February 13, 1940 was a day of dramatic events for the Minister of foreign Affairs of Finland Vaino Tanner (Väinö Tanner). It all started early this morning when you had read encrypted telegram sent by the Embassy of Finland in Stockholm, Prime Minister Risto ryti (Risto Ryti). She was composed, most likely, statesman Kivimaki Toivo (Toivo Kivimäki) and reported that arrived in Stockholm the Germans would like to discuss some economic issues with the authorized ryti's face.
According to the Germans, it had to go on how Germany and Finland could get out of a difficult situation. Germany was worried about the difficulty of raw materials, the problem of Finland was the Winter war and the peace terms with the Soviet Union.
In his memoirs, he describes the events of that day as a very sad. The Minister for foreign Affairs of Sweden Christian günther (Christian Günther) reacted to the military assistance of Western countries, Finland and Sweden negatively. When Tanner returned home, I called RUTI and said that the front area of the settlement Amount broken.
Tanner never mentioned the negotiations with the Germans, no documents about it also did not stay, but obviously ryti met secretly with them.
He promised Germany?
Professor Heikki Ylikangas (Heikki Ylikangas) believes that the commander of the air forces of Germany, Hermann göring recommended Kivimaki 22 April in Berlin to conclude a peace Treaty with the Soviet Union on any terms, because Finland would get all the territory back in full, after in the near future Germany will attack the Soviet Union. In the ambiguous version of Ylikangas, ryti and Tanner did not argue and began to prepare Finland for war-revenge with the support of Germany.
Ylikangas writes, was Finland to do something in return. It can be assumed that Germany promised the creation of greater Finland only for partnership in war, the scales had to be put more. Because Kivimaki went on the advice of RUTI to continue negotiations with Goering in Stockholm, it was about the fact that Tanner promised the Germans earlier.
The fight for the Nickel of Petsamo
In accordance with traditional ideas, Germany became interested in the Petsamo after the conclusion of peace in the Winter war, that is, in the spring of 1940, but this version is not true. Germany rampant sought to the Nickel of Petsamo, since 1920-ies.
The reason is very simple. Own reserves vital for the military industry of Nickel was in Germany only 5%, so nearly all its Nickel she received from Canada. Representatives of the military industry realized that in a war situation, supplies from overseas can be stopped due to the economic blockade of Western countries, as it already happened during the First world war. We had to find a replacement for this source. In Europe, this volume could only be found in Petsamo.
The problem was that the mine in Petsamo were transferred to Finland under the control of the Anglo-canadian company, The Mond Nickel Company (Mond). Adolf Hitler constantly made it clear to Finland that he got the Petsamo in one way or another, and that such means is sufficient because the Soviet Union threatened Finland. Leading Finnish politicians do not want to make the decision in favor of Germany to Finland is not considered a country that had voluntarily supported the military intentions of Hitler.
In the spring of 1939, Hitler invited Finland to sign a non-aggression Pact, in accordance with the first paragraph of which Finland undertook not to assist the enemies of Germany in case of war. Hitler sought to ensure that, when Germany's attack on Poland, England have had to think twice whether to declare war on Germany in accordance with these she Poland guarantees of security or not. In case of the Declaration by England of war, Finland would have torn all the economic commitments of England, in favor of Germany. In particular, this would concern and permits the company Mond. If she hadn't declared war, Germany would be able to continue its aggressive policy so that the supply of Nickel from Canada continued.
In London, immediately understood the purpose of Germany in Petsamo. Finland refused the offer of Hitler, because a positive response would be seen in the world as a rejection of the policy of neutrality in favor of Germany. After this, Hitler began to converge with the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, in particular, on the question of Finland.
To expel the devil with Beelzebub
According to the most common interpretations of Finnish history, Finland was included in the zone of interests of the Soviet Union on 23 August 1939, the secret additional Protocol concluded in Moscow the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. In the sources there is still an indication that the question of Finland was still open. Germany haunted so great benefits, and Hitler did not want to give Finland in the sphere of interests of the Soviet Union immediately.
The world is worried about the rumors that the fate of Finland was decided in the Kremlin, but diplomacy and the seal of Germany denied this and demanded unconditional compliance with Finland's neutrality. And no third country could not break it. Thus, it was stated that Finland should abolish rights of the company Mond in favor of Germany. If this does not happen, Germany will make their own conclusions.
His inner circle, Hitler said that he was going to drive out with the help of Beelzebub (the Soviet Union) Satan (England). The leaders of the Third Reich was given to understand that Finland was forced to supply Germany.
In 1939 Finland changed the law so that the military position, you could enter almost any time. The rumors that she got to sphere of interests of the Soviet Union, made this possible. Thus Finland could intervene in the rights of the company Mond on the extraction of Nickel in the framework of implementation of the paragraph on the military situation. Germany waited in vain. When Ribbentrop went to Moscow, Germany and the Soviet Union signed on 28 September an agreement "On friendship and the border", according to which Finland got to sphere of interests of the Soviet Union.
Turn after Miniscule incident
The interest of Germany to Nickel of Petsamo still not exhausted. She wanted to solve it at the government level. Producing Nickel IG Farbenindustrie insisted that "in the radically changed political environment" and, following the paragraph on the military situation, Finland should be interested to send a Nickel from Petsamo to Germany.
As Finland did not agree, part of Hitler's inner circle expert in the field of mining industry, Advisor to Hitler on economic Affairs Wilhelm Keppler (Wilhelm Keppler) in a threatening manner demanded that the Executive Director of the plant in the town of Outokumpu Eero Makinen (Eero Mäkisen) promises to move production of Nickel in Germany. It happened during a visit of Makinen in Berlin in mid-November. Four days later occurred Manelski the incident.
The Committee on procurement, which was headed by ryti, decided that Finland will continue to purchase weapons by selling ore and metals in the country, leading trade on a clearing basis, i.e. in Germany. Ryti was required, however, political and legal justification for approval of the termination rights of the company Mond, and border incident provided him with them.
Included in the entourage RUTI Director of the Union of Industrialists Viljanen Matti (Matti Viljanen) was secretly in contact in Berlin with the political leadership, calling on Finland to start negotiations on the withdrawal of the authorisation to conduct activities of the company Mond in accordance with the paragraph on the military situation. However, the reaction of foreign Minister Eljas, Erkko (between eljas Erkko) was not followed. Started the Winter war.
Hitler wanted to punish the Finns
Included in the new government ryti and Tanner immediately started to create in Berlin the organizations buying in Germany weapons in exchange for ore and metal. From Goering Finns found out that Germany wanted the Nickel mines of Petsamo belonged to neither England nor the Soviet Union.
In December the government ryti informed Berlin that it is ready to recognize the territorial demands of the Soviet Union, including to pass military base on the Hanko Peninsula, provided the return of Stalin's red army occupied Petsamo. However, Hitler had reasons to maintain good relations with Stalin at the beginning of the Winter war, and at the same time to punish the stubborn Finns, the Winter war dragged on.
All, however, quickly changed in late January 1940. Germany and the Soviet Union came to an understanding in economic matters, Germany has received from Moscow the permission to send ships for the goods. In turn, the Soviet government expressed readiness to hold talks with the ryti. In February, it became clear that the Soviet Union returns Petsamo of Finland, but it requires the territory in Karelia more space than it required before.
For Finland and Germany, too, the time has come to conduct secret negotiations. The talks were held in Stockholm, where Tanner had to go ostensibly to ask for official military assistance from Sweden or Western countries, an opponent of what he really was.
The Promises Of Tanner Germany
What is agreed in Stockholm?
A lot of indirect evidence that there is no possibility to comment in detail on, say in favor of the fact that Tanner promised to begin deliveries of Nickel from Petsamo to Germany.
After the return of foreign Minister home, ryti sent Kivimaki to Berlin to continue the talks, during which Goering gave the above verbal promise of the return of territorial losses even larger, but, of course, assuming that Germany first defeated the Western countries. Germany could not give such a promise without being sure that she will get a Nickel of Petsamo, as the Nickel produced in its territory, as well as inherited as a war trophy, not enough for a prolonged war with the Soviet Union.
Contrary to the Constitution, the ryti kept the regime of martial law after the conclusion of peace in the Winter war. This is the most convincing evidence that Finland has promised to put a Nickel of Germany.
Is not just a coincidence that in those days when Finland was deprived of the company Mond mining rights of Nickel in the period of the truce, stating the paragraph about the absence of permission for its production in the period of martial law, Hitler's plan "Barbarossa" — the plan of operation to the East. This coincidence in time has been agreed already during the Winter war.
- 18-03-2020The formula of success of the PLA in the struggle against the novel coronavirus
- 19-01-2020Ten major scientific and technological achievements of 2019, according to the U.S. army
- 13-06-2019Bruce Schneier about the digital threats of the future
- 16-01-2019The biggest danger 2019 — this is war
- 01-01-2019Subcommissie race
- 29-05-2012Drugs in the service of the Third Reich
- 12-09-2010Many experts believe the best tank Merkava main battle tank in the world
- 12-09-2010The Minister of defence of Germany introduced draft large-scale reform of the armed forces
- 21-04-2001To the question about the war of the fourth sphere