Prominent American political scientist Zbigniew Brzezinski in his book "the Grand chessboard" wrote: "the European era in world politics came to a final conclusion during the second world war". At the same time, the United States of America, firmly strengthening its position on the world stage after the Second world War, with the collapse of the Soviet Union continue to permanently impose their national interests, prevailing both in domestic and in foreign policy, all the world powers.
However, at the beginning of the third Millennium, the role of Russia has increased significantly. To her opinion began to listen, and Vladimir Putin for 4 years in a row topped the list of most influential people in the world by American magazine Forbes. Russia is striving to regain its status of superpower that was the USSR, and judging by the events in Syria – it can be a good idea.
The fact that Russia is rapidly restoring its global influence (leadership in the military, the energy sector) is of particular concern among the collective West headed by the USA. In this regard, the Western think tanks concentrated on creating strategies that allow Russia to keep and again to make it "a friendly and democratic, as it was in 90-e years".
The relevance of this study lies in the fact that relations between the West and Russia, according to experts like our own, and on the opposite side, even in Soviet times were not so strained. This thesis is also confirmed by the statement In V. Putin at the Valdai forum. The world is on the brink of a war that might end very badly for everyone and cannot be tolerated.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the collective plans of the West against Russia from the point of view of the strategy of "Anaconda".
Based on the objectives of the study we are faced with three main tasks:
- to perform the report, one of the leading think tanks Atlantic Council.
- To identify patterns and similarities with the "ring Anaconda".
- To assess the realism of the performance presented in the report strategy.
In March 2017, the Atlantic Council and the Centre for international innovation governance (CIGI) (Canada) with the participation of D-10 strategic forum with the financial support of the Foundation, the Smith Richardson was drafted and presented the report "Strategy of containment of Russia."
The main objective of this strategy is to develop a system of measures not only to contain Russia, but also in maintaining and strengthening democratic world order based on clear rules and values under the auspices of US leadership, to consolidate the efforts of the US and its allies in the Atlantic and the Pacific.
The report was dedicated to the development of measures, which implementation will allow to contain Russia, which since coming to power Vladimir Putin has challenged the global democratic world order based on democratic values, human rights, open economies and liberal democratic political regime.
A detailed analysis of the report created the impression that this is a modern version of the legendary "the strategy of the Anaconda", according to which the enemy had blocked all entrances to the seas and choked him and trading opportunities, leading to isolation and death.
The strategy of "Anaconda" was first formulated by the commander of the allied forces of northerners Winfrida by General Scott during the civil war (1861-1865) in the United States. The essence of strategy is in a full blockade of the South sea and coastlines, cutting it off from access to the ports. The result of this was to be the strategic exhaustion of the enemy. Like a Anaconda constricting prey, army and fleet of the Northmen was to stop the communication of the Eastern and Western parts of the Confederacy by capturing the Mississippi and strangling trading activity of the southern States, depended on the supply of industrial goods by sea.
A passive strategy of warfare did not suit many supporters of a rapid-onset, but subsequently this plan was recognized as the only true. It was implemented by military leaders of the northerners, and led them to victory.
After a few decades the "Anaconda strategy" again proved to be popular and relevant in the context of growing rivalry of actors in the global geopolitics. American naval theorist and historian, rear Admiral Alfred Mahan (1840-1914) - developed the strategy and circulated at the planetary level. He built the concept of a "continental strategy of the Anaconda", which task was to tear Russian Empire (and later USSR) from the outlet to the warm seas. One of the main theses of the theory of Mahan - the power of the state is determined by its ability to acquire "sea power." On this basis, the Eurasian power should stifle in "the rings Anaconda" by bringing under their control the coastal territory, and avoiding integration into the borders of the continent.
In addition, it can be argued that this strategy was defined as the degree and forms of Western support for the white movement during the Civil war in Russia. When considering the card locations controlled by the opposing parties of the territories, we can clearly see that the red controlled the inland zone, the so-called Heartland, while white were on the periphery of Russia and relied on only the coastal areas, where they received assistance from thalassocratic, Maritime powers.
One of the leading Anglo-Saxon geopolitics Halford J. Mackinder (1861-1947) in 1919 was appointed British high Commissioner in southern Russia. His task was to support armies, led by A. I. Denikin, and advise the leaders of the White movement. It is also important to note that all military actions until the end of the civil war unfolded under the "red centre" against the "white edges", which in turn is adjoined to a Maritime boundary. In the end, the remnants of the defeated white troops left Russia by sea.
In the era of the cold war "strategy of the Anaconda" has received a new round of development. American strategist and theorist Henry Kissinger (b. 1923) gave new life to this strategy, calling it "chains". For them the goal was to spread the influence of NATO membership on all the coastal area of the Eurasian continent – from Western Europe through middle East to the Far East. This situation was predetermined by the whole geo-strategy of the cold war. USSR, in turn, tried to break the blockade, to break the "ring of Anaconda", and the United States and Britain to make its influence is irreversible and to distribute it inland.
According to the objectives in the coastal zone of Eurasia began to emerge various military organizations. For example, were created by military blocs of NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the world's largest military-political bloc, uniting most of Europe, USA and Canada. Was founded 4 April 1949 in the United States, "to protect Europe from Soviet influence"), SEATO (Organization of the Treaty of Southeast Asia, or the Manila Pact, a military-political bloc countries in the Asia-Pacific region,1955—1977.g.) and Cento (the Central Treaty, 1955-1958 years often was called the Baghdad Pact, a military-political group in the middle East, created at the initiative of the UK, US and Turkey that existed in the years 1955-1979) and numerous naval bases.
Consistent with this confrontation and the geography of the most severe conflicts: the Vietnam war, the Korean war, with its consequent section on the South (Atlanticist) and Northern (continental), the war in Afghanistan, the Soviet-Iranian and Soviet-Turkish relations, the conduct of hostilities by forces of the special contingents in Africa, Asia and Latin America. These developments were direct consequences of the collision Atlanticist strategy "chains" and the Eurasian.
The end of the cold war confirmed the high effectiveness of the Western strategy. Large areas were withdrawn from the influence of the Soviet Union (Russia), and the boundaries of Atlanticist influence, consequently, moved far inland. To avoid complete defeat in the geopolitical confrontation between Russia managed to avoid by remaining Soviet nuclear Arsenal.
Today, the implementation of this strategy, you can see from the Atlantic Council report.
Given the mistakes of the USSR, we should not consider the "strategy of the Anaconda" only from a military point of view. Today she has three main dimensions: economic(sanctions), military(Syria, Ukraine, North Korea), information (activities of the Western media and Western-funded NGOs and media in Russia).
According to the authors, in the period after the Soviet collapse, Russia began to integrate into the expanding liberal world order, embarked on the path of democratic reform, commitment to democratic order, human rights, market economy, open international trade and investment. It was during this period Russia and the West has built a trusting friendship based on the recognition of the common liberal democratic values, supporting democratic world order.
However, the moment came to power Vladimir Putin has consolidated power in his hands, the relationship between Russia and the West began to deteriorate rapidly. Russia has accused the West of involvement in organizing the color revolutions in Eastern Europe, though, according to the speakers, invaded Georgia, Ukraine and annexed Crimea. In addition, Putin's Russia, say the authors, has announced liberal democratic order led by the US threat to Russia and "Putin's regime".
The red line in the report is the idea that the threat of a democratic regime is not Russia, it is necessary and without it the solution of some international problems. The threat, in their opinion, is "Putin's regime", he challenged the liberal-democratic world order and discreditied their values. Therefore, the main task in containing Russia is the dismantling of the Putin regime and the establishment of a liberal democratic regime in post-Putin Russia, in 90-e years.
The report identified 5 key areas for containment of Russia:
- To identify potential Russian threats and defend against them;
- To punish Russia for violating global norms;
- To fight presenting facts to counter Russian propaganda;
- To support the aspirations of the Russian people;
- To maintain Western unity.
The report can be divided into 3 distinct "ring Anaconda".
The first "Anaconda ring" includes the military-political aspect. According to the report, the West should take steps to strengthen the security of NATO allies and partners, especially the States along the border of Russia. Also, must be empowered to protect against any potential Russian threats, supporting allies and NATO partners in Europe, strengthening the cyber defense, deterring foreign intervention in elections and reducing the energy dependence of Europe from Russia.
In addition, it should be emphasized the importance of the Syrian Arab Republic in the confrontation between Russia and the United States. At the beginning of the 3rd Millennium on the initiative of the USA had been prepared the project of gas pipeline Nabucco, which could compete with Russian projects and not to lose out-of-control oil and gas sources of energy. Nabucco is a gas pipeline from Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan to the EU countries, especially Austria and Germany. However, in 2013, the project was closed, including, and because of the war in Syria.
SAR, due to its geographical position, is the connecting link in the transportation of oil throughout the middle East. From a geopolitical point of view, Syria is for the United States is an important and desirable goal. Is the ability to "hack a window to Europe", i.e. land transcontinental petroleum line, to monitor all energy flows in Europe and bring Russia out of the European market. In addition, this Grand creation of the polygon, and the terrorist training camps.
The second "ring Anaconda" – financial and economic. It can be attributed to the economic and political sanctions against Russia, the direct and latent threats to confiscate and freeze the Bank assets of individuals and private organizations. In 2016, the President of Poland Andrzej Duda took the initiative to create energoplan Three seas, which aims to contribute to overcoming the division of Europe into East and West. This project involves Austria, Bulgaria, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Albania, Kosovo, Montenegro, and representatives of the United States and China. One of the Main aims of the project is the creation of "energy alternatives" Russian projects in the Baltic, Black and Adriatic seas. Significant attention will be paid to it initiatives to counter the construction of the "Nord stream-2" and increase the supply of American liquefied natural gas to the region.
The third "ring Anaconda" has information. Here may be noted a variety of NGOs with private donations from outside (International historical-educational, human rights and charitable society "memorial", Moscow school of civic education, "Open Russia"). It and school programs, student international exchange.
The authors of the report thought that according to some estimates, is spending from $600 million to 1 billion a year on a propaganda campaign aimed at undermining the credibility of the West, and spread Pro-Kremlin propaganda. This is implemented through state resources: RT usausausa channel in several languages around the world and is available via satellite in over one hundred countries and kontroliruemoi the government news Agency "Sputnik", a network of paid bloggers and journalists. In turn, the United States and its allies need to undertake coordinated efforts to counter Russian actions in the media space. The transmission of objective news and information may be made through such channels as the "Voice of America, Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty", and their recently launched television companion "Current Time".
Summarizing, we can draw several conclusions. The elite of Western countries operate within the framework of the report "Strategy of containment of Russia": the sanctions are still not lifted, Russia continues to blame the propaganda and hacking, in supporting the authoritarian regime of Bashar al-Assad. In addition, right now, before the presidential election in 2018, an increase in the activity of foreign agents on work with the population. But despite these factors, the selected support Vladimir Putin's political course is extremely high. According to Rosstat 83% of the Russian population approve of the President.
It is important that "military" "Anaconda ring" did not succeed. The military-industrial complex of the Russian Federation is one of the best in the world. The military operation in Syria, the proof of this.
"Economic" "ring" also failed. Russia is not in financial crisis, and even Vice versa. In 2017, Russia harvested a record grain harvest. This suggests that industry and agriculture develop.
Russia actively struggles with the consequences of "information" "Anaconda ring".
After analyzing all sides of a three-dimensional plan "Anaconda", it is safe to state that the West selected strategy ineffective.
List of used literature
- Brzezinski Z. "the Grand chessboard": International relations; Moscow; 1998, 256 p.
- Ivashov L. G. the Geopolitics of Russian civilization / Ed. edited by O. A. Platonov. — M.: Institute of Russian civilization, 2015. — 800 p
- Mahan, A. T. Influence of sea power on history 1660-1783. — SPb.: Terra Fantastica, 2002 — 640.
- STRATEGY OF “CONSTRAINMENT” Countering Russia's Challenge to the Democratic Order//[Electronic resource]. – Mode of access: http://www.atlanticcouncil.org/blogs/new-atlanticist/realtions-with-russia-a-strategy-of-constrainment.
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