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Military review. Developments in the field of defence and security in the media. Media monitoring for a week from 04 to 10.12.2017 year
Material posted: Publication date: 10-12-2017
Su-57 made its first flight with the new engine; the Pentagon began developing a genetic weapon; It is developing a technology to control appliances using gaze, a program to build aircraft ", Fridge" approached the stage of determining the technical face of the new machine programmer; United States launched the destroyer of the future; the IDF announced the readiness of the first squadron of the F-35 to operational use; Space forces, VKS took over maintenance of the apparatus "Space-2524"; new artillery Union army ZVO got modified howitzers "Msta-s"; in the Amur Association TSB received a batch of BTR-80; anti-aircraft gunners CVO in the Volga region received a set of regimental air defense missile systems s-400; the share of modern samples of armament and military equipment in the army of the southern military district is over 60 percent; to the end of the year in connections and military units of the WMD will do the party complexes UAV "Orlan-10" and "Aileron-3"; Russia has tested missile systems "tor-M2"; BDK "Ivan Gren" is the loading equipment in the framework of the state tests. About these and other developments in the media monitoring for the week 04 to 10. 12. 2017.

The fifth generation fighter, the su-57 (previously referred to as T-50) made its first flight with the new engine. This is stated in the message of Ministry of industry and trade.

"December 5, 2017 in LII. M. M. Gromov made the first flight of the latest Russian fifth generation fighter T-50 with the engine of the 2nd stage. The flight was normal", — say in the office, stating that war machine stayed in the air 17 minutes. The plane was piloted by Hero of Russia Sergey Bogdan.

Currently, T-50, undergoing testing under the program PAK FA, fly in the intermediate engine AL-41F1 ("article 117"), created in the framework of the ROC "Demon" and a similar design with the engine of the su-35S. Simultaneously, tested the engines, called open source "product 30". Compared to AL-41F1 his thrust needs to be increased to 17.5-19.5 tons, as well as increased fuel efficiency and reduced life cycle costs.

Reference: the Fighter T-50 first took to the air in January 2010, presented to the public, he was at the air show MAKS-2011. At the same time it is developing a new infrastructure security and a set of aircraft weapons (including placed in the inner compartment).

In July 2017, it was reported that the program has entered the final stage of testing. Serial production of cars for the Russian military is scheduled to begin in 2019.

HOT SPOTS

Operation in Syria

3 Dec 2017 n. p. El Salhieh (province of Deir-ez-Zor) held the first meeting of the delegates of the management Committee of the Eastern territories of the Euphrates, to which were invited the representative of the Russian troops General major Yevgeny Poplavsky. About it reports Department of information and mass communications of the Russian defense Ministry.

The first meeting was attended by 23 delegates, representing the interests of all ethnic and religious groups and peoples living East of the Euphrates.

According to the Russian General, to support the offensive of the militia units of the Eastern tribes of the Euphrates and of the Kurdish self-defense units, aircraft of Russian air force was fulfilled 672 sorties, hit more than 1 450 goals.

Major-General E. V. Poplawski also said that specialists of the Russian Center for reconciliation of the warring parties together with the representatives formed local authorities working on the issues of creating conditions for the return of civilians and delivery of humanitarian aid to areas on the East Bank of the Euphrates. A list of the most in need of humanitarian aid settlements have already been prepared and it started a collaboration.

By the General voting elected: Chairman - Hasan al-Youssef (Arabic); the co-chairs of the Committee - Muhammad of Catargi (Arabic), Leila Adnan al-Hassan (an Arab), Mahmoud Nouri (Kurd).

6 Dec. Syria fully liberated from the terrorists, all the gangs of ISIS destroyed, — said the chief of the General staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation – first Deputy Minister of defense of Russia, army General Valery Gerasimov.

A FOREIGN ARMY

The us military has invested hundred of millions of dollars in genetic technology to destroy mosquitoes spread malaria. Experts of the United Nations are afraid of this technology as a weapon, reports The Guardian.

The new technology is expected to be able to destroy not only insects, but also mammals, in particular rodents. The project is funded by Agency advanced research projects Agency of the U.S. Department of defense.

Respondents edition experts, including UN representatives, fear that civil researchers who depend on the military, unable to reorient their projects in accordance with the narrow objectives of the funders.

Background: Previously, the us military planned to use genetically modified organisms "as the intelligence of the next generation". To this end, the Pentagon launches a program to create plant-sensors, a specific way of reacting to the changing conditions.

The second USS Zumwalt type, named USS Michael Monsoor (DDG 1001), is launched, according to Navy Recognition.

Destroyer of the future December 5, descended from the shipyard Bath Iron Works in bath, Maine, and sent to the Atlantic ocean for testing. The U.S. Navy should take the USS Michael Monsoor in 2018.

All the ships of the Zumwalt operate exclusively on electricity. First Zumwalt (DDG-1000) was launched on 29 October 2013.

Reference: type of Destroyer Zumwalt with a length of 183 meters and a displacement of 14.7 thousand tons with a speed of up to 30 knots. Each ship is planned to equip 20 launchers MK 57 VLS 80 missiles, two 155-millimeter cannon and two anti-aircraft guns Mk 110 57 mm caliber. On Zumwalt may be based one helicopter Sikorsky SH-60 Sea Hawk and three drone MQ-8 Fire Scout.

Wednesday, December 6, announced the initial operational capabilities of the first squadron of the fifth generation fighter F-35 "Adir" in Israel and the readiness of the squadron to operational use. About it reports NEWSru.co.il

The process of preparing the planes and training of pilots and ground staff took about a year after the first F-35 was delivered to Israel.

Over the past year, arrived in Israel for nine such aircraft, the press service of the IDF. For 2018 it is expected the arrival of nine fighters. Delivery of the first 33 aircraft will be completed in 2021.

In August 2017 the delegation of the Ministry of defence of Israel have completed negotiations on the acquisition of the US for another 17 F-35 aircraft. We are talking about the second part of the deal, in which Israel acquired from the US, 50 F-35 fighter. According to the signed agreement, all aircraft will arrive in Israel to 2024. Thus, in the IDF air force will be formed for two full squadrons of 25 aircraft each.

The commanders of the Israeli army emphasizes that the IDF became the first army outside of the United States, the weapons which did the F-35.

For reference: the F-35 fifth generation also called the Joint Strike Fighter and come in three versions: A – for standard take-off and landing, B for short takeoff and vertical landing, and for takeoff from the aircraft carrier and landing on the deck. All 50 aircraft bought by the defence Ministry for the air force, is a modification A, however, they have unique capabilities and they installed a modern Israeli weapon systems.

Ukraine said on completing the establishment of operational-tactical missile system "Thunder". In fact, we are talking about PTRC "Thunder-2", which in Ukraine is called the latest development of missile armament. This writes the "Military review".

Next on the Pavlograd chemical plant said that put into service the PTRC "Grom" ("Thunder-2") will be in 2020 or 2021. It is noted that the missiles "Thunder" able to effectively hit targets at a distance of "several hundred kilometers" and "compromise the integrity of missile defenses by 96%". What criteria have been evaluated the last parameter (in 96%), and the company is not misleading. In the KB "South" was previously announced range of hitting the target in the range of from 50 to 500 km.

Until the end of the year, the complex "Thunder" will be translated into a new phase of testing in the conditions of military ground.

Reference: PTRC "Thunder" - complex, which is the use of solid-fuel ballistic missiles. As the platform (chassis) as originally reported, is used KrAZ 10x10.

RUSSIA-U.S.

In the case of the US withdrawal from the Treaty on the elimination of intermediate-range and shorter-range nuclear forces (INF) Russia will prepare a more powerful weapon. This was stated by RIA Novosti, the head of the Federation Council Committee on defense and security Viktor Bondarev.

"Russia (...) has to respond, our technical capabilities allow us to promptly prepare the troops for more powerful weapons," he said. According to Bondarev, the contract "is a guarantee of at least partial containment to a number of threats from potential enemy" and previously "saved the world from disaster".

The Senator believes that the US does not have grounds for the chargeability of Russian tactical complex "Oka", on the basis of which the developed system "Iskander", prohibited by the Treaty arms.

Meanwhile...

In the US military budget for the 2018 fiscal year provides for the allocation of funds for development, but not test, a ground-based medium-range missiles.

The INF Treaty, bearing in perpetuity, signed in 1987 in Washington. The agreement prohibits countries from possessing ballistic missiles, land-based and cruise missiles with a range of from 500 to 5.5 thousand kilometers.

Earlier it was reported that Russia's response to possible U.S. withdrawal from the INF Treaty could resume production of modernized missile "Courier".

In November 2015 during the meeting with the President of Russia Vladimir Putin in defence in the plot of a number of Russian television channels got footage of the presentations on ocean-going multipurpose system "Status-6". According to the slides, this system is a weapon of mass destruction.

ABOUT THE REARMAMENT OF THE ARMY

New artillery of the Union army of the Western military district (ZVO), stationed in the Moscow region, has received about a dozen pieces of self-propelled artillery 2S19M2 "Msta-s", the press service of the military district.

A new technique for the first time will take part in the combat firing of the army artillery during a field release in spring of 2018.

Reference: "Msta-S" 152-mm self-propelled howitzer. Developed at the Ural plant of transport engineering, entered service in 1989 Maximum range of 29 km. Modification 2S19M2 features high rate of fire and effectiveness of fire due to the automated fire control system and improved system loading and aiming.

In a combined-arms army of the Eastern military district (TSB), stationed in the Amur, Jewish Autonomous region and Khabarovsk territory has received a big batch of BTR-80. Appliances will be equipped engineer units, reports the press service of the military district.

The BTR-80 wheeled floating vehicle, designed for rapid deployment of units to the place of execution of the task, support them with fire from standard weapons and warfare out of the car. Vehicle is armed with turret heavy 14.5 mm machine gun KPVT and coaxial with it 7.62-mm machine gun PKT.

APC has a system of protection against weapons of mass destruction, modern, powerful diesel turbo engine and increased permeability due to the wheel formula 8X8. Thanks to the use of tubeless tyres, the APC may continue to move and perform a combat mission to a distance of 200 km is not only the case of the bullet shot of the wheels, but the exploding mines.

Reference: all-weather application of the personnel carrier provides a versatile heating system for the engine. It allows you to start the engine and run the car in winter conditions throughout the Far East.

Anti-aircraft gunners of the Central military district (CVO), which are on combat duty for air defense in the Volga region, received state contracts regimental kit anti-aircraft missile systems (WRU) s-400 "Triumph". About it reports a press-service of the military district.

New machinery was transferred to the military polygon Kapustin Yar in the Astrakhan region. The rest of the week calculations will perform docking firing of the new systems. Earlier, the gunners were trained in the training center anti-aircraft missile troops in the Leningrad region.

Earlier the gunners in the Volga region were armed shipment of anti-aircraft missile and gun complexes "Carapace-C1".

Reference: ZRS long range s-400 "Triumph" is designed for high efficiency destruction of aircraft strategic and tactical aircraft, ballistic missiles, hypersonic targets and other means of air attack in conditions of electronic and other types of resistance. The system is capable at ranges up to 400 km to hit aerodynamic targets and at ranges up to 60 km ballistic targets flying at speeds up to 4.8 km/s at altitudes from a few meters to several tens of kilometers.

From the beginning, the troops of the southern military district (YUVO) delivered more than 1.7 million units of new and modernized samples of armament, military and special equipment (AMSE), which allowed to increase the share of modern samples to 63%, including in the army – 79% in ATT – 71% in Navy – 40%. About it reports a press-service of the military district.

In the framework of re-continued the supply in the tank and mechanized infantry combined arms and foreign military bases modern tanks T-72B3, infantry fighting vehicles BMP-3 and BTR-82A.

In Ground forces, coastal troops of the black sea fleet and the Caspian flotilla, the southern military district forces this year with the manufacturers received more than 800 units of modern armored vehicles and automotive equipment, missile and artillery weapons, communication equipment, electronic warfare, engineering machinery and other special equipment.

Aircraft and helicopter connections and military units of the southern military district in the framework of the state defense order from the beginning of the year received about 10 units of aircraft. It is planned to receive about 30 aircraft and helicopters such as su-25 and attack helicopters Mi-28N "Night hunter".

Background: Until the end of 2020, the troops of the southern military district plan to increase the share of modern samples of all types of weapons and military equipment by land, sea and air component to 70%, and in some samples up to 100%.

Five new training helicopters "Ansat-U" will go on training air base Syzransky branch of the Military educational-scientific centre of air force "Military and air Academy of a name of N. E. Zhukovsky and Y. A. Gagarin". About it reports Department of information and mass communications of the Russian defense Ministry.

Previously engineering and aircrew Academy has completed a complex receiving equipment in the factory, verifying the operation of all systems and mechanisms in different modes on the ground and in the air.

Reference: Light helicopter "Ansat-U" is used for training of cadets of flight schools and training rating instructors. When equipped helicopter optional equipment it can be applied to solve the transport-landing task, carry up to 9 people and up to 1,300 kg of cargo inside the fuselage, the evacuation of the wounded and sick, ensure the courier and other types of communication, visual aerial reconnaissance, patrol the extensive sections of the borders, highways, ensuring parachute jumps, perform search and rescue operations.

Until the end of the year under the contract in connections and military units of the Western military district (ZVO) will the latest batch of complexes with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) short range and short-range "Orlan-10" and "Aileron-3". About it reports a press-service of the military district.

These complexes — development of domestic manufacturers. They are armed with special forces, reconnaissance, artillery units and infantry formations.

The complexes with UAVS are used during tactical exercises at various levels, the firings at the stage of coordination of units, and lessons in driving combat vehicles. Well as unmanned aerial vehicles used during field outputs of the troops of radiation, chemical and biological protection units of the military and intelligence.

The equipment of the troops of the WMD complexes with UAVS increases their capabilities in solving problems in the first place by collecting and making available to the control points necessary data in real-time.

Note: this year call for the first time has passed competition of professional skill among calculations of unmanned aerial vehicles using the UAV "Orlan-10" and "Aileron-3". Soldiers competed in stealth and rapid selection of the starting position, the Assembly complexes, preflight preparation, applying flight plan on the map of the area, the withdrawal of the BLAH in the area of intelligence, and his landing at the judges place.

In 2018, the competition will be called "Air control". Units of the secondary cooling zone, equipped with BLAH, have already started preparing for the international Army games-2018.

Specialists of the Center of space monitoring has taken to support ground-based means the Main centre for the exploration of outer space videoconferencing apparatus "Space-2524". About it reports Department of information and mass communications of the Russian defense Ministry.

Information about the new object was included in the Main catalog of space objects of the Russian system of space monitoring after launch on 2 December of the apparatus "Space-2524" with the Plesetsk cosmodrome carrier rocket middle class "Soyuz-2.1 b".

After the specialists of the Center of space monitoring analysis and processing the coordinate and non-coordinate information about the apparatus "Space-2524" new space object, adopted for the support of ground-based space control Space forces VKS.

THE ARMED FORCES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION FOR A WEEK

http://мультимедиа.минобороны.рф/multimedia/infographics/armyweek/gallery.htm?id=49171@cmsPhotoGallery

ABOUT THE TESTS

The Ministry of defence released video of the launches of anti-aircraft missile systems "tor-M2". The tests were performed at Kapustin Yar in the Astrakhan region.

Firing was done at targets simulating modern tactical aircraft, cruise missiles, planning of bombs, drones and group flying aircraft at altitudes from 15 meters to 10 thousand meters and range from 3 to 12 kilometers.

The first samples of the equipment made available to the military in 2016. Earlier in 2012-2016, the army received the intermediate version of "tor-M2U" (also known as "tor-M1-2U"), a total of eight divisional sets.

Reference: tor-M2" is deeply modernized family of air defense systems "Thor", featuring the new rocket 9М338К. Compared to previous versions, ammunition for the military machine increased from 8 to 16 missiles.

In the framework of the state tests the crew of the large landing ship "Ivan Gren" in conjunction with the Marines of the Baltic fleet has started tests on loading and unloading of military equipment. About it reports a press-service of the Western military district (ZVO).

The crew of the BBC, together with representatives of the factory acceptance tests the team's main power plant, the communication, check the fore and aft forming devices.

In the next few days the crew of the "Ivan Gren" will complete shooting on marine and air targets, carry out mine-laying.

Reference: BDK "Ivan Gren" – the head ship of the project 11711 developed by JSC "Nevskoye design Bureau". It was founded in December 2004, launched in may 2012, the mooring trials of the ship began in October 2015. BDK project 11711 is the development of large landing ships project 1171, perfectly proven in decades of service in the Soviet, and later Russian Navy. A large part of the structure has undergone major changes.

SCIENCE AND PRODUCTION

The specialists of the holding company Ruselectronics of state Corporation rostec, has developed a prototype mobile device responsive to movement of the human eye. The development is aimed at the development of technology to control equipment with a glance. The prototype device presented at the exhibition "Health care". This reports the press service of the holding.

The development of "Roselektronika" is able to capture eye movement and depending on the task to interpret it as control signal or as the process parameters of human perception of visual information. Tracker provides a record of a number of motion parameters of the human eye and can potentially become part of a complex of registration and analysis of various biophysical signals in natural conditions (Mobile Brain / Body Imaging). The development is made by the staff of the Institute of electronic control machines them. I. S. Bruk (INEUM, in the holding structure included in the division of JSC "control Systems").

The hardware device is a glasses equipped with two pairs of digital cameras. Front facing cameras that can record information about the environment, which comes to the operator and the other two with infrared illumination and tracking the movement of his eyes. Software tracker allows the calculation of at least seven of the most common metrics oculomotor behavior.

Objective parameters registration of the eye movement provides researchers and developers in the field of neuroscience is a powerful tool for the analysis of processes of perception and processing of visual information man. Mobile tracker can be used for solving two task groups. The first is the passive collection and analysis of information obtained, for example, for medical purposes in the study patients, including early diagnosis of mental disorders, or commercial – to assess the effectiveness of the advertising materials or the website interface.

The second task group is associated with the use of the look vector as a control signal to interactive systems.

Background: currently mobile tracker is eye movements have already been applied by the specialists of "Roselektronika" hardware-ADC-01 which is intended for people incapable of speech or motor communication with others due to lesions of the nervous system. The instrument is equipped with a special screen, which displays the user interface. Locking eye movement and the time interval during which the view of the patient focuses on a particular letter, the device displays the letter on the external monitor. Thus, the patient is able to form messages to others, including, has the ability to ask for help.

The Russian technology company "Frigate ecojet" will now proceed to determine the technical face of the new wide-body short and medium aircraft", Fridge", said in an interview to "Interfax-AVN" programme Director Alexander Klimov.

He noted that the strategy of implementation of the "Frigate ecojet" based on the principles of distributed use of resources - financial, human, intellectual, computer. "More than 20 companies cooperating in the framework of this approach, such as technodynamics, AKKA Technologies, Thyssenkrupp System Engineering and many others", - said Alexander Klimov.

According to him, "thus, there is no need to accumulate one's own competence in the performance of high-tech jobs if it is possible to use already existing, and the share of domestic suppliers is becoming more impressive every day."

A. Klimov has reminded that earlier it was planned to install on the aircraft engines in the class pull 18-23 tons, but due to the fact that in the short term, their appearance on the market is unlikely, it was decided to use part of the power plant's four Russian PD-14 engine development and production of the United engine Corporation.

"Excess thrust, formed with the use of a new power plant, created the conditions for realization of principles of "more electric aircraft" and a number of other leading design solutions that gets the product on a trajectory of development of the airplane of tomorrow", - said Alexander Klimov.

Reference: the New wide-body short and medium aircraft", Fridge" at takeoff weight of about 140 tons can carry up to 300 passengers to a distance of 3,500 kilometers.

"ARMY-2018" and "NATIONAL SAFETY WEEK"

Speaking at the meeting of organizing Committee on preparation and holding of the international forum "Army-2018" and the "Week of national security," Deputy defense Minister army General Pavel Popov said that the activities of both forums will be held from August 21 to 26. About it reports a press-service of the defense Ministry.

He also explained that the forum "Army" has already won worldwide recognition as one of the leading exhibitions of arms and most authoritative platform for discussing the issues of further development of Armed Forces and strengthening of international military-technical cooperation. International forum "Week of national security" – new event, which aims to strengthen the economic and political interests of Russia as one of main manufacturers and exporters of special equipment and technologies, development of international cooperation in the field of security, creation of favorable conditions for promotion of Russian developments and innovations in the field of national and global security.

The exposure of the "Week of national security" is proposed to arrange on the activities of the Federal bodies of Executive power in the field of national security.

Based on the experience carried out earlier conferences the following order:

  • 21 Aug 2018 – opening forums, the official part, the first persons of the state, heads of government bodies, industrial enterprises and foreign delegations;
  • on 22 and 23 Aug – a days work for the specialists;
  • from 24 to 26 August to Friday, Saturday and Sunday – the days of the forums to the public.

The proposed order of work will allow to optimize the joint work of interested Federal Executive authorities and organizations efficiently carry out the activities of the forums, to ensure the separation of specialists and visitors, to increase attendance.

The formation of the exposition of the forum "Army-2018" provides on a single design format management full life cycle of samples of military products from defining requirements, to disposal.

In addition, in anticipation of the 100th anniversary of the founding of the signal corps in the framework of the forum "Army" will be deployed exhibition of IT-technologies, information systems, complexes and means of communication.

Is expected to grow both in quantity and quality of national pavilions and exhibition stands of foreign companies. Today about increasing their exposures already stated Armenia and Belarus. Interest in the organization of the national exposition had previously expressed Turkey.

Within the upcoming forums provides updated large-scale demonstration program. Its significant extension proposed due to the inclusion in the programme of activities to show the capabilities of weapons, military and special equipment, and operations divisions of the interior Ministry of Russia, Federal service of national guard troops and other Federal Executive authorities, as well as display weapons and equipment from foreign countries.

Will get further development and aviation cluster at the airport Kubinka.

It is planned the participation of foreign aerobatic teams in the demonstrations.

In the framework of scientific and business program will discuss major public policy issues and interdepartmental cooperation in the field of safety, finding solutions to problems in the areas of defense, protection of national interests, security of a person, medicine, business, information protection, as well as energy, food, transportation, environmental, industrial, construction, nuclear and radiation safety.

Background: According to preliminary estimates, the forum will be attended by more than 1,500 enterprises and organizations, which will present 20 thousand samples of products and technologies. The total attendance of the forums is expected to reach in excess of one million people.

ON MILITARY-TECHNICAL COOPERATION

Comprehensive deepen strategic cooperation with China is "an absolute priority of Russian foreign policy", said the Russian defense Minister, army General Sergei Shoigu at a meeting with Deputy Chairman of the Central military Commission of the PRC Colonel-General Zhang Call.

Sergei Shoigu has congratulated Zhang Call with the appointment and expressed confidence that his "substantial experience in the personnel officer will contribute to the development of the people's liberation army of China". About it reports a press-service of the defense Ministry.

The Minister of defence of Russia has reminded that last year celebrated the 15th anniversary of the Treaty of good neighborliness, friendship and cooperation between Russia and China.

"An important role in bilateral relations play a special relationship of trust between the leaders of Russia and China. Russian President Vladimir Putin as chief guest participated in the forum of "One belt, one road", which was held in may in Beijing. In July, the visit of Chinese President comrade XI Jinping to Russia. In November, held substantive talks with leaders on the sidelines of the APEC summit in da Nang," said the head of the Russian military.

Sergei Shoigu stressed that Russia pays close attention to the implementation of the agreements reached at the highest level.

SIGNIFICANT DATES

December 9 - heroes of the Fatherland Day

On December 9, Russia celebrates the Heroes of the Fatherland Day. On this day honoring the Heroes of the Soviet Union, heroes of the Russian Federation, full gentlemen of order of Glory and Cavaliers of the order of St. George. This is similar to the Department of information and mass communications of the Russian defense Ministry.

The title of hero of the Russian Federation and a special sign of distinction – the medal "gold Star" was established on 20 March 1992. 11 APR 1992 medal "gold Star" № 1 was awarded to cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev, who in April 1989 became the Hero of the Soviet Union.

A memorable date was adopted the Federal law of the Russian Federation № 22-FZ dated 28 February 2007 "On amendments to article 1-1 of the Federal law "About days of military glory and anniversaries of Russia". The revival of the tradition of celebrating the day of heroes is not only a tribute to the heroic ancestors, but also honoring the living Heroes of the Soviet Union, heroes of the Russian Federation, members of the order of St. George and order of Glory.

In just 25 years from the date of the establishment of the title of hero of the Russian Federation, the highest award of the country received 637 soldiers. 76 continue their service in the armed forces. Among them – not only combatants, but soldiers who committed heroic feat in peacetime.

The tradition of honoring heroes of the Fatherland arose in the 18th century. This December day, was the outstanding event of the reign of Empress Catherine II — in 1769 she established the order of St. George. In those years, this order was awarded to soldiers who have shown battle prowess, bravery and courage. The order of St. George had 4 degrees of difference, of which the first was the highest. It is known that holders of all four degrees of steel 4 people, among them the great Russian commanders M. I. Kutuzov and M. B. Barclay de Tolly. Catherine II awarded this award in honor of the institution of the order.

Before 1917 this day in Russia celebrated the feast of St. George Cavaliers. After the October revolution of 1917 the order was abolished.

The status of military award was returned to the order of the President of the Russian Federation of 8 August 2000 "On approval of the Statute of the order of St. George, mark of distinction – George cross". Since that time, awarded the order of St. George IV class – 9 persons, III degree – 1, degree II – 3. Distinction – George cross IV degree – 553 non-commissioned officers, warrant officers, sergeants and soldiers of the Russian army.

In Soviet times, the highest degree of excellence was considered the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, established in April 1934. For 57 years this title was awarded 12772 people, including the Ministry of defence – 12265.

In 1943, to reward enlisted men who distinguished themselves at the fronts of the great Patriotic war, was established a kind of analogue of the Russian order of St. George — the order of Glory I, II and III. Awarding the order was held until the summer of 1945. During this period, its holders became 2640 people.

Has Prepared Anna Beglaryan


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