastern allies, who Express great concern in connection with dialogue with their main enemy.

This situation does not suit Saudi Arabia, have embarked on radical measures, which was manifested in the execution of the Shiite preacher Nimr al–Nimr, which in turn caused a complete termination of diplomatic relations with Iran, with the exception of the transportation of pilgrims from Iran to the place of the Hajj (Mecca and Medina).[7]

Currently on first position in the struggle between these countries out of the resource economy, specifically the sale of oil prices, which fell after the lifting of some economic sanctions against Iran in 2014, reducing the role of Saudi Arabia in the global resource market. However, today the religious factor still prevails, as all the dividends from the economic policy directed on support and funding for co-religionists, as well as the construction of religious institutions and mosques around the world.

A second aspect reveal the role of Iran in the Syrian conflict, is the struggle against radical Sunni Islam in the face of the Islamic state and other groups, for example, Jabhat al–Nusra (now the Hyatt Tahrir al–sham) and Ahrar al–sham.

Overall, Iran have always reacted negatively to various Sunni terrorist formations, since the main purpose of these organizations, in our opinion, was, first, to destabilize those in power regimes and Sunni, and Shiite, secondly, the genocide in the first place of the Yazidi, Christian and Shiite populations. Also on Iran imposed historical memory, as Shiites since the separation of the Islamic community strongly subjected to various punishments including the death penalty. These actions against the Shiites also influenced the rituals and traditions of Muslims. A vivid example of the evolution of Shiite rites is "takia", in which Shia has the right to pretend to be a Sunni for the sake of saving his own life.[8]

This historical past of forcing Iran to take drastic action to protect the Shiite population, to provide material assistance to the Iraqi and Syrian governments, as well as to include the various defensive alliances (Treaty of 1979 between Khomeini and Assad).

However, the situation changed completely with the appearance on the middle Eastern stage grouping "Islamic state of Iraq and the Levant" (LIH, later IG). Her units are characterized by tactical training and military intelligence since the military elite of this group were members in the dissolved Iraqi BAATH party, most of whom were Iraqi Sunnis, whose position in life is significant deteriorated after the occupation of Iraq in 2003. Parity compared to official Iraqi army is clear, as in less than a year of fighting, the troops were able to capture a huge geographic standards within the territory of Syria and Iraq.

Due to the current stalemate, the Islamic Republic had secretly introduce detachments of volunteers formed during the Iran–Iraq war the IRGC (Islamic revolutionary guard Corps), whose members are directly subordinated to the Supreme leader, Ali Khamenei. The main task of these units is to protect the Shiite population of Iraq and Syria, as well as the maximum attenuation of anti-government groups. However, I must say that for very pragmatic reasons, Iran has no desire to turn this operation designed to eliminate radical groups, religious war, because these circumstances will force Tehran to permanently get involved in a full-fledged guerrilla war that spanned the entire territory of Iraq, Syria and possibly other neighboring countries of this region.[9]

Although Russia and Iran are partners in the Astana talks, however, they cannot be called a full-fledged allies, since both States are pursuing a predominantly different objective. The Russian position is that the operation in Syria is purely an anti-terrorist nature and aimed at the destruction of military targets of terrorist organizations. Official Teheran insists on the complete destruction of all anti-government forces in Syria.

While Iran supplies the RAA not only military forces, but also organizes the work of the Syrian armed forces, the government sending in the army a number of instructors, whose immediate responsibility is to improve the technical and military training of the army cap. These instructors are not always immigrants from Iran, for example, many instructors are recruited from the Lebanese organization "Hezbollah".[10] Also Iranian instructors organize field work of the Shiite militias, thus complicating the promotion of anti-government groups inside the country.

The Islamic Republic has allocated several billions of dollars of loans in 2011 to support financial market cap, at that time on the verge of collapse. Equally, Tehran has provided Damascus products weighing about 30 thousand tons transferred through numerous Iranian charity organization in Syria, which was saved from imminent death, significant numbers of Syrians.[11]

Drawing attention to the contemporary political situation, you can select another goal for Iran, having a strategic direction to prevent the formation Absheronskogo state.

It should be noted that today the number of Kurds is around 20 million people, most of whom settled in the territory of four countries: Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Iran. However, political independence is only the population of Iraqi Kurdistan, the bulk of political power which is concentrated in the hands of the Barzani clan. Kurdish communities in other States are subjected to all sorts of harassment and religious discrimination, resulting in anti-government protests of the entire Kurdish population.

This direction is slightly reflected in the scientific literature, however, has an important place in the political line of the Iranian state, as the Kurdish problem in the near future, may put the very existence of Iran's current borders into question. The largest group of the Kurdish population located in the North–Eastern part of Iran (provinces of Kurdistan, Ilam, West Azerbaijan, North Khorasan), and the population of Iranian Kurdistan is about 5 million people.[12]

All of these provinces have a low level of economic development and relatively low degree of participation in the political life of the state.

Although the Iranian Kurds have more political freedoms than in other countries, on the rights of the Iranian Kurds have less weight than the rights of other nationalities living in Iran. In this respect, an illustrative example can be considered relevant to Iranian Azerbaijanis, from the community which left a large number of representatives of the current Iranian establishment, for example, Rahbar Ali Khamenei.

Also among Iranian Kurds strong separatist sentiments, heated outside Iraqi Kurdistan, as well as other enemies of Teheran in the face of the United States and Israel, who patronize government Massoud Barzani, leader of Iraqi Kurdistan. Despite this, the United States, in General, reacted negatively to the past in September 2017 referendum concerning political independence of Iraqi Kurdistan.[13]

 Fig.3. The resettlement of Kurds.

However, the Syrian Kurds at the beginning of the Syrian conflict have played a rather passive role, primarily due to the fact that the Kurds have been holding out hope for the formation of a Kurdish autonomy because they recognize Assad as the sole legitimate leader of Syria, who in his rhetoric strongly promised the Kurds some political concessions after the civil war. In keeping with this agreement, the government army and the Kurds were in a state of neutrality in the initial stages of the conflict.

However, all the rhetoric, the Kurdish leadership has been changed in connection with the assistance of the Iraqi Kurdistan and the conflict with government troops near the town of Ayn al–Arab in 2012.[14] Even more, the conflict was exacerbated by the bombing of Kurdish positions of government troops in the province of hasakah in mid-August 2016.

Today, the official Damascus is becoming increasingly difficult to control the situation in the Northern regions of the Syrian state that can soon lead to the creation of semi-independent Kurdish entity on the territories of the SAR, which de facto can be independent. This forces the Iranian authorities to pay more attention to the situation of its own Kurdish population, whose political neutrality to the Iranian government may soon be replaced by the anti-government demonstrations or, in extreme cases, can lead to the escalation of the conflict between the Iranian Kurds on the one hand and the Iranian establishment.

The fourth reason for Iran's support of Syria is the protection and strengthening of the role of Shiism, one of the currents of the Muslim religion. I should say that Iran since the end of the Islamic revolution is in partnership with the family of Assad, who by religion are alawites. It should be noted that since 1973, the alawites were officially recognized by Shiites, although, in fact, alavizm is considered to be some mixture of Christianity and Islam, which is reflected in the rites of the alawites, who are celebrating the Christian Easter and Muslim holidays.[15]

Since Syria is considered by Iran as an important ally, some in their hands a significant impact on neighboring Lebanon, where after a local civil war in a leading position came to the fore Shiite party Hezbollah (Arab. "the party of God"), which to this day has under his hand a huge by the standards of the region's human and material resources to enable it to influence the situation not only in Lebanon, but also to influence neighboring countries such as Syria and Israel.

The government of Bashar al-Assad in Syria does Iran's key role, as the Assad clan Tehran provides direct leadership over the so-called "Shiite Crescent", i.e. the territory where the predominant majority of the population are Shiites. In this group of countries, apart from Iran, included southern Lebanon (the location of military camps Hezbollah), Syria, Iraq, where the head of the country after the overthrow of Saddam Hussein is in power a Shiite government headed by Haider al–Abadi, as well as the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, the majority of the population focused on the Shiite Iranian government.

 

  1. Saudi Arabia and the situation in Syria.

 

Currently, Saudi Arabia has all of the power in order to become a regional leader in the Middle East, while in the present as the leading power in the Persian Gulf, whose excessive ambitions, as well as the huge resource potential (financial, natural, energy, etc.) provide an opportunity for the elite of the state all sorts of way to rebuild the middle East map, proceeding from own possibilities and goals.

Therefore, the main goal of the Saudi establishment for several decades was the conquest of the pre-eminent position in the middle East and the elimination of potential players a competitive influence, of lower rank: Libya, Syria, Egypt, etc.

The starting point of the current foreign policy of Saudi Arabia was a milestone in the Muslim political world – the Arab spring, whose consequences were virtually painless overcome the regime monarchies of the Persian Gulf, saw a great the opportunity to regroup political forces in the middle East. After the bloody regime change in Iraq, destroyed a long intervention of troops of the international coalition, as well as turmoil in Egypt and Libya that led to the change of political regimes and the fall of the political independence of these countries, the possibility of real regional leadership among Absheronskogo companies have moved to the really big, stable and powerful Arab center, Saudi Arabia.

At first, Saudi policy was pursued by good fortune, primarily in Egypt and Libya, but it soon became clear, initially growing conflicts in some areas pass into a state of low intensity civil war that today is confirmed by the example of the SAR, where combat operations are conducted from mid-2011.

It is worth noting a few highlighted in the study of the reasons that influenced the emergence of the current policy of Riyadh against the Alawite regime of Bashar al-Assad. Among them worth mentioning:

  1. historically, various positions at a number of regional issues;
  2. the rigid position of Hafez al-Assad (father of Bashar Assad) against Israel and Saudi Arabia;
  3. the aggravation of the Syrian–Saudi confrontation over economic influence in Lebanon.

Consider the order of each extended reason.

First, since the formation of the Saudi state and the deposits of the Syrian provinces in favor of France, the ruling elites of these associations had different political blocs. At the head of the Arabian block was the family of al–Saud under the leadership of Abdel–Aziz al–Saud, who, in turn, was in a state of continuous war with the family of the Hashemites, to gain a foothold in Hijaz (region in the South–West of modern Saudi Arabia).[16] the Result of this conflict was the formation of Saudi Arabia and the expulsion of the Hashemites to the North, where this dynasty was planning to form the state of "greater Syria" on the territory of modern Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Israel. However, as a result of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Lebanon and Syria fell under the protectorate of the French Republic, whose army lightning leveled claims of the Hashemites, who managed, however, to create their own state in Iraq and Transjordan. Plans to create a "greater Syria" had a negative impact on the Saudi elite to the Northern neighbors, which led to the consolidation of Saudi Arabia with the countries of the Persian Gulf, the Saudis quickly gained a huge influence leading to the establishment of the cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (CCASG).[17] the Relationship between States greatly regressed after the Second world war, which resulted in the environment in the middle East the idea of Arab socialism, especially in the established policy of Egypt led by Gamal Nasser.

This policy aimed at economic and military development, resonated with many of the Arab countries that managed to combine the Islamic religion with the Marxist doctrine, that, together with the support of the Soviet Union, resulted in the unprecedented economic growth of these countries.

One of these countries was Syria, which in the 1950s was able to first consolidate with the Cairo, and later to join with him, creating the United Arab Republic, lasted only three years (1958-1961 gg.). However, this experience helped the Syrian government led by the BAATH party to achieve some economic progress.

On the other hand, the Gulf States, the patron of which was the United States, adhered to in their daily rhetoric of negative opinions about Arab socialism, believing that this political doctrine is not a guide to the rejection of the Muslim religion.[18]

Further, seized power in Syria, Hafez al-Assad, after the death of Nasser, became the main ally of the Soviet Union in the middle East, which affected the ambitions of the Syrian government because Syria is directly bordered with the newly formed Israel, the Syrian upper classes was the main aggressor in the relationship with that country, strongly urging other countries to confrontation with the Jewish state, which resulted in several wars and border conflicts, as well as the participation of both countries in the long civil war in Lebanon.

Similar rhetoric is evident in the relations with Saudi Arabia, exemplified by the meeting of the League of Arab States, where the representatives of the bloc, formed under the leadership of the Saudi monarchy, strongly denounced Nasser's group (Egypt, Syria and Iraq).

Because of such attitudes of Iraq and Syria, in the 1970s, had planned to create a unified state, whose main purpose is approved by the joint opposition to attack Saudi Arabia, as the main leader of socialism, Egypt, under the leadership of Anwar Sadat decided to change its policy.[19]

Also, we should not forget about the position of Syria in neighbouring Lebanon, divided during the civil war in a plurality of groups, where Syrian influence was ranked that helped the Assad regime to profit through smuggling in Lebanon since the Syrian government had imposed economic sanctions because, according to the publication Akhmedov V. M., the Syrian government patronized terrorism.[20]

Despite this, after the withdrawal of Syrian troops from Lebanon, Saudi businessmen were involved in the struggle for economic market of Lebanon, facing the Mediterranean sea, which would increase the flow of Saudi goods directly to European countries.

However, the main rivalry in the country takes place from the struggle for the leading position in Parliament, where the two main coalition (the March 8 Alliance and the March 14 Alliance) supported or Arab monarchies, or Iran and Syria are trying to develop a common decision on Syria, because the March 8 Alliance supports the government of Bashar Assad and the March 14 Alliance calling for the dismissal of the President.

No less important looks and the coalitions fight for the presidency of the country, which according to the confessional legislation of the state should be Christian Maronite religion. Therefore, the Shiite party of Lebanon and the Free Patriotic movement has achieved the nomination of their own candidate for President, Michel Aoun, who, despite two years of struggle and many failed attempts, eventually, became President of Lebanon in October 2016.[21] However, in our opinion, this political move does not mean that the opponents of Saudi Arabia has firmly established itself in Lebanon as the main support for the Saudis allocate to the Sunni parties, which have a huge influence over Lebanon and you can nominate its candidate for the post of Prime Minister.

Focusing on the highlighted above the reasons for Saudi interests in the Syrian conflict, from our point of view, a number of tasks of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia can be partially or completely solved in the Syrian conflict. Based on the publications of V. M. Akhmedov and A. A. Draganov, the following objectives of Saudi Arabia in the Syrian conflict. Among them: first, using the opposition Islamist, Salafi groups, to hand over the reins from the current authoritarian regime loyal to Saudi elite politicians, which in turn would provide the opportunity to create a Sunni coalition, which would include the Gulf monarchies, along with other Arab Republican States, whose policy was directed against Iran.[22]

Second, to undermine the position of the countries and regional actors, whose policies mostly aimed at cooperation with the Shiite regime of Iran. Experts these include: first of all, Assad's Syria, Shiite Hezbollah, secular and religious groups of Iraq, and, in addition to them, few in number, generally in opposition Shiite groups in Saudi Arabia and other Sunni States.

Thirdly, despite some omissions, to preserve their main strategic ally, the United States of America, as in recent years the relations of these States are undergoing a cold snap in connection with the statement of special services of the USA about Saudi trace in the terrorist attacks of September 11.

Fourth, to take the role of primary exporter of natural resources (hydrocarbons) not only in middle East area, but also outside the region, despite the efforts of the positions of Iran and Qatar in the energy market.

Next, proceed directly to the consideration of the position of the Kingdom in the Syrian civil war. Since the beginning of the conflict in 2011, Saudi Arabia is a supporter of the anti-Assad forces, taking the role of main sponsor of the Syrian opposition, which is usually referred the FSA (free Syrian army), the National coalition of Syrian revolutionary and opposition forces, "Syrian national Council", some of the Kurdish groups, "the Provisional government of Syria." All of the above education are many experts, particularly foreign ones, to the so-called "moderate" opposition.[23]

However, it should be said that after the Geneva talks 2014 with the legitimately elected government of the SAR, the rhetoric of the opposition has been criticized. In the fall, the prestige of the Syrian "moderate" opposition in the foreign policy rhetoric of the Saudis there has been a shift toward support for radical groups, which at different times claimed such groups as Jabhat al–Nusra, ISIS and Ahrar al–sham. Similarly, opposition forces strongly radicalized, with the result that by 2014 translates into the fact that the most successful in the fight against government forces becomes the group "Islamic State", which has managed to capture the strategic military initiative in Syria and Iraq. Because of this, the Saudi elite is clearly entrenched positions, insisting on the support of these organizations, it is reasonable undertaking various promotions, was able to rally passionate part of a radical Islamic society.[24]

Since the inception of this conflict with radical Muslims, especially following kind, thanks to a little financial and military support from the part of the Saudi elite, decided purposefully to support and conduct policy, according to the positions of partners from Riyadh. Despite the decree of the king of Saudi Arabia, Abdullah, the formal prohibition involved in the Syrian conflict groups IG "Dzhabhat EN–Nusra" on the territory of the Saudi state in March 2014, the government of Saudi Arabia promoted the funding of the radicals of these groups 2012-2014[25]

This "Syrian" policy for 2012-2014 strongly controlled by the head of Saudi intelligence Prince Bandar bin Sultan, who for nearly twenty years he occupied the post of the Ambassador of KSA in the United States, therefore, according to various experts, the crown relied on the US position in middle East politics. For example, bin Sultan, the manifest interests of the members of the family of the Saudis against Iran and the dominant position of the Saudi state in the middle East, violating the sovereignty of other Arab countries.[26] it was at this same time, various Wahhabi groups switched to full financial dependence on Saudi elite, which slowly moves from containment of Iran to the aggressive tactics of the offensive due to a possible lifting of the Iranian sanctions, as exemplified by the previously discussed penalty Shiite preacher Nimr al–Nimr.

Position-controlled KSA groups worsened after the entry into conflict of the aerospace forces of the Russian Federation, which together with the regular Syrian army virtually destroyed a number prosaudesc-minded groups, which had a negative impact on the interests of Saudi Arabia in the conflict, first of all, affected groups "Hayat Tahrir al–sham" (formerly "dzhebhat an–Nusra") and Ahrar al–sham.

 

 

 

 

Conclusion

 

In concluding this study, it is necessary to summarize everything. The Syrian civil war is one of the bloodiest conflicts in modern history. This conflict clearly shows the current situation in the Middle East in the global system. Thus, the representatives of the great powers, speaking at various international conferences, strongly related to the topic of terrorism throughout the world and the middle East in particular. In other words, the middle East is one of the key regions of the world, able to influence the world agenda, and the question of the middle East will significantly raise the prestige of the state, decided this issue, or to participate in the decision. Also do not forget about the regional battle taking place between middle Eastern countries for dominance in this space, an example of which is partially discussed the conflict in Syria, which mobilized not only domestic forces but also attracted the attention of regional leaders.

The analysis is to suggest the following conclusions:

First, both countries have a great influence on the conflict, as they use almost all their resources, mainly focusing on financing of various groups, as confirmed by sources. For example, Iran has been funding Shia (Hezbollah), Saudi Arabia relies on Wahhabi-minded Muslims ("Dzhabhat EN–Nusra", "Ahrar al–sham"). In other words, today Syria is one of the combat fronts of the Muslim war between Shiites and Sunnis; however, States use and other forms of activity in this conflict, for example, Turkey and Iran, and Russia organized a conference in Astana, which was officially aimed at de-escalation of the conflict in Syria.

Second, from a political point of view, Syria has quite an advantageous position because, on the one hand, the state has access to the Mediterranean sea, and on the other, the state is located in the heart of the middle East region. Control over the region will allow any of the studied States to achieve significant successes primarily in the geopolitical and economic field, making possible the dominance of any of the above mentioned States in the vast region stretching from the Indian ocean to the southern borders of Europe.

In other words, today the Syrian conflict is a long war, the outcome of which will not soon be determined due to the strategic importance of Syria to many countries (Turkey, Russia, etc.), as well as due to specific natural and climatic conditions. Thus, waiting for resolution of this conflict in the coming years should not be, because it involves a multitude of actors, constantly opposing each other and having different goals both on a global and regional level.

 

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Senior Lecturer Haibulin Timur


Comments:

krivelskaya (10-11-2017 19:11:24)

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