On 27 February on the official site of Rosarkhiv, the hosted collection of documents "the Polish armed underground "helped" the red army to defeat Nazi Germany." 61 of 70 document will be released for the first time. The publication is devoted to the first of March, when Poland celebrates the Day of remembrance of the "Cursed soldiers".
It is a public holiday, dedicated, as it is written in the law, "the heroes of the anti-Communist underground, which while protecting the independence of the Polish State, the right of self-determination and democratic principles of the Polish society, in arms or otherwise resisted Soviet aggression and imposed by the Communist regime". The details of these "exploits" our conversation with the head of the Federal archival Agency, the Chairman of the Board of the Foundation "Russian-Polish centre of dialogue and the consent" Andrey Artizov.
Andrey, "RG" it is known that Rosarkhiv is preparing a multi-volume compendium on "the USSR and the Polish military and political underground. April 1943 - December 1945" is Why some of those documents you choose to publish electronically in advance?
Andrei Artizov: We had a really long thought, to publish these documents or not. Maybe did not need to hurry with the website, and to wait, when there will be a multivolume. But stung to the quick, to put it mildly, strange Polish official historical references: that Auschwitz was liberated by Ukrainians, it is possible to arrive to celebrate the Victory should not in Moscow, and in Gdansk! Manual of modern Poland denies contribution to the defeat of the Nazis red poles and considers characters only white. Has recently published the book of the Polish Professor Grzegorz, that is what this "RAID on the white poles". We know of this scientist, he's a professional and a leading expert on the subject of Polish-Ukrainian relations. Translation into Russian of the book, that is what this "From Volyn massacre to operation Vistula funded "Russian-Polish centre for dialogue and reconciliation".
And here's his other job made, we will note in fairness, on the basis of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian and Polish archives. The first sentence of the Preface: "the Term "RAID", as indicated by "Etymological dictionary of the Polish language" by Alexander Bruckner, means "hunting for the beast with the beaters, with ablanica". This term from the field of hunting terminology reflects the position of the soldiers of the Polish underground, which since 1944 had been to the Communist repressive apparatus in fact what is game for hunters". Further describes this RAID with the participation of the battalion of the NKVD. In particular, mention the 64th specilize internal troops.
In the book there is a Chapter called "Crimes of the red army soldiers" with separate sections on "crimes against Germans" and "crimes against the poles"... there are plenty of facts showing how they were destroyed. But respected historian Motyka not always is normal in such a situation the question "what For?" Assuming that a question from someone still there, he concludes: "all the actions of the home Army soldiers is "forced armed self-defense against the actions of the Communist authorities".
But the documents that we published today, tell a different story. "Armed self-defense" kills employees of the hospital and the wounded in the fight with the Nazis red army soldiers. On the field in the Polish town gets faulty Soviet aircraft: one of the pilots looking for where to call him: killing him. Killed by the hands of Samooborona and the battalion commander, recently awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union for the forced crossing of Dnieper and returning after treatment to his family in a short vacation. And this is all during a fierce war with the Nazis! Moreover, the soldiers gouge out your eyes, rip open the bellies. This is evidenced by the report of a forensic medical examination.
Note on a document from the archives of the FSB. These are excerpts from letters of Soviet soldiers home, illustrirovannye military censorship. Fighters write that into the woods of small need to go impossible - to kill. I was particularly struck by the case in puławy. Document of 15 September 1945: officer went for a swim while he was floundering in the river, it swam up akovtsy and killed.
The voluminous document on the subject of "self-defense" is a list of the dead of the red army from late 1944 until may 1945. Only the names and in the same order - the grounds for entering in the mournful list of reports, acts of expertise: missing, killed, destroyed. In this list of about 700 people. About this and other similar lists should not be forgotten. The selectivity of historical memory, unfortunately, is characteristic not only for the General reader, but also for scientists. When such an approach is becoming dominant among professionals is a problem.
It is on the basis of such opinion and adopted biased political decision EN masse to all the participants of the underground units of the home Army to declare heroes, "accursed soldiers", and to put monuments to them.
700 dead - complete data?
Andrei Artizov: No, not full. The task of documenting all the cases and deaths of the red army at first was not. More or less complete documentation appeared only from may 1945, when Lieutenant General Selivanovsky was authorized under the Ministry of public security of Poland and ordered it. Therefore, when Stalin led the killings of the red army in Yalta, the complete picture he had. But we are talking about thousands of dead.
That is, the allies knew about what was happening in the rear of the advancing red army.
Andrei Artizov: the Information contained in the letters of Stalin, leaders of the US and the UK. 8 December 1944 - in a letter to Churchill, 27 December - Roosevelt, which States, facing terrorist attacks kill our soldiers.
Poland, its postwar borders was dedicated almost half of the Yalta conference. For sure, was talking about "shots in the back"?
Andrei Artizov: We published part of the transcripts of the Yalta meeting of February 6, 1945-th year, where Stalin said that the Polish question it is very worrying. The Soviet Union makes on their shoulders the brunt of the fight for the liberation of Poland, fighting Germany. Here's a situation where we cannot guarantee the security of their rear, when terrorist attacks against soldiers of the red army, providing against the rear of the units, including medical and veterinary services... How to treat this, asked allies the head of the Soviet delegation? Roosevelt asks to come back to this issue later, takes a short pause. Returns to his apartment in Livadia Palace in the same night dictates the answer of Stalin on the letterhead of the White house, as if writes from Washington. It sends Molotov U.S. Secretary of state Stettinius the morning the next day. This answer shows how neatly fits the President of the United States of America to the issue that there were no superfluous disagreements between the allies. He writes that it is necessary to find a compromise that their main common enemy - Nazism, cannot afford the luxury of strife in such a difficult environment. And that he was impressed with the word "Marshal Stalin" about what's going on in the rear of the red army. And most importantly: "Your rear should be provided".
These two pages answer Roosevelt in translation personal translator of Stalin and Molotov - Pavlova. In them - the official estimate of the United States of America. There is a war, and in the rear of one of the allies are operating clandestine armed forces of the London Polish government, which itself was a member of the anti-Hitler coalition. It turns out that these underground workers were accomplices of the Nazis and prevented the defeat of Nazi Germany.
Andrei, the subject of the poles in the Second World war until recently closed a good-natured film "Four tankmen and a dog". When we learned that there were other poles?
Andrei Artizov: While the Soviet Union existed and the Polish people's Republic the theme of anti-Soviet underground was forbidden. Because it's too sensitive issue. In a letter to Stalin explicitly States that behind our front line with the Germans is a civil war between red and white poles. White later acknowledged that the Soviet Union brought the liberation of Poland, more often used the term "occupation".
In the late 60-ies, when once again the internal political situation in people's Poland worsened, the then Polish authorities appealed to Moscow with a proposal to debunk the halo over the Army, to tell in historical research, as "heroes of the Polish resistance" behaved against the red army and the Soviet Union. But the Soviet leaders of progress in this initiative was not given, and papers on this subject have yet to be revealed. In the 90-ies of the historical differences, including the assessment of the Second world war, were not so keen as it is now. Today we are forced to deal with these issues. War "historical memory" is not our choice. Not we started. The Russians, as heirs of the Victory are self - sufficient. Including because do not deny the so-called inconvenient facts, how difficult was the situation in Poland, and that Polish people are among the first victims of the Nazis, and the occupation of the Reich killed more than four million poles. Remember that poles were deported after 17сентября 1939 the Red army arrived, remember and about Katyn.
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