The United States rely on air war. Barack Obama on the long-awaited press conference stated that ground troops are the Americans in Iraq will not be introduced — will have to fight the local militias, which Washington will help money, and USA focus on air strikes. But the American President promised that the war will go on until, until the "Islamic state" will not be destroyed. Why is the USA so important the elimination of this group and what it represents?
On the restoration of the Caliphate spokesman of the "Islamic Caliphate" Sheikh Abu Muhammad al-Adnani al-Shami announced on the first night of the Holy month of Ramadan June 29, 2014. He proclaimed that "the dream of living in the heart of each believer a Muslim, became a reality; a hope, from which the stronger beats the heart of every Mujahid became flesh and blood. We are restoring the Caliphate, and from now on every Muslim owes allegiance to Khalifa".
Ironically, the Caliphate was proclaimed on the day after the 100th anniversary of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sofia. This event started the chain that led to the outbreak of the First world war, which buried the Ottoman Empire and divided the once unified world of the middle East into many small States. Thus, the restoration of the Caliphate marked the end of centuries of disasters and the reunification of all Muslims, the first step towards Muslim Renaissance.
How to build a Caliphate in eight years
The history of the "Islamic state" dates back to 2006, when, with the support of al-Qaeda was created by the group "Shura Council of Mujahideen". Later it was joined by small terrorist cells, and by the end of the year the organization was renamed "Islamic state of Iraq". In 2013, the group has increased so much that as an independent power took part in the war against the regime of Bashar al-Assad, on this occasion changing the name to "Islamic state of Iraq and the Levant" — ISIL for short.
In the course of the war in Syria in the opposition camp has been a split between supporters of secular authorities and Islamists. ISIS, along with allied "Front EN-Nusra" were among the last, but gradually roads allies dispersed. In February 2014 al-Qaeda rejected ISIS in support, declaring as his representative in Syria, "the Nusra Front". After this, former comrades began to each other merciless war. Making sure on a quick success in Syria can not count, ISIS decided to transfer the main forces in Iraq.
In early June, under the rapid blows of the fighters collapsed front of the Iraqi army. The militants took Tikrit and Mosul, the fighting was on the outskirts of Baghdad. Upon the occurrence of the Islamists seized tanks, armored personnel carriers, Humvee, guns and mortars, night vision devices, mountains of small arms, helmets and bulletproof vests — now they are armed not worse than the Iraqi army. On the wave of success of IGIL announced the establishment of a Caliphate and changed its name to just "Islamic state". To stabilize the government in Baghdad had succeeded only with the help of fighters from the Iranian "Islamic revolutionary guard Corps" and the American air strikes. Have any fragile equilibrium. Just by this time had accumulated enough evidence from the occupied "Islamic state" territories on the basis of which the political scientists stated that the terrorist group has managed to create a quasi-state and even successfully manages it.
According to Sharia law
Capturing the territory, the militants have faced the need to somehow manage it. The Islamists used the methodology developed by the Lebanese Hezbollah. From scratch they created an efficiently operating judicial system based on Sharia law: for theft have their hands cut off, for confessing another religion is sentenced to death. At the same time, local officials were not touched by anyone, especially those who are responsible for the hospitals, the functioning of law enforcement, garbage collection and other utilities. In some cities retained their seats even mayors, appointed the Assad regime, continued the work of the staff of the dam which provides the Syrian city of Raqqa with electricity and water. When necessary, the Islamists are willing to overlook the lack of loyalty of former government officials.
In the same raqqa operates the traffic Department, regularly providing penalties to violators. Local residents claim that the taxes levied by the Islamists, are far lower than those that take Damascus and Baghdad. Works even organization protection of consumer rights. Military and civilian are paid from the newly-established financial management, combining the functions of the Ministry of Finance and the Bank, is not very large, from 400 to 600 dollars a month, but it is sufficient by local standards. Those who fight for the Caliphate, are provided with housing confiscated from Christians and Shiites fled or officials. Running the programme of assistance to the poor: the woman, the survivor receives 100 dollars a month and the same amount for each child.
Special attention the Islamists are paying uninterrupted water and power supply. In the occupied cities have Sewerage in some areas post offices are open. Islamic state opens hospitals, building new roads and runs bus routes, restores school (but for boys). Work program to support small businesses aimed at revitalizing the local economy. The distribution of products, particularly bread, is under strict control — the only way to feed the population, in some areas on the verge of starvation. Introduced a special tax on the wealthy merchants in favor of the poor.
Thanks to the work of oil companies Caliphate illegally sells black gold abroad, mostly to Turkey and to the South of Iraq, receiving tens of millions of dollars from big business. Typically, these payments are disguised as a ransom for allegedly captured hostages. Another source of income is the transfer of money from supporters of the "Islamic state" from all over the world.
According to the American expert on protivoprotosanam operations David Kilcullen, the danger of ISIS is that "they combine the fighting capabilities of al Qaeda with the administrative capabilities of Hezbollah, they have a state-building agenda and an understanding of the importance of effective management". It is actively demonstrating understanding of the self-styled Caliph: Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi called for "scientists, preachers, judges, doctors, engineers and people with military and administrative expertise" to join the Islamists to help them in difficult management. And many respond: experts, in particular, come from North Africa, China and Europe. So, for telecommunication systems in raqqa meets PhD from Tunisia who voluntarily joined the militants.
The Islamic state also launched a campaign to win hearts and minds in Mosul, for example, staged a football match and a competition for memorizing and reciting verses from the Koran. And, according to U.S. intelligence data, it is not fruitless: civilians are willing to cooperate with the Islamists, because they were tired of the chaos of the civil war, and the "Islamic state" creates working institutions and allows them to make a life.
Enemies and allies
"Islamic state" is engaged in state building in conditions of severe competition. The main danger to the Caliphate is al-Qaida, the once closest ally and now bitter enemy of the new state. Each of the factions claiming leadership of the Jihad against the infidels, and al-Qaida is losing. It is a conglomeration of nearly independent groups, only nominally subordinate to Zawahiri. In practice, there is a solid core under the leadership of Zawahiri and lots of small groups or otherwise associated with it.
The struggle between supporters of "al-Qaeda" and "Islamic state" goes around the East, from Morocco to Indonesia. If "al-Qaeda" — the reputation and support of many Islamic scholars and theologians, which the movement obtained in previous years, the "Islamic state" wins by a highly centralized state, and the proclamation of the Caliphate. It also has the generous support of English-speaking radical groups — supporters of Abdullah al-Faisal, the self-styled leader of the American Muslim revolution, and Angela Chaudhary from Britain, which recruits volunteers-Islamists in Europe for Jihad in Syria and Iraq.
Enough, however, and undecided: the Pakistani Taliban, for example, said that belong to the "Islamic state" with great respect, but the pledge to bring not going. And the infamous Nigerian group Boko Haram issued a statement in support of the Caliphate. However, inconsistent performances from its leader, Abubakr Shekau remained unclear whether he recognizes the Supreme authority of the Caliph, then if he applies for this position.
The origins of the complex relations of leaders of Islamic countries to the "Islamic state" are in the title of "Caliphate", which boldly assumed the militants. In Islam there can only be one Caliph is the Supreme head of all Muslims, who had once Supreme secular and spiritual authority.
Not accidentally, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the self-styled Caliph, who took the name Ibrahim, sign at the end of his name "al-Husseini" — thus claiming descent from the Prophet's grandson, Imam Hussein. In Muslim tradition, the descendants of Husayn — Sayyid — enjoy special respect, obedience to them a duty.
The press service of the "Islamic state" argues that indeed Abu Bakr is from the Quraysh, who ruled Mecca and was forced to hide his real name and origin because of the enemy. Thus, judging by attestations of eyewitnesses, among the militants of the "Islamic state" Caliph enjoys genuine respect. It inspires fear his cruelty and intransigence, and personally approves the sentences of the convicted. However, those who saw him in battle, describe Abu Bakr as a brave and experienced commander, well the steering forces. In battles with the Syrian army under Raccay he was slightly injured but remained in the ranks. The Caliph's always on the road — Abu Bakr moved between Raccay and Mosul, it is often on the front line, where troops are encouraged.
Bid for success
How much poison was poured on the former opponents of Abu Bakr, now Caliph Ibrahim, to ignore the existence of the Caliphate. No peaceful coexistence with the Caliphate in its present condition it is physically impossible.
In fact, the formation of the Islamic Caliphate, a move that completely reverses the whole complex system of checks and balances that emerged in the Islamic world. Since the abdication of the last Caliph was the established system of relations between secular States that somehow, but worked. The proclamation of the Caliphate returns to the Arab world at a time when it was necessary to obey only the leader of Muslims. And the leader of this moderate secular President and Islamist hard, and laws in the Caliphate based on Sharia law. This post-secular state like the one that arose in Iran after the Islamic revolution. But Iran has remained within its borders, and the Caliphate wants to subordinate the entire Islamic world and sword to push its boundaries to the lands of the infidels. Coexistence with him impossible.
It is not surprising that leaders of Islamic States, and the United States with its allies are trying to destroy the monster that they themselves nourished. Some even hope to use the Caliphate in political games, others rely on its complete destruction. It is theoretically possible that over time it will turn into a normal middle Eastern country, but why wait? Easier bombit the Caliphate in the land, than to seek ways of interaction.
Faith and firepower
Judging by the fact that said Barack Obama, the US intends to act according to the usual pattern, using your strongest weapon — strikes. This option has the added advantage — a minimum of losses. The country has 13 years of waging war, which are insalubrious for your budget. Obama came to power, including, promises to stop it, and return troops to Iraq, from which they with such pathos brought, means finally bury your rating and the rating of his party.
Airstrikes, the Pentagon resumed on 8 August, the intensity was constantly increased and, according to Obama, will increase further. They play an important role: thanks to Sturmovik air managed to release several settlements, to reflect the advance on Erbil, hold Mosul dam. The main focus is on knocking out military equipment: the majority of tanks and armored vehicles that Islamic state, paid from the pockets of American taxpayers. This technique has been handed over to the Iraqi army and captured by the Islamists during their victorious offensive in June-August. According to American data, down 42 withdrawn Humvee, 87 truck vehicles, 3 tanks, 16 armored personnel carriers and two self-propelled guns. But most of the technology already fled across the border to Syria. Theoretically it is possible to get there, but there is a serious problem: the Syrian air defense is one of the best in the region. The Israeli air force several times successfully breaking through the positions of the Syrian anti-aircraft calculations, but large-scale air campaign will lead to inevitable losses. So, Americans, anyway, have to look for contacts with the Assad regime.
Air strikes will restrict rapid shots of Islamists, who, say the generals of U.S. forces, much borrowed from the Americans, having carefully studied their quick raids across the desert during the war with Saddam Hussein. However, now the situation is different — then the American mobile teams covered the most powerful air force in the world, now they, on the contrary, hinder the promotion of groups of the IG. As stated by American and British generals, the shock of low intensity there is not enough. Need a large-scale campaign to American aircraft hung over the battlefield constantly, making hundreds of sorties a day. The air war in the spirit of General Douai, more powerful even than the war of 2001 in Afghanistan, because the enemy this time is much more serious.
In the current situation Russia is helping the regime in Baghdad, sending fighters and advanced helicopters, artillery and systems of volley fire. For Moscow, the preservation of the existing borders in the middle East, let artificial and vulnerable, much more profitable than changing. If the "Islamic state" will fail to destroy in the Bud, on the southern borders of the CIS in the long term there may be a new entity that claims the territory of the Central Asian republics and even some of the Russian regions. But the danger for American interests in the middle East is much more serious, and in these conditions, Moscow could not afford to participate in the conflict directly.
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