Center for Strategic Assessment and forecasts

Autonomous non-profit organization

Home / Defence and security / / Articles
Military review. Developments in the field of defence and security in the media. Media monitoring during the week from 02 to 08 Oct 2017
Material posted: Publication date: 08-10-2017
For Russian airborne troops ordered a new lethal gun "Lotus"; the latest training helicopter Mi-28UB ready for mass production; Kalashnikov said about the readiness of serial production of new machines; in Russia finalized rlk "Hawk-AV"; the su-35S will enter the combat strength of the fighter regiment call in Karelia; in the Saratov region, arrived new anti-aircraft missile and gun complexes "Carapace-C1"; in divisions of special troops VDV appeared SpaceCap on the basis of the car "UAZ Patriot"; electronic warfare complex "Mercury-BM" got the call motorized infantry in Smolensk region; Ministry of defense of Russia until 2025 will update the fleet of the lifting in the world Mi-26 helicopters; construction of diesel-electric submarines of project 636.3 for the Pacific fleet are maintained in strict accordance with the schedule; Russia and Saudi Arabia signed a Memorandum on purchase and localization of production VPK. About these and other events in Moni-toring the media during the week from 02 to 08. 10. 2017.

Airborne troops of Russia will soon be armed with Avialesookhrana artillery self-propelled gun "Lotus" of caliber of 120 millimeters. Its serial production will establish by 2020.

Paratroopers are guns vital, because in the rear, and in isolation from the main forces without strong artillery support is not enough. The latest gun will meet all the requirements that are put forward to the landing-propelled guns. It can be transported by airplane and drop with a parachute, together with the crew. For the gun provides light weight with high firing efficiency. In the manufacture of "Lotus" is used to steady rifle and machine-gun fire armor aluminum and rugged steel grades according to the material RIA Novosti "Threat "Lotus": why the Russian airborne troops ordered a new lethal gun".

Accurate specifications "Lotus" not yet sounded. However, from scraps of information, it becomes clear that cannon created a unique munition with the modernization and supply of new control system and barrel with extended life.

In the "Lotus" will use the experience gained in the development of self-propelled artillery secret project "Saurait-D". This vehicle was issued in two versions - with a gun caliber of 120 mm and 152 mm - and used as a mortar, howitzer and gun. The project was brought to the testing stage, but then at the initiative of the Ministry of defence, the work was suspended. Production of "Saurait" the army refused.


The situation in Ukraine

Kiev has officially refused to implement the Minsk agreements on Eastern Ukraine. The curtain this week, the President of Ukraine Petro Poroshenko has signed the law "On creation of conditions for peaceful settlement of the situation in certain districts of Donetsk and Lugansk regions," extending by one year the special status of Donbass. This is stated on the website of the Ukrainian President.

However, the law is the rule that the special status will take effect only after these territories will be displayed "all illegal armed groups and military equipment and militants and mercenaries".

The validity of the adopted in 2014 the Law granting special self-government status for individual districts of the Donetsk and Luhansk regions will expire on October 18. It is a key document for a political settlement in the East of Ukraine. Representatives of the proclaimed DNR and LNR repeatedly stated that the refusal of renewal will mean a failure of the implementation of the Minsk agreements themselves.

Formally extending the validity of the special status for another 12 months, Kyiv, however, made in the text of the law clause, which essentially blocks its entry into force until gaining full control of the territory, says TASS.

All the negotiations of the contact group on the issue of holding in the Donbass local elections and the introduction of special self-governing status within the constitutional reform in Ukraine, as stipulated by the Minsk agreements and the agreement "Norman Quartet" on the mechanism of introduction in action of the law on the special status for "formula Steinmeier" (foreign Minister of Germany Frank-Walter Steinmeier from December 2013 to January 2017) are crossed.

Moreover, the text of the bill included the phrase that the extension of a special status aimed, in particular, to create "the necessary conditions for deployment in certain districts of Donetsk and Lugansk regions, the UN peacekeeping operation". Meanwhile, the authorities DND, LNR and Russia believe that Kiev has officially refused to implement the Minsk agreements on Eastern Ukraine.

Operation in Syria

On 4 October, the Russian defense Ministry declared the destruction of the command of the terrorist group "Dzhebhat EN — Nusra" (organization banned in Russia).

5 Oct. The latest Russian demining and protection of the bomb squad showed a good result in Syria, reported the head of the engineering troops of the armed forces Lieutenant-General Yuri Stavitskiy.

It is reported that, for example, when the clearance of Palmyra to enhance the security works has been used the latest protection sapper, a modern means of searching explosive devices, used unmanned aerial vehicles and mobile robotic systems, including a multifunctional complex robotic demining "u-6", radar subsurface sensing device, OKO-2 and others.

5 Oct. Russian submarines "Great Novgorod" and "Kolpino" attacked missiles "Caliber" terrorist targets in Syria, said the official representative of the Ministry of defense of Russia Igor Konashenkov. Ten launches of cruise missiles were in the Mediterranean sea. Controls confirmed the destruction of all targets.

6 Oct. The defense Ministry said that around the US base At TANF in Syria, a situation in which there are protected by U.S. tactical aircraft and MLRS instructors from USA, UK and Norway stated that they prepare there fighters some "New Syrian army", however there are constantly out diversionno-terrorist group of militants (the organisation banned in Russia).

In addition, the Syrian refugee camp ", Ryban" actually made "human shield" for the American base.

October 7, the defense Ministry said the destruction in the Syrian Arab Republic hiding for a long time in Iraq of the influential field commanders of the terrorist organization "Islamic state" (organization banned in Russia).


American missiles with nuclear warheads can hit the enemy, even if they destroyed all ground control points. This is reported with reference to It is reported that the command of the U.S. air force commissioned the development of the air command center for ballistic missiles, which was called the Airborne Launch Control System Replacement (ALCS-R).

In the 60-ies in the United States was developed by the airborne command post Airborne Launch Control System (ALCS) located on the plane. In the case of the destruction of all ground-based command posts of the plane could be transmitted a signal to the launch of an Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). The command post of the ALCS ground operated silo-based ICBMs (Minuteman) missiles mounted on strategic nuclear submarines.

Today, the system of command posts ALCS covers 16 aircraft E-6B, which are subordinate to the U.S. Navy. The system is hopelessly outdated, because part of its equipment had not been updated since the 60-ies. To support the "nuclear shield" in combat readiness, the command of the U.S. air force ordered Lockheed Martin and Rockwell Collins to develop a new system of command posts, referred to as Airborne Launch Control System Replacement (ALCS-R).

It is now known that a functional prototype system ALCS-R Lockheed Martin received $86 million, Rockwell Collins $76 million For the money the contractors undertook until 2021 to prepare a fully functional system of command and control (command-and-control, C2) for American ICBMs. In 2021, the military command will hold the final tender and choose a winner who will get the new equipment all 16 aircraft E-6B, and missile launchers Minuteman III and their descendants.

The Treaty on the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons (NPT)

Russia over the past 30 years made a huge contribution to achieving a nuclear-free world by reducing its Arsenal by 85%, but the current international situation is not conducive to further nuclear disarmament. This was stated on Wednesday by the Director of the Department for nonproliferation and arms control, the Russian foreign Ministry Mikhail Ulyanov at the General debate of the 1st Committee of the UN General Assembly, reports TASS.

He confirmed that Russia "does not intend to sign and ratify" the Treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons, which was not involved a number of countries. According to him, this document is at odds with the views of Moscow "about the means of building a nuclear-free world", and also contrary to the provisions of the Treaty on the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons (NPT). As stated Ulyanov, nuclear disarmament "should be implemented in such a way that it led to the strengthening of international security and stability, increased security of all States without exception".


Calculations of the connection of air defense Central military district have returned to places of permanent deployment in the Saratov region with a batch of new air defense missile-gun complexes (zrpk) "Pantsir-S1", which received the state defense order in the Astrakhan region, the press service of the military district.

A new technique was transferred to the gunners in mid-September at the Ashuluk firing range. There the soldiers had to assess the capabilities of the weapons complex. Was conducted single, group and massive shooting in the daytime and at night for maneuvering targets imitating cruise missiles and enemy aircraft.

It is planned that the new sprc "Pantsir-S1" to the end of this year will be on combat duty.

Reference: "Pantsir-S1" air defense missile-gun complex, which is designed for middle cover civil and military installations from all means of air attack in any weather-climatic and electronic conditions. Combat capabilities of ensure defeat of all types of manned and unmanned means of air attack.

In special purpose units of the airborne troops, stationed in the Moscow region, has received about 20 special vehicles created on the basis of a pickup truck "UAZ Patriot", reports the Department of information and mass communications of the Russian defense Ministry.

The emergence of this type of transport at the airborne special forces will significantly increase the mobility of the reconnaissance groups operating from the main forces of the landing.

Reference: off-road Vehicles capable of carrying in their bodies heavy machine guns, automatic grenade launchers, antitank missiles and conventional small arms.

The newly created motorized infantry connection of the Western military district (ZVO), stationed in the Smolensk region, were armed with complex electronic warfare (EW) "Mercury-BM", reports the press service of the military district.

The complex will be the first application during the winter period of training of units of the field armies ZVO.

Just this year, the unit REB stationed in Voronezh, Bryansk, Belgorod and Nizhny Novgorod regions, have received about 10 new stations and hardware machines with an expanded range of application frequencies.

Reference: the Modern complex "Mercury-BM" on the crawler are intended for protection of manpower and equipment, covering the areas of concentration of troops, mobile and stationary control points from rockets, shells, mines and guided bombs, equipped with radio controlled fuses, in the area of 50 hectares.

Russian defense Ministry is preparing a renewal of the lifting in the world Mi-26 in the new state armament programme for the years 2018-2025, said Deputy defense Minister Yuri Borisov, reports the Department of information and mass communications of the Russian defense Ministry.

Reference: The lifting in the world serial Mi-26 is unique in its transport capabilities and is used for mobile transfer of the airborne divisions, including large equipment.

Mi-26 can be used to perform a wide range of tasks, including transportation, evacuation and fire fighting. The helicopter can carry 82 paratroopers with full equipment or up to 20 tons of cargo inside fuselage or on external sling.

A pair of su-35S enter battle squadron aviation regiment of the Western military district (ZVO), stationed in Karelia. This was announced by the acting commander of the mixed aviation division ZVO Colonel Roman Kosteniuk, reports the press service of the military district.

Guards fighter aviation regiment of the mixed air division of the Western military district has become the first linear part in the West of Russia, which received these planes.

Reference: su-35 – deeply modernized super-maneuverable multi-role fighter generation "4++". Developed in experimental design Bureau named after Sukhoi, commercially produced in Komsomolsk-on-Amur aviation plant.

The plane is developed on the basis of the su-27/su-30, but it is a conceptually new machine with the items of equipment of the fifth generation fighter. Su-35S has an advanced information and control system, radar with a passive phased antenna array "IRBIS Н035". These engines allow you to develop a supersonic speed without using afterburners, propelling su-35S aircraft to the fifth generation.

In the past five years, the Main missile and artillery Directorate (GRAU) of the defense Ministry has completed a large amount of troops delivered more than 3.7 thousand units of modern rocket and artillery weapons, which enabled a re more than 50 military units. About it said Deputy Russian defense Minister army General Dmitry Bulgakov, reports the Department of information and mass communications of the Russian defense Ministry.

"During the same period, adopted adopted 137 units of modern rocket and artillery weapons, small arms, individual body armour, optical devices, – said Dmitry Bulgakov. – Among them missile complex "Iskander-M", a reactive system of volley fire "Tornado" and "Uragan-1M" reconnaissance "Fara-VR" and "Sobolyatnik", anti-aircraft missile systems s-300V4, "Buk-M2", "Buk-M3", "tor-M2U", "Arrow-10МН", "rosemary", MANPADS "Verba", a set of military equipment "Warrior", a new missile for the army, precision-guided munitions to the "Tornado" and more."

Work is also continuing to improve conditions of storage of weapons, missiles and ammunition – construction of new storage infrastructure, optimized composition of the storage facilities, arsenals are receiving new fire fighting equipment, means of loading and mechanization.


Work on the construction of diesel-electric submarines of project 636.3 are conducted in accordance with the schedule. This was announced by the head of Department of shipbuilding of the Navy kontr-Admiral Vladimir rag-pickers.

According to him, today the willingness of the lead submarine of the project 636.3 "Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky" on the stocks of the enterprise "Admiralty shipyards" corresponds to the timeline of its construction. It is in the formative stages of the case: hydraulic tests of feed block module and its internal tanks; formed by middle and bow modules, the hydraulic tests which will be held in the near future.



The armed Forces of the Russian Federation for a week. Infographics – the defense Ministry of the Russian Federation. http://мультимедиа.минобороны.рф/multimedia/infographics/gallery.htm?id=46121@cmsPhotoGallery

"On the second submarine of the series "Volkhov" finished processing of metals and the formation of the subsections of the pressure hull, up to the end of the year will be carried out hydraulic tests of feed block module", – quotes the press service of the defense Ministry, the words of rear Admiral.

According to him, developed a number of service submarines of project 636.3. Contemporary documentary base for servicing submarines of this project developed by the 51st Central design and technological Institute of ship repair together with company "C" project using 3D modeling and interactive electronic technical manuals with the features of operation in the Pacific fleet (PF).

Background: Both submarines laid down on 28 July 2017 in St. Petersburg enterprise "Admiralty shipyards" in accordance with the State shipbuilding program aimed at updating the non-nuclear component of the Submarine forces of the Navy. It is planned that the Pacific fleet will be built 6 diesel-electric submarines of project 636.3.


Latest training helicopter Mi-28UB ready for mass production in Rostov-on-don. About it said Deputy Russian defense Minister Yury Borisov during a visit to the company "Rostvertol", reports the Department of information and mass communications of the Russian defense Ministry.

According to him, the first eight helicopters that the defence Ministry will receive in 2017 will be used for crew training in a military unit in Pushkin, Korenevka and Torzhok.

Deputy defense Minister also got acquainted with the production capacity of the plant, where the construction of combat helicopters Mi-28N "Night hunter", as well as the heaviest helicopter in the world Mi-26.

Reference: Mi-28UB is a combat training version of the Mi-28N. It is equipped with integrated avionics. The use of this complex with the use of digital cartographic data enables efficient searching, detection, recognition, and destroy ground and air targets, determine their coordinates and the results of targeting other helicopters, and ground and air command posts.

Concern "Kalashnikov" maybe next year to begin mass production of AK-12 and AK-15, which tested the military, said group spokesman Sofia Ivanova.

Answering the question about the timing of the completion of the tests, the AK-12 and AK-15 Ivanov said that this issue is run defense.

Background: Previously, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin said that the decision on adopting the new machines are expected this year. According to him, the AK-12 can be a military machine AEK-971 is to go to the armed forces.

Completed development of advanced radar complex (RLC) intelligence firing positions of artillery of the opponent and adjust the fire of his artillery "Hawk-AV" for the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. About it said Deputy Russian defense Minister army General Dmitry Bulgakov, reports the Department of information and mass communications of the Russian defense Ministry.

According to him, complex in its tactical and technical characteristics at times superior to the existing in service with the Russian army and the armies of foreign States counterparts.

Adopting the RLA will greatly enhance the effectiveness of artillery and conduct counter-battery fight.


3 October in the southern military district began joint strategic doctrine, collective security Treaty organization "Combat brotherhood-2017", which will be held in three phases on the territory of four States (two regions of the collective security Treaty organisation), the Department of information and mass communications of the Russian defense Ministry.

For the first phase dedicated to development issues for resolution of the military conflict, involved in the intelligence units of the armed forces of member States of the CSTO.

The doctrine is called "Search-2017" will be held in five ranges of Russia and Armenia and will last until 7 October.

As its logical continuation, from 9 to 13 October on the territory of Armenia will host joint exercise with the contingents of the Collective rapid response forces CSTO and part of the forces of the United grouping of troops (forces) of the armed forces of Armenia and Russia "Interaction-2017".

From 16 to 20 October at two landfills in Kazakhstan it is planned to conduct exercises for post-conflict settlement, peacekeeping forces of the CSTO "Inviolable brotherhood-2017".

The final stage of the exercises "Combat brotherhood-2017" will be the tasks of the contingents of the Collective rapid response forces of CSTO on the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan from 10 to 20 November.

For the first time all the drawings of episodes of the exercises will be held at the General military-political background in the framework of a single plan. It is planned to work out issues of organizing and conducting intelligence, conducting joint operations on the localization of the armed conflict in the Caucasus region of collective security, the preparation and conduct of peacekeeping operations of the Collective peacekeeping forces of the CSTO in state not a member of the Organization, and to work out new forms and methods of combat in mountain-desert terrain.

"Combat brotherhood-2017"

The doctrine of the "Combat brotherhood-2017" held in accordance with the Plan of joint operational and combat training of command bodies and units of forces and means of system of collective security in 2017.


In the exercise involved units of the armed forces and the police of the Republic of Armenia, Republic of Belarus, Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tajikistan, the staff of formations of forces of a special purpose of bodies of internal Affairs, the National guard of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation Regardie units for elimination of emergency situations.


The main purpose of the exercise "Combat brotherhood-2017" is to improve the management system of the CSTO troops in the regions of collective security, the coherence of the management bodies in the preparation of joint operations and the development of practical actions in the course of performing combat training missions.

The number

The number of attracted military contingents, task forces and units of special forces for exercise "Combat brotherhood-2017" will be more than 12,000 people, will involve more than 1500 units and more than 90 aircraft.

Reference: In the exercises will be attended by CSTO Secretary General Yuri Khachaturov, chief of the CSTO joint staff Colonel-General Anatoly Sidorov. The doctrine of invited representatives of the UN Secretariat, the International Committee of the red cross and other international and regional organizations. The joint operational-strategic exercises of the collective security Treaty organization "Combat brotherhood-2017" is open.


"Rosoboronexport" and the Saudi military-industrial company according to the results of the state visit to Russia by king Salman bin Abdul-Aziz al Saud signed a Memorandum on purchase and localization of production for military purposes.

The corresponding document was signed by General Director of "Rosoboronexport" Alexander Mikheyev, the Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Saudi company, Ahmad al-Khatib.

Also was signed the contract for the General conditions of organization in Saudi Arabia and licensed production of Kalashnikov AK 103 and cartridges of different purpose.

In addition, following the results of negotiations the Minister of foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation Sergey Lavrov and Minister of energy, industry and mineral resources of Saudi Arabia, Khaled al-Faleh has put the signature under the agreement on cooperation in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes.


Saudi Arabia shows interest to purchase of s-400. This was announced by Vice-Premier Dmitry Rogozin. Rogozin added that the issue of military-technical cooperation was discussed during the talks in narrow format.


4 October – Day of the Russian Space forces

Annually on 4 October servicemen of the Space troops of Russia celebrate their professional holiday. On this day in 1957 in the USSR was the beginning of the space age – from the Baikonur cosmodrome was successfully launched the first artificial Earth satellite (AES). Preparation, launch and management of the first artificial satellite in orbital flight was carried out by the specialists of the military formations of the Space forces.

60 years ago to control the world's first artificial Earth satellite in the USSR was created by a network of ground measurement points (NIP) Command-measuring complex of spacecraft control. The locations of the items were developed by the research Institute №4 of the USSR defense Ministry to ensure the work on the spacecraft with high angles of inclination, the shooting trajectory and telemetry data, transmit commands and programs to the maximum possible visible areas of flight throughout the Soviet Union.

October 4, 1957 created measuring points ground Command-measuring complex of spacecraft control ensured the management of the first artificial Earth satellite "PS-1".

In the future, all domestic and international space programs were carried out with the participation of military units of spacecraft control. Manned missions, exploration of moon, Mars, Venus, the most complex experiments in space, launching an unmanned spacecraft reusable orbital complex "Buran", management of manned station "Mir", the creation of the International space station is not a complete list of achievements of domestic Astronautics, a significant contribution which made military units for space applications.

As informs Department of information and mass communications of the Russian MOD today space watch the first military units start and control of space means continue the military units of the cosmodrome Plesetsk, 15 th army Air and space forces (special assignments) as part of the Main test space center named after German Titov, the Main centre of missile attack warning, Main centre for the exploration of outer space. The training of professional officers for the Space forces carries out Military space Academy imeni A. F. Mozhayskiy.

Currently, the Space forces has established an effective system of training, launch and management of domestic space vehicles, orbital and radar control missile-dangerous directions, as well as provide global monitoring of conditions in space.

Military and civilian personnel have successfully addressed the challenges of application and of increasing the combat capabilities of systems of missile warning, space control, replenishment and management of orbital grouping of information systems and systems for military and dual-use education and training of future officers.

In the framework of combat duty for the control of outer space in 2017, the specialists of the Main centre for the exploration of outer space (HZ RKO) the Space forces, VKS spent about more than 3,500 special work to change control of the space situation, in which found and adopted to support about 1,000 space objects, monitor the output of the orbit more than 350 spacecraft have provided the forecasting and control of termination ballistic existence of about 190 space objects, issued 10 warnings of dangerous approaches of space objects with space vehicles of the Russian orbital constellation.

Particular attention specialists, GTS, RKO was paid to the control of the composition and condition of the orbital groups of foreign space systems, and conducting experiments on the orbits of the spacecraft of foreign States.

During the current year on-duty means the Russian system of missile warning, specialized equipment systems and space surveillance and missile defense was discovered more than 50 launches of foreign and domestic ballistic missiles and space rockets.

The crews of the State testing cosmodrome Plesetsk has two launch of a space rocket middle class "Soyuz-2" and one start space rocket light class "Soyuz-2.1 b" with spacecraft for various purposes, and two test launches.

The specialists of the Main test space center name Titov has conducted and conducted 13 launches of spacecraft from Plesetsk and Baikonur. The orbit 90 is derived spacecraft for various purposes, 8 of which are taken to control ground-based gicc. Secured control of the 12 docking operations with the International space station.

This year duty power ground automated control complex of Space forces, VKS spent over 440 thousand management sessions of spacecraft of the Russian orbital constellation. Thus, the average daily rate amounted to more than 1600 sessions. In addition, during the execution of tasks of combat duty crews have completed more than 100 thousand sessions ensure control of spacecraft.

In the armed forces is actively working on commissioning new models of weapons, military and special equipment. Alert carry radar station of new generation "Voronezh" system of missile warning, created by technology of high operational readiness in the Leningrad, Kaliningrad, Irkutsk oblasts and Krasnodar Krai. State tests of the new radar "Voronezh" carrying experimental combat duty in the Krasnoyarsk Krai, Altai Krai and Orenburg region. Until the end of the current year it is planned to finalize their testing and staging on alert control radar missile-dangerous directions in established areas of responsibility.

Work is continuing to create new radar warning system missile attack in the Komi Republic and Murmansk region. To complete the creation of a network of new VZG radar "Voronezh" in the territory of the Russian Federation is planned in 2019.

In the framework of the program of improvement and development of the Russian system of space control, Space forces, continue to create specialized ground facilities, space surveillance new generation. By 2020 Russia plans to deploy more than 10 new laser-optical and radio systems that implement different principles of detection and recognition of space objects. The first laser-optical complex of new generation successfully performs the task of space control in the experimental-combat duty on the territory of Altai region.

This year the military units of the Main test space center have already received more than 20 modern and advanced measuring means. Currently actively working on the introduction of new machinery into operation.

Completed re-equipment command-measuring tools of a new generation a separate command-measuring complex, located in the center of Yalta (Crimea). Within three years this facility has deployed more than 10 new measuring systems and complexes. Currently being completed work on their setup and commissioning.

In addition, actively being developed for command-measuring systems of new generation for retrofitting a separate command-measuring complexes of the Main test space center. Titov. Commissioning of a unified command and measurement tools will enable a shift to new technologies control of spacecraft of the Russian orbital constellation and to reduce several times the list of modifications of technical management tools of previous generations.

In General, for re-equipment of military units and formations of the Space forces, promising arms currently, about 50 experimental design and scientific-research works on creation in the coming years, systems and complexes of new generation.

Among the main challenges facing the Space troops, VKS, – maintenance of constant readiness to use means of systems of missile warning, space control, launch and control of spacecraft of the Russian orbital constellation and the development of new weapons and military equipment coming into service of military units of Space armies. Our absolute priorities and implementation schedule of launches of space vehicles of military and dual-use, as well as launches of Intercontinental ballistic missiles.

Has Prepared Anna Beglaryan

Tags: Russia , Syria , USA , NATO , AME

RELATED MATERIALS: Defence and security
Возрастное ограничение