The publisher of CSK has already published a series of books by Oleg Valetsky, which show this author as a good theorist, is able to convey a simple and accessible to the wider language is quite specific to the problem.
On the RNL have already announced some of the books in this series: "Managed aircraft weapons the US and NATO"and "the Spread of missile technology in the third world".
We offer our readers the text of the conversation with the editor and co-author of several chapters of a new book by Oleg Ponomarenko.
The transformation of modern means of destruction has fundamentally changed military strategy. Tasks that were and are in front of the defense, are understood on the basis of understanding: what exactly can represent the impact of a potential enemy.
What can explain the shift of priorities in the era of the Khrushchev/Kennedy?
The missile defence issue is not accidental that in recent times increasingly the object of attention in the news. You have to understand that with the beginning of the cold war for the Soviet Union the presence of air defense and later missile defense, seemed a necessity, caused by the peculiarities shown by military organizations.
The basis of the strategic offensive arms of the US for the first time after the end of world war II bombers, which was, and remained in the future, numerous enough, in spite of the reduction characteristic of later time periods. With the development of rocket technology was soon added the threat of ballistic missile attacks the US, it should be remembered that the Americans at the initial stage of the strategic arms race far ahead of the Soviet Union in the deployment of a large number of modern bombers, ICBMs and SLBMs.
For Americans the threat was limited to the period when the Soviet Union made a qualitative and quantitative leap in the creation and deployment of ICBMs and SLBMs. But the United States, reaching some success in developing a missile defense system, considered inefficient its operation, given the limited combat capabilities in terms of avalanche at a time of growth in the number of warheads on strategic carriers. And this decision actually had a good reason. By the way, one of the "gravediggers" has already been deployed by the American system was Senator Edward Kennedy that is mentioned in the book. And the air defense system for them had local significance, primarily protecting deployed in Europe, groupings, while the threat from strategic bombers of the Soviet Union was seen as limited, and combat was supposed to be a fighter aircraft, meeting them on the distant approaches to the continental United States.
USSR is in the process of construction of air and missile defense systems has created a powerful technological base in the field of military technology, but, unlike US, did not stop there, as the state and development of aviation means of attack, the US and its allies, as well as their practical application (in those days - especially Korea, Vietnam, and since 90-ies - Iraq, Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, Libya, etc.), clearly demonstrate the level of them coming from danger. The significance of the backlog and unrelenting, with certain exceptions, attention to the development of air and missile defense systems has led to the fact that at the present time countries such as China, India, Turkey, Saudi Arabia acquire or intend to acquire such modern Russian air defense system-PRO, as-400. Note that the manufacturer of a number of systems, the EBA Concern "Almaz-Antey", the last three years is at the 11th place in the well-known rating Defensenews top 100 largest manufacturers of military equipment in the world, that the company of such specialization is an outstanding achievement.
What are the military challenges facing the U.S. missile defense system?
For Americans, the practical missions were:
1) the front cover on the land theaters, primarily in Europe, which led to the creation of such a core air defense systems, and now with the addition of functions ABOUT how the Patriot;
2) providing air defense of the fleet, which led to the creation of a system of Aegis, in the process of its improvement are also additions to function ABOUT.
The fundamental difference is that the Soviet Union was a permanent job in the field of improvement of various air and missile defense systems with the goal of creating a layered defense, while the US has stayed, relatively speaking, rational development of similar systems based on threats which long time was small and they felt relevant. Accordingly, the technical requirements specifications for the development and financing was objectively reduced. The last few decades the main problem in the field of air defense for the United States was providing cover from expeditionary forces, that primarily means the cover of the fleet, transport routes, areas of deployment. Since the beginning of action of forwarding forces at the expense of striking power of military aviation forces of the enemy in the form of air and missile strike weapons should have been suppressed.
This approach has failed, for example in Iraq when the hunt for tactical missiles Scud to prevent their application was not successful, while the rockets were launched in large numbers, including hitting the database of the U.S. armed forces, which led to loss of personnel. Since that time, in addition to occurred supply from the USSR, the technology of relatively simple tactical and operational-tactical missiles spread in third world countries so that the problem of protection against them has become much more relevant.
To it was added the problem of expanding the list of potential enemies of the United States, which are on the verge of creating a more perfect samples of such equipment, including ICBMs and SLBMs. A vivid example - North Korea, the second on the way - Iran.
What about the Iranian missile program is now not talking as about North Korea should not be misleading. The goals of the country are the same.
What tasks put before him the leaders of the countries conditionally "third world" when trying to bet on the development of rocket technology?
It is an objective process, and one of the objectives is to deter a more powerful military enemy. The reasons for this course of events is obvious - the creation of military aircraft for most countries is impossible, and even if it would be possible for them to compete with technologically more powerful force West to the theater of operations is not likely to be. The acquisition of modern aircraft and the road is problematic, and in reality may not live up to expectations. While rocketry is at a significant amount and it is acceptable as allows to form a serious threat to superior to you in many components of the enemy, and the protection from it is extremely complex technically and expensive. And this despite the fact that the effectiveness of such protection is not guaranteed.
Note that, if we talk about the latest period of the military confrontation in Yemen, the Houthis have launched, according to one, order at least 8 dozen OTR (according to others, only successful interceptions were more than 100) in Saudi Arabia, in November 2017 attacking the capital's airport, where the air defense system-PRO was to allow the Saudis to avoid damage, knocking a rocket. Their air and missile defense, and in this case a complex "petriot" is questionable - while the available data suggests that entering the rocket probably was, but the head part still flew. Thus, the creation, the development of missile defense systems along with the proliferation of missile technologies have become a necessity not only for a few advanced countries, as it was previously.
Significant for understanding the level of threat of missile technology proliferation in the third world are the efforts in the field of creation ABOUT such countries as Israel, China, India, South Korea, the procurement of such systems in other countries, for example, acquiring a specialized missile defense systems THAAD United Arab Emirates.
Moreover, the problem of the proliferation of missile technology in the third world is not only the availability of TR and OTR as a serious drum means. The availability of the technologies leads to certain breakthroughs in the field of light weapons, such as, in particular, man portable air defence systems (MANPADS). This is an important form of weapons that could significantly impede the actions of combat aircraft in direct air support of their forces, create difficulties of transport aircraft, can be effectively used in subversive and terrorist purposes. Being compact weapons, MANPADS are easy to put, forward friendly forces, including the bypassing of international norms, and thus enhance their allies without delivery of heavy equipment.
The most advanced in the development of its own defense industry of the third world countries follow in the footsteps of the West, establishing the production of their samples of precision weapons, including aircraft. The biggest in the collection just devoted to controlled weapons, which the West was used in all the most famous campaigns of the last decades.
The value of this weapon, and first of all, the aircraft managed weapons, can be seen the results of those operations, which were conducted - Iraq 1991 and 2003, the Balkans in the 1990s, Afghanistan, Libya in 2011, Syria in recent years. And the value of it gets smaller. On the contrary, as it will evolve and become more accessible, more widespread, and already a third world country can afford a relatively simple samples, its value will only increase. That is why the overview of missile proliferation in the third world, despite the fact that he concentrated mainly on ballistic missiles, can be seen as one example of the General trend of proliferation of advanced military technologies in these countries in principle.
Overview of the escort ships of China is somewhat out of range of the collection.
This is not so. In this review reflected the process of establishment of the Chinese powerful means in the promotion and protection of their interests in the world.
Here we will emphasize two essential points - class ships a destroyer, a frigate, a Corvette, a major platform on which is housed a considerable Arsenal of guided weapons. From the point of view of the comparison of ships from attack aircraft, we can say that ships have certain advantages, especially given the nature of the military machine of China at present.
How these tools are useful and serious was shown by the Americans many times, and Russia in Syria. Russia has consistently used the Navy - surface ships and submarines as platforms for launching cruise missiles "Caliber", the Americans in Syria has caused a massive blow demonstrative CU in a total of six dozen units on the Syrian air base.
For China, dependent on Maritime trade, import raw materials, to a certain extent cut off from the continent inaccessible desert areas in the West and North-West, security of Maritime trade routes is a key challenge. But, in addition, such a fleet is also a means of expansion and turning the country into a dominant force in the world.
In the figurative comparison of one of the Western experts, if aviation and aircraft carrier groups deployed during a period of threat or in the case of operations can be compared with the rapid response unit, the escort class ships are something like a Sheriff or a police officer residing in place and ready to act immediately. The construction of such an escort fleet, which is described in the overview of the collection, clearly demonstrates the scale of ambition of the country not less, if not more, than favored by the media attention very modest - so far - the aircraft carriers of China.
In conclusion, I would like to dwell on the prospects of development of the EW.
The dependence of samples of guided weapons and the means of providing for their application, guidance systems, navigation, as well as the dependence of command and control of the means of communication and exchange of information on the field of battle, theater of war, makes them vulnerable to the application of technical countermeasures - electronic warfare, which are becoming more common and have recently attracted the attention of the military and specialized media, not least in connection with certain developments in Russia and, allegedly, their use during local military conflicts.
However, keep in mind that naturally means attacks will be improved with an eye to responses. As it always happened in the area of arms, the pendulum will swing in one direction and then the other. Therefore, to rely only on the use of electronic warfare, in the hope that they will help to protect against most types of guided weapons, it would be rash and presumptuous. Despite the importance of and respect for the theme of the EW - is a separate issue, but against Scud'and, against the rockets of Hezbollah flying in Israel, against the Chinese destroyers and frigates, the coast to throw 100-130-mm projectiles with a rate of more than 1 projectile per barrel, against cruise, guided missiles, and guided air bombs, guidance systems which are not susceptible to electronic warfare, it is not much help.
The basis of military power will remain the ability to create and apply a vast Arsenal of fire weapons of the enemy, even if the application of any part thereof would be neutralized by the EW.
The arms race continues, and soon the missile defense system will be as conventional weapons, armies, what was the air defense system, missiles will no longer be associated with the armies of developed countries, the complexity of military construction and combat increase, many changes in the military, the military of various countries and regions of the world should be treated with scrutiny as to the circumstances that change familiar or seemingly familiar, and familiar things and the world order.
Thank you for the conversation!
Pavel Tikhomirov, Oleg Ponomarenko
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