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War in Black Africa and contemporary international politics
Material posted: Publication date: 02-04-2014

Africa in the 90's plunged into the chaos of wars of all against all despite the end of the cold war. In Angola, after initially reaching an agreement on a ceasefire and withdrawal from the country of Cuban troops was created by the UN mission (UNAVEM -United Nations Angola Verification Mission). In may 1991, the mission was transformed into the UNAVEM-2.
Under her control in September 1992, elections were held, the results of which are recognized by the UN, but has not recognized the opposition UNITA. As a result, in October 1992 fighting was resumed, and the UNITA forces almost took Luanda.

In March 1993, UNITA forces took the town of Soyo on the coast of Angola, where there was a large center of oil refining industry and oil terminals. To restore control over the town government of Angola was engaged South African private military company "Executive Outcomes", which brought in fifty of their employees (1).

In June 1993, the company signed two contracts with the government of Angola, each worth around forty million dollars, the government of Angola and the training of pilots the air force of Angola.

The contracts were paid for by means of Western oil companies, and the granting of oil concessions. The company has hired Executive Outcomes in South Africa five hundred veterans of the armed forces, and most of them were black.
For support the company received from the government of Angola fighter-bombers MiG-23 and Mi-17 helicopters.In the submission the company has received 16-th brigade of the army of Angola (1).

As a result of combat operations, developed and delivered by the company and its tributary forces from November 1994 to January 1996, UNITA forces had suffered a grave defeat. As a result, the leadership of UNITA agreed to talks. However, under pressure from the U.S. company “Executive Outcomes” was forced to curtail its activities in Angola.

 
"Executive Outcomes"


It is noteworthy that the well-known South African company "De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd.", founded by Cecil Rhodes in 1888 and controlling 80% of world diamond production and almost the entire diamond market, the main partners in the Congo and in West Africa, the Lebanese traders (2).

One of the most influential of them was Imad Bakri, who was the chief supplier of arms to UNITA (2) , so cool the attitude of the representatives of the company "De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd." to the company “Executive Outcomes”.

In Angola in 1995, the number of UNITA reached 63 thousand people. Plans for demobilization in accordance with the agreement in Lusaka on 20 November 1994, had not been implemented (3).

Although UNITA had suspended hostilities, but troops continued to hold the diamond regions in Angola.
The UN peacekeeping force in February 1995 were converted to UNAVEM-3, and from July 1997 MONUA (Missao de Observasao das Nacoes Unidas em Angola).

In June 1998 after the crash for unknown reasons, which killed several leaders of the UN mission in Angola, UNITA forces took the offensive and captured several villages. In December 1998, in Angola full-scale war began. The UN mission had considerable success, and in February 1999 at the request of the government of Angola it was closed. In the fall of 1999 the Angolan government forces went on the offensive, inflicting a serious defeat UNITA, capturing its supply base and centre in Andulo (3).

In January 1995 the company "Executive Outcomes" has been awarded a contract with the government of Sierra Leone on the Sierra Leone army and, in fact, carrying out combat operations against the RUF rebels (Revolutionary United Front), which at that time entered the capital of Sierra Leone Freetown and took control of the mines titanium oxide "Sierra Rutile" and bauxites "Sierramoco" (1).

 
"Executive Outcomes" in Sierra Leone

It was assumed that the company every month of combat operations was paid the sum of one million to one million two hundred thousand American dollars. In its activities the company used three helicopters Mi-17 and one Mi-24 helicopters purchased in Russia and manned first Belarusian and Russian crews, and then the South African crews.

 
Helicopter PMC "Executive Outcomes" in Sierra Leone

The company "Executive Outcomes" was sent to three hundred of its employees in Sierra Leone. In April-may 1995 from the rebels was cleared Freetown, and in August of the same year, from the rebels by the company was cleared and diamondiferous area Koibu. Later was organized by the company on the helicopter to the headquarters of the United revolutionary front, in which the headquarters have been destroyed (1).

For the operation in Sierra Leone was brought and another private military company - International "Charter Incorporated, ICI", based in the U.S. state of Oregon (4).
Its management consisted of former soldiers of special forces of the USA, whose task was to attract attention to the role of the United States to prepare a "peacekeeping" contingent of the army of Nigeria and to carry out its combat and logistical support in the combat zone (4).

However, in practice Sierra Leone's rebels, notorious systematic amputation of limbs and eyes being poked out his opponents (it is known that the RUF rebels killed five thousand people and amputated the arms, legs or poked the eyes out of several thousands), and attacked the Nigerian troops, so battles had to participate and the Americans. The ICI company to work in Sierra Leone also used the Mi-8 with Russians crews (4).

As a result, in November 1996 was signed the peace agreement in Sierra Leone, and in February 1997 the contract with the government of Sierra Leone has been discontinued.

In 1998, another PMC - American company MPRI from the Pentagon has awarded a contract to train the armed forces of Equatorial Guinea, and in 2000, the company MPRI was awarded the contract for the reform of the army of Nigeria.

The emergence of PMCs in West Africa was due to similar problems, because UN peacekeepers have proven ineffective in Africa, devoid of its former colonial system of governance.

An example is the war in Rwanda in October 1990 the revolt of the Hutu tribe, which constituted the majority population of Rwanda, against who ruled the country for the Tutsis. The Rwanda army and militia armed militias of the Hutu tribe - the "Interahamwe" - began the massacres of Tutsi tribe, were killed, according to various estimates, from half a million to a million Tutsi.

Tutsis organized the Rwandan Patriotic front and was able to go on the offensive and with the help of Uganda to seize power.

In neighbouring Burundi, which came to power Tutsi, whereas the Hutu who shared in several groups, launched a guerrilla war with support from Zaire and Angola, since 1993 also began a civil war, which killed 200,000 people and 1200 000 - became refugees.

The UN mission in Rwanda (UNAMIR) was founded in October 1993 by resolution No. 872 of the UN Security Council. The number increased 2548 man with a gradual increase up to 5820 (3).

By may 1994 was established the relative safety, but only in the triangle Kibuye - Gikongoro - Cyangugu case in the area of responsibility of the French military contingent.

However, peacekeepers are unable to prevent a new massacre in April 1995 in the refugee camp Tutsis in Kibeho. In the end, intervened in the conflict of Uganda troops, entered the territory of Rwanda. As a result, the UN mission in Rwanda was closed (3).

In the end, in the territory of neighbouring Zaire was like a refugee camp-the Tutsi and the camp of Hutu refugees, which served as a mobilization base for the creation of armed detachments.

These units became participants in the civil war in Zaire (Congo) between the rebels of Laurent Kabila, supported by the Americans, and the President of Zaire Mobutu, supported by the French.

Laurent Kabila was a native of Katanga province and one of the members of the movement of Patrice Lumumba. Kabila was in Union relations and one of the leaders of the Tutsi in Rwanda, Paul Kagame, Minister of defense of Rwanda, who later became its President.
The President of Zaire Mobutu SES Seko was hostile to the Tutsis who had fled to the Zaire, and represented for him a constant threat, and supported the Hutu.

7 October 1996 Vice-Governor of the province of South Kivu in the East of Zaire issued a decree of expulsion of all Tutsis from the province for six days. This caused a revolt of the Tutsi. Already the 10th of October Tutsi attacked a camp of Hutu refugees under the city lemere, and then the rebellion expanded throughout Eastern Zaire. It was founded the movement of ADSO (the Alliance des Forces Democratiques poor la Liberation du Congo-Zaire), headed by Leon Kabila, which included both Tutsi units, and units subordinated directly Kabila, including tribal militias Bantu provinces of North Kivu and South Kivu, the so - called Mai-Mai (5). The total number of forces ADSO reached ten thousand people.

The army of Zaire, as it quickly became clear, were unable to withstand the Tutsi. The combat-ready Mobutu was only the presidential guard - DSP,a separate unit of the military intelligence - SARM,the battalion of special purpose –Dragon - and airborne corps of the total number to 15 thousand people (5). The rest of the Zaire army, and gendarmerie forces total up to hundreds of thousands of people have shown themselves unfit for combat. Fifty tanks, two hundred APCS and IFVs, and a dozen light attack aircraft MB-326 and five fighters from the Mirage-5 was in working condition.

Rebel forces ADSO during the month, with the support of the Rwandan army established control over Eastern Zaire, capturing the town of Uvira, Goma and Bukavu, and defeated the former Hutu camps in the battles of Mugunga in November 1996 (5).
5). . 5).

After the capture of Eastern Zaire in December, besieged the city of Kisangani, and on 12 December, Kabila declared a truce. However, Mobutu, he returned from Switzerland, gave the order to mount a counteroffensive on December 18, the directions of the Bunia-Beni and Fizi Baraka. However, the counterattack was repulsed.

Mobutu then announced the mobilization, being able to "put under the gun", according to Konovalov, up to 26 thousand people. The government of Zaire was carried out by instructors from France and Israel. Because in Zaire there were two French reconnaissance - one of the 13th parachute regiment and the second from the away team Commandos, Mobutu signed a contract with French military intelligence about the creation of the "White Legion", led by Belgian mercenary, Christian Tavernier (5).
Part of the Legion were recruited three hundred people from France, Belgium and Italy, but the bulk was made up of mercenaries from the Croatian and Bosnian Serbs -veterans of the 1991-95 war in the former Yugoslavia (5).

 

Serbian mercenaries Kabila

According to the materials of the trial, held in 2012 on the fact of war crimes in Bosnia against one of the members of this Legion -Franz KOs, a Slovenian by birth, a soldier of the 10th diversants squad of the Republika Srpska army, set in Serbia was carried out by the French intelligence petrusich the Yugoslav - Serb by nationality, acting in coordination with military security of the Republika Srpska Army and the state security Department of Serbia (6). The bulk of one hundred twenty mercenaries, recruited in two sets, were veterans of the 10th diversantov of the detachment, whose commander, Milorad Pelemis was also in the Legion (6). The recruitment was carried out through the company "Geolink", one of the owners of which is Slobodan Lazarevic, a former employee of military security army of the Republic of Serbian Krajina, during the trial at the International Tribunal in the Hague gave evidence against Slobodan Milosevic in favor of General of the army of Croatia, Ante Gotovina (6). When in the fall of 2011, Slobodan Lazarevic, had also French citizenship, along with French national Philippe Verdon was captured in Mali local al-Qaeda, it turned out that Lazarevic and Verdon were members of the French secret service (7).

 
Serbian mercenaries Kabila

Part of the "White Legion" were included the MI-24 helicopters from French and Belarusian pilots, helicopters Puma French Puma and Gazelle, as well as purchased in Yugoslavia light attack aircraft "Galeb" and "Hawk" and preserved in the air force of Zaire fighters Mirage-5. The Legion was stationed in a training camp near Kisangani, where his forces, along with two-thousand contingent of Zairian elite parts was the 20th of January to begin a counteroffensive with the support of ten-thousand Hutu forces were South from Kisangani (5). In addition, another two and a half thousand Zairian soldiers were deployed in the districts Kindu-the Locanda and Kalemie. The instructors of the "White Legion" were distributed by units of the army of Zaire for their preparation (5). Although in the beginning of the offensive aircraft of the "White Legion" destroyed several columns ADSO forces, and the forces of the Legion and Zairian troops defeated a detachment of ADSO under the village of Moengo advancing on Kindu, the offensive failed. Tavernier, 2nd February, all his strength was removed from the front and concentrated in Kisangani. However, after the 1st of March was captured Kindu, already on March 15th and Kisangani fell, and the forces of the "White Legion" were evacuated to Kinshasa, and from there abroad (5). By the spring of 1997 Kabila's forces consisted of forty thousand people. In mid-may, they went to Kinshasa. By that time, Mobutu resigned from the post of President of Zaire (5). On may 18 Leon Kabila proclaimed himself President of the democratic Republic of the Congo, returning to the old country the name, and the 22nd of may, his forces established complete control over the territory of the country. However, some groups Hutus continued to wage a guerrilla war against Kabila, and then objected to it and the tribal Mai-Mai.

In the neighboring Congo in 1998 and also broke the fighting between the government troops of President Denis Sassou-Nguesso, on the one hand, and squads of "Ninjas" of former President Pascal Lissouba and the groups "the Zulus" of the former Prime Minister Bernard the Kolel, on the other hand (3).

After two years fighting in the DRC has started again, as the forces of Tutsi in the North-East of the country came into conflict with the government of Kabila, supported by Uganda.

2 August 1998 the DRC army units created from the Tutsi 10th infantry brigade, deployed in Goma, and the 12th infantry brigade, deployed in Bukavu, revolted (5).

A rebel group led by Colonel Jasem Cabrera the aircraft arrived in training camp kitona in bas-Congo, where he was forced retraining fifteen thousand former soldiers of Mobutu, and there raised a revolt against Kabila.

Tutsi forces had created "the Congolese movement for democracy (Rassemblent Congolais pour la Democratie), which consisted of about fifty thousand fighters (5).

Its disadvantage was the lack of armored vehicles, aircraft and heavy artillery. However, as the Tutsis power was fully controlled by the leadership of Rwanda, the latter has introduced into the territory of the DRC dvenadtsatiletny troops. An ally of the rebels became the Angolan movement UNITA, whose four thousandth contingent was also in DRC (5). However, the former force Mobutu created his own "Movement for the Liberation of Congo(Mouvement de Liberation du Congo)", which was under the control of the government of Uganda also sent to the North of the DRC, controlled by this motion, shestnadtsatiletnij troops.
 
Military police of the army of Uganda

Burundi has also sent aid to the rebels shestnadtsatiletnij troops and provided for their support group river boats. The urban population of the army Leon Kabila was estimated at one hundred and forty thousand people, despite the fact that most of it was scattered and the backbone of the presidential guard, military police force, rapid reaction force and the 50th infantry brigade a total strength of fifteen thousand people. The force had two hundred units of armored machinery (5).

On the side of Kabila fought the forces of Hutu from Rwanda and Burundi, which reached the number of fifty thousand people. But the main force Kabila were troops of Angola, sent here five-thousandth military group with a large number of tanks and supported by aircraft. An important role was also played Zimbabwe, sent to eleven thousand troops in the regiment of commandos, airborne regiment, a reconnaissance regiment and the "cavalry" regiment "Grey scouts" (5). The Zimbabwe army was supplied with weapons by the British Bredenkamp, which supplied arms to the South Rhodesia. Bredenkamp thanks to the support of Mugabe played an important role in the Congo, first supplying weapons to Kabila, and after the victory of Kabila received in the development of mines with cobalt (8).

The economic interests of Western TNCs were key in this war. Sending here two hundred thousand troops from Namibia, and participation in hostilities private military company "Executive Outcomes" can only be explained by similar interests. Participation in this war on the side of Kabila Chad, sent two thousand troops, due to the fact that the troop had been paid by Libya, whose leadership, evidently had its own interests in the DRC (5).

In the end, in the Democratic Republic of Congo started a new war between the armed groups of Tutsi forces supported by Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi, and Kabila's army and allied forces her Hutu, but also against the divisions of the armies of Angola, Chad, Namibia and Zimbabwe.

Armored units of the Angolan army was able to repel the rebel offensive on the capital, where Marines were sent from Zimbabwe, supported by helicopters AB-412 and fighter-bombers, F-7 (MiG-21).
Units of the army of Rwanda has demonstrated its superiority over the army of Zimbabwe, trying to fight based on landing of the landing force, which are often caught in ambushes Rwandan units (5).

Although the 19th of January 1999 was signed in Lusaka in Zambia, agreement on the cease-fire, after the end of the rainy season, the rebel offensive has resumed.The rebels attacked the areas of Lubumbashi, Mbuji-Mayi and Mbandaka.
In battle heavy losses were suffered by contributors as Zimbabwe, whose battalion in a battle near Kabinda was devastated, and Uganda, who lost 230 soldiers in the battle for Mbuji-Mayi (5).
The 11th of July 1999 was signed a peace agreement in Lusaka, according to which all foreign troops were to be withdrawn from the DRC.

However, in August 1999 in the DRC, clashes between troops of Uganda and Rwanda in Kisangani, and between supporting their Tutsi factions. "The Congolese movement for democracy (Rassemblent Congolais pour la Democratie)" was split into two parts with headquarters in Kisangani and Goma.
Taking advantage of clashes in the ranks of former allies, Leon Kabila had brought the army up to chislennosti 56 thousand people, and bought a large amount of weapons in the States of the former USSR and the former Yugoslavia, as well as in China and North Korea. In Georgia was purchased ten su-25, Iran -operational-tactical missile complexes (5).
 
Congolese Su-25

Although the contract was made about entering the military observers of the UN, it did not prevent the resumption of war, and in may 2000, the Rwandan forces attacked units of the army of Uganda under Kisangani.

Taking advantage of this, groups of Hutus attacked in the same 2000, the town of Uvira, which was under the control of the Tutsi.
Army Kabila together with forces of Zimbabwe launched an offensive on the position of Tutsis in the province of Shaba. However, the Angolan government refused to support Kabila and the beginning of peace talks with Rwanda and Uganda.

As a result of force Tutsis and the Rwandan army launched a counteroffensive in the province of Shaba and occupied the town of Pweto.
16 January 2001 Leon Kabila was assassinated in his residence by conspirators from the ranks of its own army. He was replaced by his son Joseph Kabila. In 2001-2002 active hostilities was not conducted. 27-th of September, under U.S. pressure, the government of Rwanda is beginning the withdrawal of troops from DRC, but here in the DRC, fighting resumed between the Tutsi and the Mai-Mai in the provinces of North Kivu and South Kivu (5). In may 2003 in northeastern DRC province of Ituri fighting broke out between the tribes, the lendu and Hema (3). The conflict that took place around the town of Bunia, was completed with the arrival of French troops and the UN troops, however, fighting between the tribes continued. 30 June 2003 between Joseph Kabila and "Congolese movement for democracy (Rassemblent Congolais pour la Democratie) and the Movement for the Liberation of Congo (Mouvement de Liberation du Congo)" a peace was signed, under which Joseph Kabila retain command over the General staff and the Navy, "the Congolese movement for democracy (Rassemblent Congolais pour la Democratie)" control of land forces, "the Movement for the Liberation of Congo (Mouvement de Liberation du Congo)" - on the BBC, and the country was divided into ten military districts, at the head of which stood the leaders of the tribal groups. The country was devyatnadtsatiletnyaya deployed military contingent of the United Nations. Economy the DRC has worked so that Western multinationals under the protection of private military companies besprepyatstvenno exploited minerals.

This has not prevented the new Tutsi rebellion in June 2004 in the provinces of North Kivu and South Kivu. Colonel Laurent Nkunda, who led the uprising, had five brigades, and was resisted for years the weak army of the DRC, and in October 2007 successfully repelled the attack not only of the army of Kabila, and the UN troops, despite the use of the latest armored vehicles and air support from the Indian Mi-35. 22 January 2009 the Colonel Nkunda was arrested during the RAID of the Union army to Rwanda.

Only according to rough estimates by the UN during the war, 1996-2003 in DRC has killed up to four million people.
Bet the Americans on the army of Senegal and Nigeria in West Africa and the army of Uganda and Kenya in East Africa for their use in peacekeeping missions has not justified itself. Surface approach to their production, based on short-term courses, did not affect the essence of the African armies, so a large part of the funds allocated by the USA, just stolen a military-political response. The failure of the ECOMOG peacekeeping troops in Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone, the passive behavior of African Union peacekeepers in Somalia prove that the rate of Americans on the African continent – a lost cause. In this case, African countries have not been prepared and partly the higher average team of personnel, capable of fulfilling combat tasks. In addition, the downsizing of the French military contingent in Africa to five thousand people has a serious blow to the ability of the U.S. ally — France — to conduct independent operations in Africa. The created "inter-regional power" of armies of the countries of the former French colonies (Ghana, Namibia, Guinea, Cape Verde, côte d'ivoire, Mauritania, Mali, Senegal and the Lusophone Guinea-Bissau), in practice, was ineffective, although he carried out several exercises of these forces .
As a result, in Mali in 2012, the French had again to enter own forces, in order to prevent the coming to power of Islamic fundamentalists.
 
French troops in Mali

Another pillar of the UN in Africa – South Africa - is not crucial in the UN peacekeeping operations in Africa, as by the policy of the UN in the fight against apartheid South Africa no longer has the effective army it had in the 80-ies, when her troops were able during the operation "Protea" put Cuban troops facing the threat of rout.

It is clear that the military security in Africa – fragile and ready to collapse at the first large-scale occurrence of the same Islamic fundamentalists from Sudan and Somalia at large-scale outside support, and even more so with the direct participation of military contingents in the countries of Northern Africa and the Middle East, for other forces ready to upset the equilibrium, on the African continent just yet.

NATO does not currently have the required number of troops for operations in Afghanistan. Its regional command South headquarters in Naples now has the opportunity to participate only in a relatively small peacekeeping operations in the Mediterranean and in the fight against illegal emigration.

The same applies to the created in the "Western European Union" "South euroserum".

The only force at the moment in Africa is the USA, created in 2008 the military command in Africa - AFRICOM. This command has a limited contingent of Marines, capable of solving problems in a given country, and the emphasis is on training of the allied armies.

AFRICOM launched its activities in many African States, such as, for example, in Ethiopia, Sudan (Darfur), Uganda, Rwanda, Congo, Seychelles, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Nigeria, Liberia ,Cameroon, Gabon, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania.

They started a program AFRICAP (Africa Peacekeeping), which provided logistical support, training and preparation of the armed forces, construction, security of Maritime navigation, provision of equipment, operational command, aviation observation (encompasses logistics support, construction, military training and advising, maritime security capacity building, equipment procurement,operational deployment for peacekeeping troops, aerial surveillance and conference facilitation ) with the priorities for the armed forces of southern Sudan, the peacekeeping forces of the African Union (African Union -AU) in Somalia, and the armed forces of the government of Somalia, the armed forces of the Congo (Zaire), Liberia and Sierra Leone, and in peacekeeping forces of the Economic community of West Africa (Economic Community of West African States -ECOWAS).

11 September 2009 State departartment USA ( US Department of State) announced that during the tender process, conducted in the framework of the program AFRICAP (Africa Peacekeeping), which has been allocated 1.5 billion dollars, contracts, divided into equal parts for 375 million dollars, received four company - PSI (Protection Strategies Inc), DynCorp International, AECOM, and PAE (Pacific Architects and Engineers). By and large, the main goal was to counter the threat to American interests from the forces of radical Islam associated with al-Qaeda, and the expansion of China in Africa. For this purpose was carried out and other program - ACOTA (Africa Contingency Operations Training and Assistance), which was under the control of the Pentagon. According to it until the end of 2010 forces command (it is about 3,500 instructors) should be prepared 75,000 troops of the African armies. Just in this area and received contracts for private military companies. For example, with the beginning operations of the African Union force in Somalia, private military company MPRI, PAE and received the contracts for the training of military contingents from Uganda and Burundi, formed the basis of the peacekeeping forces of the African Union - AMISOM.
 

Members of the army of Uganda in peacekeeping forces of the African Union – AMISOM in Somalia

In October 2011, was initiated the input of a military contingent of the army of Kenya to southern Somalia as part of operation army of Kenya "Protect the Nation". Her troops in an urban population of 1,600 troops quickly began to increase, and Kenyan troops have expanded their operations and on the center of the country.
 
The Kenya army in Somalia

Using this, the peacekeeping forces of the African Union –AMISOM, achieved by the time of chislennosti nine thousand people and had in its composition of military advisers of PMCs PAE Group, in December 2011 - January 2012 dealt a blow to the forces of "al-Shabaab" in Mogadishu, throwing them in the suburbs.
 
Fighters "Al-Shabaab"

Transition summer-autumn 2012 military contingent of the Kenya army, supported by aircraft and helicopters jointly with the armed forces of the transitional Somali government forces and African Union – AMISOM - attack against the forces of "al-Shabaab" has led to the fact that "al-Shabaab" lost their positions in Mogadishu and in several key cities.
However, the command "al-Shabaab" has managed to maintain its organization and most of its personnel, and its forces continued to conduct military operations.

Then, in what direction will develop, depends on the ability of the armies of Kenya, Uganda, Burundi and Ethiopia in Somalia to conduct military operations, for without their support the Transitional government of Somalia is unable to resist the enemy.
In addition, in Kenya there are about two and a half million Somalis. Here influential Islamic community, which may facilitate the transfer of hostilities to the territory of Kenya.
How explosive the situation in Kenya, showed the riots that took place in the main port of Kenya, Mombasa after the killing on August 27, 2012 by unknown of Sheikh Aboud rogo. The death of this Sheikh, who was in the State Department's list as a person associated with al-Qaeda, has sparked riots in Mombasa, and Kenyan Muslims clash with police in Kenya. During the clashes, which killed several people protesters Muslims have been burnt several churches. There have been armed attacks against the police with small arms and hand grenades, during which killed two police officers and another sixteen policemen were injured.

In Africa because of the instability of the situation PMCs is very important for ensuring the activities of the various public and private Western corporations, including the protection of areas with specialists of these companies. For example, in Kenya, are widely represented in this area, G4S, and in Uganda - company "Saracen", by hiring local staff, hiring sub-contract a local security company, are active.

In Nigeria, especially in the Niger Delta, where there was a noticeable increase in the influence of those groups of Islamic fundamentalists (the most influential organization of them:Boko Haram, Hisbah,al-Sunnah of Jumma Wala, Muhammad Yusuf Movement), who advocate maintaining the armed struggle against the "Christian" South and the Western oil companies, the same kind of security activity is conducted by the PMC such as Control Risk, Erinys International, Armor Group, Triple Canopy.
 
The Army Of Nigeria

The army of Nigeria, leading active operations against Boko Haram, also composed of military advisors from MPRI PMC, later renamed to Engility Corporation.

Increasing efficiency in the actions of PMCs, which in Africa began to penetrate in places of armed conflict already before the coming of the American army suggests that they become an independent factor in American politics.
In this case the American army would probably be a developing political environment and increased threats to increase financing of programs of training of the armies of African States. Without going into questions of how politics of the modern international community contributes to the pacification of Africa, which, in fact, on the example of Libya is more than obvious, it should be noted that for PMCs in the ongoing wars there is no main condition of successful PMCs - the presence of military units of NATO armies or their very limited number. Thus the situation, in some way, out of control, and the modern media exaggerated the degree of influence American policy and spending is the impact of PMC on one or the other country involved in wars.

The war in Somalia, Sudan and in Libya have created new questions for contemporary private military companies, because in this case there is a completely different situation than in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, where data of the company and has held such an important place.In this case, it requires a much higher level of staff training and the organization of the PMCs than it did in Iraq and Afghanistan, where operational management of these PMCs may be a single call to the headquarters of the neighboring States part to solve all the problems in the relationship with the command of the local forces and attack enemy forces. In Africa such a challenge is much more challenging, and because of the tenders for contracts in accordance with the rules "ACOTA Contract Procedure Guide" allowed companies such as MPRI and PAE whose management and staff have many years experience of military service and participation in training programmes, but also in the conduct of operations special purpose.

Organization PMCs allows short term and, if necessary, long-term planning of operations, what is significant in Africa, where PMCs are organically linked to the plans and activities of AFRICOM command. So the program of instruction - POI (Program of instruction) prepared by the PAE and MPRI companies go through the process of verification in command of AFRICOM in accordance with the requirements of rules of conducting operations in support of peace - PSO(Peace Support Operations). In addition, programs in engineering data preparation operations are coordinated mine action centres - MAC (Mine Action Centre), established by the UN in several African countries.
 
Deminers of the peacekeeping forces of the African Union – AMISOM in Somalia

The selection of employees for PMCs program ACOTA is performed by management companies based on the requirements of the AFRICOM command, and the experience of activity of the companies.
The use of PMCs allows the command of AFRICOM to act more quickly, because the sending of military forces to train foreign armies requires complicated procedures in the U.S. Congress and the U.S. Department of state.

However, what is happening in Africa, quite possibly will eventually be a habitual picture for the rest of the world.
As Clausewitz wrote, war is the continuation of conducting policy, and from policy, in turn, depends on any economy that, in fact, gives scope for PMCs. However, any policy depends on national, racial and religious factors. Economy, run by the British, Germans, Russians, Arabs, Tajiks, Americans and Brazilians operate on different principles. Plays an important role and what ratovomalala group is the bulk of the workforce, primarily qualified. Economic recovery in Europe in the second half of the 20th century was used for the settlement of millions of Africans, established of which management will drive Europe to the African level. This will inevitably lead to the fragmentation of state bodies adopted in Africa and Asia scenario. Simply put, the Western world will take is typical for the Third world vices tribalism and corruption, for the migrants themselves, of which Angela Merkel recently called upon to recruit more civil servants, their psychology is not much different from the environment of their "national" States. In such circumstances, it will inevitably affect the armed forces of Western States, which are degrading under political pressure from left-liberal circles. It is unlikely, of course, the owners of modern transnational corporations are particularly concerned about this development, because, apparently, they asked this course of these events. However, for more effective protection of the interests of their own companies, they would probably be all for greater involvement of PMCs are based on the current stimulus money. This gives a certain space for similar activity and less influential forces in the world in accordance with the assumptions of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem Professor Martin van Crevald made in his book "Transformation of war" on the future of "fragmentation" of the war (9). Such "fragmentation", according to Martin van Creveld meant a whole array of various actions - from terrorist to guerrilla and political extremism to economic sabotage.

In such circumstances the PMCs is becoming an important factor of the fighting.
 
Ugandan employees of PMCs ”EODT” in Iraq

The Charter of U.S. army FM 3-90.119, is devoted to the conduct of operations against IEDs, now considering PMC integral part of the operations of the American army in a number of positions. In fact, a natural process occurs when military strategy is determined not policy, and the owners of transnational corporations. For the last growing interest nowadays is Africa. As well as use of the American army due to the lack of a clearly defined enemy there is, in General, hard, modern PMCs play the role of a kind of operational mechanism for management of local African armed forces.

 

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RELATED MATERIALS: Defence and security
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