Center for Strategic Assessment and forecasts

Autonomous non-profit organization

Home / Defence and security / / Articles
A comparative analysis of armed forces of Russia and Turkey
Material posted: Publication date: 12-11-2017
Currently, for anybody not a secret that relations of Russia and Turkey, to build for centuries, have undergone major changes. They have deteriorated to the limit and has improved significantly in conditions of the emerging military-political situation in the Middle East region. This is largely due to the worsening of the international situation. However, large-scale military-political node, which ensued from the Middle East to Ukraine and the growing ambitions of postkomunisticke Turkey can later be untied and to become the center of military confrontation.

Military-political course of the Turkish Republic is determined by its geostrategic position at the crossroads of Europe and Asia, membership in NATO, relations with leading world powers (primarily the United States, European countries and Russia), as well as the role in the Islamic world and the desire to take on the role of a mediator in resolving regional problems and establishing a "dialogue between civilisations" between East and West. The main goal of the military-political course of Turkey is the military capacity of the country to a level that ensures political stability and implementation of strategic national interests, the main of which are turning the country into one political and military leaders in the middle East and South European region. The achievement of this objective is ensured by the special role of the armed forces in NATO and in the political life of the country, maintaining a high level of military spending (about $ 10 billion), expansion and deepening of military-political relations with the countries of NATO and with China [1].

In its history, Turkey was at war with Russia 12 times, not counting local military conflicts. Last time it was exactly 100 years ago, during the First world war. The destruction of Turkey Russian bomber su-24 has caused sharp reaction of Russia, which began to impose economic restrictions, expressed in the ban on the rest of the country, as well as serious limitation for the Turkish business. Moreover, many experts have begun to talk about the real danger of a direct military confrontation. In light of this, it is relevant to compare the potentials of the Russian and Turkish armies.

The total number of armed forces of Turkey at the moment is about 410 thousand people, and is the second largest army in NATO after the United States [2].

As for defense spending, then, according to some, in spite of the partial secrecy of information on military budget of Ankara for 2015 military spending amounted to 22.6 billion dollars and it has a tendency to increase. The figure of 22 billion is about 3% of the total GDP of the Turkish state. The modernization of the armed forces and provide the army with new samples of weapons spent 20-25% of the defense budget. The cost of Turkey per soldier is much less Russian and make up about 44 thousand dollars a year.

Russia's spending on the Armed forces of 84.5 billion dollars, and is the third in the world in spending on the military (after USA and China). While Moscow pursues an active rearmament of the army and Navy, which was adopted at the beginning of a new term of Russian President Vladimir Putin a few years ago and will last until 2020.

In recent years, Russia actively stepping up military spending. With a population of 146 million people, Russia has 771 000 soldiers and officers in the military service (for 2015) and two million reserve. Expenses per soldier are at the level of about 110 thousand dollars a year.

The ground forces of Russia and Turkey

Russia and Turkey has no land borders. To reach each other, parties are required to overcome the sea.

The overall operational leadership of land forces provides the commander, who is appointed at the meeting of the Supreme military Council of the country and approved by the President. He reports directly to the chief of the General staff and is responsible for the construction, acquisition, military training and logistical support SV. Guide associations, connections and parts of the commander carries on through the headquarters of land forces (Ankara). In wartime operational control to the commander of the gendarme troops passed SV [3].

The number of land forces of Turkey is quite high – more than 410 thousand people. On her arms are 3778 tanks, including 400 units of "Leopard 1", 300 pieces "Leopard 2", more than 1,000 M-60 that can deal with the Russian T-72, T-80 and T-90. There are also field artillery guns, mortars and jet systems of volley fire - more than 6,000 pieces (among them 800 MLRS), more than 4,000 anti-tank weapons, about 2,000 man-portable anti-aircraft missiles, more than 5,000 armored vehicles.

However, a considerable amount of equipment is outdated, including the tank "Leopard 1", which has removed from service the principal users, primarily of Germany. Hope land forces of Turkey is now design your own tank "Altai" with a 120-millimeter cannon, which is, however, not yet adopted, and his trial delayed.

Turkish land forces are subject to the four army corps and nine divisions. In addition, there is a separate command for the North of Cyprus.

The land forces of Turkey represented the 1st armored division, 7 armored brigades, 2 mechanized divisions, 14 mechanized and motorized brigades, two artillery brigades, Turkish special operations forces power 5 teams.

Turkish artillery sufficiently powerful and numerous, and includes more than 1,100 ACS, more than 760 implements and about a hundred MLRS.

The number of land forces of Russia at the moment is 450 thousand people.

Russian Ground Forces are equipped mainly with equipment of Russian and Soviet production and include towed and self-propelled artillery, jet systems of volley fire, tanks, armored personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles, self-propelled anti-tank systems, air defense, anti-aircraft missiles, etc. for tanks, the main battle tank of Russia at the moment is the T-90 in different versions.

Currently in service consists of about 550 tanks T-90 and T90-AK, at the same time the land forces of the Russian Federation have about 4500 T-80 tanks, many of which are now undergoing overhaul. Storage bases are also more than 12 thousand T-72 tanks, which at any time can be reactivated. In total in service with the Russian Ground Forces are 15 thousand tanks.

The main battle tank T-90 is superior to the main tank of the Turkish armed forces "Leopard 2" (and certainly outdated, but most of the mass in service of the Turkish army "Leopard 1") in many characteristics, including armor-piercing force. At the same time in the following year the Russian army will receive new tanks "Armata", and by 2020 it is planned to supply the armed forces with more than 200 units of this newest Russian tank.

Land forces of the Russian Federation have a 4600 with towed artillery pieces, 6000 units of self-propelled artillery systems and reactive systems of salvo fire 3700 pieces. In addition, the land part of the Russian army can rely on 30 thousand armored vehicles (BMP, BTR, etc.)

The basis of the strike forces of the Russian Land Forces are 3 tank brigades, 35 motorized rifle brigades, 7 brigades and a special purpose. Their are 9 4 artillery and reactive artillery brigade. Also maintained the divisional structure of the elite Tamanskaya and Kantemirovskaya divisions, preserved peacekeeping 201st motorized rifle brigade. In addition to the land forces of reform have also been airborne, retaining the divisional structure and transformed into parts of constant readiness. Currently, the airborne troops comprise 4 divisions, separate combat brigade and regiment for special purposes.

On the armament of Ground Troops (not including equipment for storage) currently consists of more than 2 500 tanks (mostly different versions of T-72), more than 18 thousand armored combat vehicles, including novelties such as the BMP-3. Artillery part 1820 of guns self-propelled artillery, towed artillery 550, about a thousand self-propelled mortar (the well-known "Nona") and more than a thousand different MLRS.

Thus, if the number of Land Forces of Russia is slightly higher than the number of soldiers in the units of the Turkish army, weapons (tanks, APCS, artillery) Russia has overwhelming superiority.

Military-air forces of Russia and Turkey

The Russian Air and Space forces (VKS) at the moment are one of the largest in the world. In recent years we have actively increased their aircraft, and now have the second power of air forces in the world.

The Russian air force is armed with about 1400 aircraft. For the most part it is a modern aircraft, a recently modernized, and last year alone, troops have received or should receive 120 aircraft. The fleet FSI Russian fast refreshed, and now the Russian aircraft is in very good shape.

A serious trump card in any conflict Russia gives long-range aviation. The most effective striking force of Russian strategic aviation – 16 Tu-160 bombers. This is one of the most powerful of this class of machines in the world capable of carrying 45 tons of payload and operating at altitudes up to 22 km. For the modern Turkish air defense Tu-160 is almost invulnerable.

Another trump card of the Russian Armed Forces - the strongest in the world ground-based air defense. S-400 is able to attack 36 targets simultaneously at speeds of up to 4800 km/h at altitudes up to 27 km and ranges up to 250 km. One complex, thus, able to create and maintain a no-fly zone over a wide area and can clean the sky, even when you try to attack him from the forces of full-fledged regiment. Given this fact, the transfer of s-400 to Syria — it is a complete threat to any opponent willing to appear in the air.

In addition to anti-aircraft complex in the Levant is already deployed electronic warfare "Krasuha". It's the newest, only in 2012 began to enter the army, electronic warfare complex. Data about it very little, because the real possibility of Krasukha classified. It is assumed that at distances up to 450 km "Krasuha" effectively suppress airborne radar aircraft and UAVs.

For the conquest of the skies Russia has and attack aircraft, and tactical and strategic bombers Tu-160 "White Swan" Tu-95 "Bear", which not so long ago bombed the militants of the Islamic state (is prohibited on the territory of the Russian Federation a terrorist organization). The basis of fighter aviation of Russia is 330 combat fighters su-27 of various modifications. There are also 59 su-30 and built on its base models, plus 40 su-35S, about 200 MiG-29 of various modifications, and 150 MiG-31.

Russian HQs have not only multi-purpose fighters, but the su-24m and su-24, also are armed strategic bombers for the destruction of critical infrastructure of the enemy.

As for aircraft weapons, Russia has bombs KAB-500 and KAB-1500, plus are armed with cruise missiles X-101 and X-555. These weapons are effective enough to defeat the enemy, but there are some problems with the missiles, air-to-air as the primary medium-range missile for videoconferencing remains of the old R-27 with semi-active radar homing head. The peculiarity is that after launch the pilot must "lead" her to hit the target, diverting his attention in a rapidly changing combat situation.

Military-political leadership of Turkey pays great attention to enhancing the combat capability of the air force. Their construction and development is based on the experience of the military (combat) operations of the U.S. air force and other NATO countries in Syria, Afghanistan and Iraq. The main directions of improvement of the air force remain: improving the organizational structures and operational equipment in the interests of the air force, increasing the combat capabilities of the air force through the modernization of the armament of the air force equipment and procurement of modern weapons and air defense force abroad [4].

The Turkish Republic has quite an impressive air force, however, not all equipment meets modern requirements. The basis of the air component of Turkey are 212 F-16 fighters. It is a widely known and effective machine, and in the latest version, after all the upgrades. In addition, Turkish F-16 equipped with American missiles "air-air" AIM-120 AMRAAM. Fighter jets are assembled on site under license. In addition, the Turkish pilots have very good training — if not better, at least not worse than the Russian pilots [5].

The Foundation of the Turkish air force are the American fighters of the 4th generation F-16, one of which shot down our bomber, all in service of Ankara are 208 aircraft of this type. There are also obsolete American fighters of various modifications of the NF-5, which began to be exploited in the distant 1964 – here Ankara has 41 aircraft.

For its air force, Turkey has American missiles AIM-120 AMRAAM, which have an advantage over missiles of this class in service VKS RF, as the American work on the principle of "fire and forget", with space for the pilot when you use the missile more than the Russian fighter, even has the upgraded R-27. Experts also indicate the superiority of the American AIM-120 over the R-27 and recognized by the American rocket the most perfect means of struggle of a class air-air at the moment

Turkey is integrated into the air defense system of NATO countries, so the basis of the air defense of the country is the American system "patriot" with a range of up to 80 kilometers. On arms of Russia are the newest missile defense system s-300 and s-400, while the latter was recently delivered to the Syrian Latakia that caused a nervous reaction of the Turkish leadership. At the same time, the detection range of the C-400 is 480 kilometers, and the location of this complex defense immediately put under the control of Russian air defense system a significant chunk of southeastern Turkey, so Ankara and I felt the threat to their aircraft [6].

To summarize the comparison of the air force component of Russia and Turkey, in case of war between the two countries the advantage is on the side of Russia, because, despite all the difficulties, the number of combat-ready aircraft from the Russian Federation are much higher, and it continues to grow, as Russian VCS, following the rearmament program to 2020 continue to grow with new aircraft. However, the battles with the Turkish pilots will not be easy and unambiguous victory here will be very difficult.

Thus, the Russian air force, though not completely, but still superior to the Turkish. A strong argument is the presence of Russia's nuclear Arsenal. Russian strategic nuclear forces are an important element of national security, and combat capabilities of the nuclear forces among the countries ranked second after the United States [7].

Naval forces of Russia and Turkey

It should be noted that only a part of the Russian fleet consists of 304 vehicle 102 against Turkey, on submarines the advantage also of our country – 55 vs 14 [8].

The flagship of the black sea Fleet guards missile cruiser project 1164 "Moskva" with a crew of 500 people. In fact, it is the impact of the submarine fleet. It is a powerful ship, although not the new (80-x years of construction). He carries extensive anti-ship Arsenal. "Moscow" has a strong anti-ship armament — eight rocket launchers "Vulcan". When the range of 1000 km, the cruiser can fire at any point of the Turkish coast without even leaving the harbour. Its anti-ship missile complex "Bazalt" ("Volcano") with supersonic speed, capable of hitting targets at any point of the Black sea. The cruiser also acts as a means of air defense. Eight launchers of its complex "Fort" (analog ground s-300) are able to ensure the defeat of up to 64 targets, also armed with 48 anti-aircraft missile complex "Wasp" plus artillery, consisting of six 6-barreled 30-mm launchers, and torpedo tubes, jet bonbonerie launchers and even anti-submarine attack helicopter Ka-27.

Not coincidentally, "Moscow" today took control of the traffic situation in the area of the Western coast of the Mediterranean sea off the coast of Syria. Our ship embarked on a RAID in the area immediately after the incident with su-24, and then this flights of Turkish military aircraft there, completely stopped.

One of the most effective fighting units of the BSF can be considered small missile boats type "Samum". None of the naval forces of black sea countries can not boast the presence of such ships. The unique combination of agility and the impact of potential make them a core combat strength in its class. Rapid speed, powerful armament (8 anti-ship missiles "Mosquito" plus a wide range of artillery and anti-aircraft weapons) allow IRAS to provide reliable control in the Maritime zones.

For the last time of his new birth he received the submarine forces of the black sea fleet. It's only until recently, the submarine "ALROSA" added submarines "Novorossiysk", "Rostov-on-don", "Staryy Oskol", "Krasnodar" of project 636 "Varshavyanka". Submarines of this class are among the most unobtrusive, not accidentally in NATO circles they are called "black holes". Merging with the natural backdrop of the sea, the boat is capable of breaking targets at distances 3-4 times higher than that on which she can be detected by the enemy.

The construction of diesel-electric submarines of project 636 "warszawianka" has begun in 90-e years. Subsequently, the boat according to the project 636 upgraded, and it acquired additional qualities, being a carrier of cruise missiles "Caliber". Also significantly improved parameters such as noise power capacity, the cruising range of underwater speed. Submarines of modified project 636 have a higher (compared to previous projects) combat effectiveness. The optimal combination of acoustic stealth and target detection range, the latest inertial navigation complex, a modern automated information management system, providing a solution to the team task, a powerful high-speed torpedo-missiles provide a worldwide priority of ships of this class in field of conventional submarine shipbuilding.

Special attention deserves the rocket complex "Caliber", mounted on the boat. The effectiveness of cruise missiles of this type was demonstrated by the recent firing of the Caspian sea against terrorist bases in Syria. "Caliber" is not one missile, but a whole family. Each missile has the set of qualities that is needed to solve a particular tactical problem. In addition, the rockets are distinguished by the method of based - aircraft, coast, surface ships and for submarines. As a "gift" for the Syrian jihadists had used a ship-based missile, designed to fire at ground targets, the 3M-14. Its range is 2600 km In the case of anti-ship use distance is 300 km.

In the family of "Caliber" is the rocket new 3M-54. It is capable of flying all along the route at an altitude of 20 meters above the sea with waves in the 7 points. While flying subsonic. When approaching the target, getting into the zone of action of enemy air defenses, it is reduced to 10 meters and flies at a speed of 2.9 M. in the production of these missiles use stealth technology.

The Russian Navy has one aircraft carrier (national classification of aircraft carrier cruiser) "Admiral Kuznetsov", referring to the Northern Fleet. Launched in 1991, it now represents the most powerful warship of the Russian Federation. "Kuznetsov" has a group of 18-24 su-33 and 17 helicopters, anti-ship missiles "Granit" and a powerful defense. Other striking ship SF — heavy nuclear missile cruiser "Peter the Great". Not having such a powerful group, "Peter", however, shall be without exaggeration monstrous Arsenal. It is equipped with twenty installations of anti-ship missiles "Granit", making it a lethal weapon against any vehicle and even groups of ships that can put the opponent. In addition, "Peter the Great" has just two "heavy" s-300, near the complex air defense "Dagger" and the range of the radar. All this equipment allows us collectively to reflect the powerful attack of anti-ship missiles, to suppress the enemy with the weight of its own RCC and at the same time to clean up the sky at a great distance. Besides, thanks to the atomic power plant, "Peter" has essentially unlimited range.

In addition, during the Syrian campaign kind of reminded myself of the Caspian military flotilla. Despite the fact that its capabilities are rather modest — only a dozen frigates and corvettes — little ships fleet now includes every known missiles "Calibre". Zone "Caliber" completely covers the territory of Turkey, and, if necessary, from the Caspian sea can hit almost any object in its territory.

The composition of the Turkish fleet includes different types of combat vessels, but his are based on corvettes and frigates armed with guided missile weapons, plus the Navy Ankara has small missile ships, diesel-electric submarines and other types of sea weapons.

In addition to the above vessels, naval power, Ankara is six corvettes ASW that Turkey at the time, bought from France. Also Turkey is trying to build its own corvettes "Milgem", and at the moment part of the country's Navy consisted of two ships of this type, and six more are under construction, while largely on the corvettes set American arms. These corvettes are armed with air defense (eight missiles), anti-ship systems, components 21 missiles, and two torpedoes.

The Turks have an impressive submarine fleet of 14 diesel-electric submarines. Turkish submarines have in addition to the torpedo armament of anti-ship missiles. In addition, a family of Turkish submarines has a low noise level and small dimensions, which makes dealing with them difficult and dangerous. Turkish diesel submarines built by the German project 209 upgrade. They have 3 modifications. 4 boats of the family, "Gora" — the most modern, came in the previous decade. They include the aforementioned American missiles "Harpoon". 10 other boats weapons represented mainly torpedo tubes. Quietness, as well as by means of detection, targeting, and navigation, they are inferior to our "Warszawianka".

In General, Turkish Navy - a tangible threat to the black sea Fleet, mainly due to the abundance of submarines and frigates. While the Turks suffer from a complete lack of large attack ships. Thus, the chances of the Turks on the sea is small, and the only chance of Turkey to victory in naval warfare may be the element of surprise, however, the current radar means and capabilities of the Russian black sea fleet will not allow the Turks make a surprise attack on Russian ships.

The geographical features of the theater of operations

Comparing the military capabilities of Russia and Turkey, we have to consider geographical factors. In the middle East, Russia has a group of several thousand soldiers and officers, the supply of which depends on the "Syrian Express" vehicles, which run cargoes through the Mediterranean sea. "Express" at the moment, entirely rests on the black sea ports and can not escape the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles. The overlap of the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles will put the Russian soldiers and officers in a difficult position. Nurture this group to bypass Europe is theoretically possible. But in practice there are many problems of a multifaceted nature: the route is extended, cargo ships in the campaign will have to defend from the attacks of submarines or small warships of the enemy. Strikes from ships in the Caspian sea or fly strategic bombers for many thousands of kilometers — it's exotic. Most of the work still perform the usual bombers and attack aircraft. And they daily need hundreds of tons of ammunition alone. Thus, the Russian group require uninterrupted running of the "Syrian Express".

The problem is that this group is in direct contact with the Turks. Russia and Turkey, as already mentioned, have no common land border. Organization any expeditions through the territory of Georgia or Ukraine is impossible, for obvious reasons. The black sea fleet has a sufficient number of landing funds for a major operation, besides the Turkish Navy does not look weak opponent: on the contrary, it is a serious Maritime force.

Also the Turks are on the border with Syria ground forces strength in three lengths — 14 tank, motorized and mechanized brigades [9].

The underestimation of the Turks as the enemy can have serious consequences. The Turkish army is inferior to the Russian in the basic means of struggle, however, Russia has no opportunity for a confident, with a guarantee of success, joining the direct armed conflict with Turkey (of any size): Ground forces have no points of contact with a potential enemy, potential of the Navy does not guarantee quick and practically bloodless defeat of the enemy. In addition, Syrian group it will be impossible to maintain when blocked off the Straits.

The theoretical outcome of the confrontation on land is unclear. The Russian army prepared to conduct military actions of any scale and intensity, however, it is unknown how it is possible to cause the Turkish troops to a decisive defeat, even in a local conflict — and what losses it would cost.

If the situation will go the way of escalation of tension and the question of a new armed conflict would be global agenda, Russia is ready to counter Turkey adequate strength to resist her. Despite the fact that Turkey is militarily strong enough regional power to stand a chance against Russia in a total war it does not. We have a powerful army, Navy, capable of striking from different parts of the globe, powerful aircraft with fighter squadrons of strategic bombers and other components of Air and Space Forces, some of which is now based in Syria, we have our own satellite positioning system command and control and advanced information systems allow us to monitor the situation in the theater of military actions, taking into account even the smallest details. Besides, Russia can always use the Kurdish factor, opening with their second front in the South-East of Turkey. And if Ankara really wants to fight Russia, then she'll get it, but the result of this war is unlikely to be positive for the Turkish leadership and its torn by conflicts and contradictions of the country.

CONCLUSION

Against the backdrop of ongoing wars in the middle East is clearly a carrying out Turkey's active foreign policy. While the Turkish leadership relies on the military to solve their regional interests. The current Turkish army can not be called weak, even though the basis of the Park of military equipment of Turkey are in foreign development, the dependence of the Turkish army from the supplies of imported weapons is obvious. Manufacture of weapons own development build failed, and regular repair, upgrading quite dorky of samples, purchase of compatible systems and components — all this strongly binds Turkey to the suppliers.

A detailed analysis of the military capabilities of the Turkish Republic and the Russian Federation has allowed to draw the following conclusions:

  1. The presence of air forces near the borders of Russia and Greece, of Syria and Iraq has geographical and temporal advantage in the planned provocations against the neighbouring States. Airbase "Konya" and "Eskisehir", "Diyarbakir" and "Istanbul", "Incirlik" and "Merzifon" are not only used by the air forces of Turkey, but also the aircraft of other NATO countries.
  2. Turkey discotinued their airbase in the North-West against Russia with an eye on Crimea, the Russian North Caucasus, and Transcaucasian republics.
  3. The Turkish air force have a strong enough aviation groups in the Greek and Cypriot areas. Given the sectarian conflicts and territorial claims against Greece and Cyprus, the Turkish leadership would escalate tensions in the Eastern Mediterranean.
  4. The Navy – not the biggest and not the richest kind of Turkish armed forces. However, judicious management of resources and thorough certification tests constructors and shipyards became key to the high viability of the program of modernization of the fleet. The Turkish Navy plans in the coming years to replace or upgrade most of the ships.
  5. In aggravated the current political situation, Ankara continues to vigorously fight for the "reformatting" of the post-Soviet Turkic world. However, Turkey's ambitions diverge from its real possibilities. Turkish society is split, and not all support the policy of Erdogan.

In summary, we can say that the advantages of the Turkish army are the credibility and support of the armed forces in the nation, the special status of officers in the society, strict discipline, concentration equipment and heavy weapons, advanced controls, integration into NATO, its own production of military equipment and its repair. Of the minuses can be noted the large proportion of obsolete equipment, the lack of large warships and aircraft carriers.

LINKS

[1] Ganiev T. A., Bondar Yu., Karyakin V. V. "the Special area studies. The Republic Of Turkey". Tutorial. M. WOO. 2017. p. 412-413

[2] www.tsk.tr. Official website of the armed forces of the Turkish Republic.

[3] Ganiev T. A., Bondar Yu., Karyakin V. V. "the Special area studies. The Republic Of Turkey". Tutorial. M. WOO. 2017. page 430

[4] Ganiev T. A., Bondar Yu., Karyakin V. V. "the Special area studies. The Republic Of Turkey". Tutorial. M. WOO. 2017. page 440

[5] air force Turkey: help. "Arguments and facts" 25.11.2015, p. 15.

[6] horn V. V., Babichev, S., NATO aircraft in the Balkans. Aviation encyclopedia "corner of the sky", p. 29.

[7] www.mil.ru. Official website of the Armed forces of the Russian Federation.

[8] D. D. Kulibin of the Turkish Navy, a brief description. p. 46.

[9] A. V. Shpagin Turkish armed forces. p. 78.

THE LIST OF SOURCES

  1. Ganiev T. A., Bondar Yu., Karyakin V. V. "the Special area studies. The Republic Of Turkey". Tutorial. M. WOO. 2017. p. 412-413
  2. Syzdykova Z. S. Features of the regional policy of Turkey. - M.: Ist.-clearance. o-vo, 1999
  3. Horn V. V., Babichev, S., NATO aircraft in the Balkans. Aviation encyclopedia "corner of the sky".
  4. Air force Turkey: help. "Arguments and facts" on 25.11.2015.
  5. Fedorov K. of the Turkish air force: aggressive expansionism in action. Iened." War and peace" 2015.
  6. Grassroots, Analysis of the Turkish air force: Turkish aviation has nothing to oppose Russia. 30.11.2015.
  7. The role of Russia and Turkey in the security of the South Caucasus. Nigar And So On. SAM, BAKI,2012
  8. Counterintelligence dictionary. Higher red banner school of the State Security Committee under the Council of Ministers of the USSR. F. E. Dzerzhinsky. 1972.
  9. www.tsk.tr. Official website of the armed forces of the Turkish Republic.

Naumov Mikhail


RELATED MATERIALS: Defence and security
Возрастное ограничение