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The factors of victory in modern warfare
Material posted: Publication date: 31-10-2016
In article the concept of modern warfare revealed its difference from the total wars of the past, determined traditional and modern factors of victory. Selected base value full complete readiness for war. War, being prohibited by international law as an instrument of policy, remains and probably will remain one of the resolution methods of the geopolitical and economic contradictions.

Excluded for modern warfare some of the factors that ensured the victory in the great Patriotic war. In relation to the subject of the study the analysis of the Military doctrine of the Russian Federation allocated a key success factor in modern warfare – perfect military organization, including effective civil and military administration, communication, military and economic support on the basis of rational use of financial, material and other resources. Selected information factor of victory in modern warfare, differentiated on a set of technological tools of warfare and a means of complex influence on the enemy. Information war (including as part of the hybrid) is understood in the article as a kind of modern war. Critically evaluated the possibility of a final victory in such wars. Marked comprehensive implementation of all types of strategies of "soft power, smart power," information operations to establish "perception management". It is concluded that the expansion of the concept of "war" requires us to rethink the definition of victory in war that are not so clear and has success factors that are specific to each war. In local and regional wars victory should consider obtaining and securing geopolitical advantage of one of the parties, the achievement of the goal involved in entry into the war. Among the factors of victory in today's local and regional wars dominate, in our view, military-technical, moral-psychological, economic, informational.

 

The concept of modern warfare is understood in the scientific literature as of war using the concepts methods and military equipment, which entered into use during and after world war II and the Korean war. These concepts and methods are significantly more complex than classic forms of the past, largely due to the widespread use of modern information technologies[1]. Theory and practice of total war, used more than a century as a form of military policy, is now completely gone. With the invention of nuclear weapons the concept of total war is a threat to global destruction. In this context, all conflicts after the Second world war are characterized by "low intensity"[2], restricted to a regional framework using "conventional weapons" (not of mass destruction), usually in combination with the use of information and other means applied military and political intelligence.

Today, the war formally excluded international law from the methods of politics, but continues to stay that way. The alternation of war and peace in the history of mankind "was a natural and even to some extent the usual state"[3]. This has developed a strong understanding of the factors of victory in the war, conceptually based on the postulate of the Roman historian Cornelius Nepote "Si vis pacem, para bellum" (if you Want peace, prepare for war). Ancient wisdom, proven military-historical experience and today forms a common conceptual understanding of the main factor of victory in any war is a complete state of readiness. It is the willingness in all senses – economic, mobilization, military-organizational, military-technical, informational, psychological, moral, etc. in most cases ensures success in war.

At the same time it may constitute a contradiction. USSR untimely and insufficiently prepared to participate in the Second world war, but, nevertheless, came out of it a winner, and Nazi Germany, with long and carefully preparing for world domination, was defeated. The fact that the factor of readiness capable of providing tactical success that needs fixing. Protracted war always reduces the factor of readiness, gradually reducing it to the level of disruption. The identifying factors of readiness for modern war inevitably based on retrospective understanding of the factors of victory in the Second world war and the great Patriotic war. They are widely covered in the literature. With regard to the USSR is the patriotism and heroism of the Soviet Army and people, the geographical area of the USSR, mobilization type of economy, broad resource base, the help of allies.

Scientific analysis of the factors of victory in modern warfare is important both for the military and the political science and public consciousness, whose "the only positive reference point of national identity of post-Soviet society"[4] still may 9, 1945. In the current research, the prevailing belief that "the conversation from a position of strength remains the last and, as practice shows, the most effective argument of policy"[5]. In this case, inertial thinking, based on the experience of the world and colonial wars, comes to the inevitability of the application of the methods of "hard power" that was condemned by the international community and is ineffective. It is difficult to accept that war is "the most effective argument of politicians." The experience of protracted wars in Syria, Afghanistan and Iraq have shown that this argument does not apply, and "victory" in this kind of war turns into a defeat, and for all parties involved.

The position of our state, laid down in the Military doctrine of the Russian Federation[6], can still be expressed by the famous slogan "We are peaceful people, but our armored train is on the siding"[7]. For the protection of national interests and the interests of its allies the Russian Federation is committed to the use of political, diplomatic, legal, economic, informational and other instruments of non-violent nature. And only after their exhaustion allowed the use of military measures[8]. The military doctrine of the Russian Federation on the criterion scale identifies three types of wars: local, regional and large-scale, only in the last case points to the need for "mobilization of all available material resources and spiritual forces of the States parties"[9]. Thus, the factors of victory for different types of modern war have differences, although in the same.

The military doctrine of the Russian Federation directly does not define or list the factors of victory in modern war, but the meaning and spirit of the document, they can be clearly seen. The main attention here is paid to the development of the military organization, which remains the key factor in the victory and provides for compliance of the structure, composition and strength of all components of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation the tasks of wartime with the full provision of financial, material and other resources. The factor of military organization includes efficient and safe operation of the system of state and military administration, communication, military and economic support on the basis of rational use of material resources adequate to the tasks of the state defence planning, territorial and civil defense, reserves mobilization of resources, including weapons, integrated experience logistical, social, medical and scientific support of the armed forces, etc.

In addition to the logistical factors of victory in war should be attributed a high degree of information security of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, other troops and bodies, the prestige of military service, the willingness of citizens; active military-political and military-technical cooperation of our country with foreign and.

Special attention should be paid to the information factor of victory in war. It can be understood in two ways: as a set of technological means of warfare and as a means of complex influence on the enemy. In the first case, we give an example with a Directive from the Ministry of defense of the United States, where the concept of fighting introduced integrated management of information about all significant factors that affect the actions of the armed forces in the theater of military operations, including air, land, sea, and space. In this case, the information factor includes accurate operational knowledge of the environment, the conditions necessary for the successful application of combat exposure, protection or specific missions. Is information about their friendly or enemy forces, facilities, weather, terrain in the operational areas and the area of interest[10].

Speaking at a planned meeting of the security Council of the Russian Federation of October 1, 2014 dedicated to countering threats in the information sphere, the Russian President Vladimir Putin stressed that "some countries try to use their dominance in the global information space to achieve military and political objectives, while actively applying the information system as a tool of "soft power" to achieve their interests"[11]. Policy, which led it to Vladimir Putin in recent years has gone beyond "soft power" and transformed into a special kind of modern war, the struggle for control over the informational sphere, which, as rightly noted by the researcher N. P. Arapova, allows for manipulative influence on mass consciousness and social psyche that "is the essence of war as a socio-psychological phenomenon"[12].

Thus, the information war (including as part of a hybrid war) might be a kind of modern war. The final victory in such wars, to talk is difficult, because of their continuing status initiated by information and political reasons. Information warfare emerged in "period for the depreciation of the role of nuclear weapons, a significant release of man and of manpower in General, from participation in the armed struggle"[13].

In "joint doctrine for information operations," Department of defense information war qualifies as a complex influence of information operations on the system of state and military control of the opposing party and its leadership. This assumes the achievement of the result in peacetime, in the form favorable to the initiator of information influence decisions. In the course of potential conflict, such an impact should completely disable the management infrastructure of the enemy[14]. It follows that the information factor is recognized, the decisive factor of victory in war and in peacetime.

Intensification of informational war against Russia, as a rule, associated with the post-Soviet legacy (the Georgian-Ossetian armed conflict in August 2008, the Russian-Ukrainian gas crisis of early 2009, the situation in Ukraine in 2014-2015, in Syria, in 2015-2016, etc.) and start with "attack" designed to shape the overall negative image of Russia in the media, international organizations, and on this basis – the image of the aggressor in the public consciousness. To counteract information attacks built "protection", aimed at creating a positive image of Russia. You should accept that advantage in modern conflicts depends on the level of information and communication[15].

A special role in the modern information war plays a cultural component, which implements all of the types of strategies of "soft power", "smart power", being "information operations" to establish a "perception management". This factor of winning today becomes crucial. In October 1992, the former Deputy Director of the CIA Robert gates told the reporters force their walk on the red square "single parade of the victory", which became possible only through the organization of the "implosion" of the Soviet Union[16]. That was the end of the cold war, which also has recognized the status of war in political studies.

In connection with the diversification of the modern concept of war, compared with the classical understanding of the military historian and theorist Clausewitz, K., self-analyze the concept applies to both war as such (armed conflict between States), and a wide set of military and armed conflict, including coups[17]. Moreover, war is considered informational and economic antagonism. The extension of the concept "war" requires us to rethink the definition of victory in the war, earlier it very clear how the defeat and capitulation of the enemy, the seizure of its capital and the defeat of the army. Victory in modern warfare is not so clear, respectively, the factors of victory may be different, including specific to each type of war.

In local and regional wars victory should consider obtaining and securing geopolitical advantage of one of the parties, the achievement of the goal involved in entry into the war. Among the factors of victory in today's local and regional wars, dominated by military, economic and informational.

To the factors of victory in today's local and regional wars include:

  • an effective management system of military organization;
  • the high quality of operational, combat, special and mobilization training;
  • the integration and coordination of systems of technical, logistical and other support for the army, other troops and bodies;
  • staffing, equipment and security formations, military units and formations of permanent readiness in the most modern weapons, means of communication and support.
  • accurate prediction and permanent monitoring of military threats, content and nature of military conflicts, political, socio-economic, demographic and military-technical conditions and capacity of parties of local wars;
  • the use of precision weapons;
  • the professionalism of the military personnel;
  • the prestige of military service.

Factors of victory in a large-scale war seem deeper and more systemic, affecting the entire activity of the state not only in the military organizational and military-technical spheres. Such factors could include:

  • the science-based and conceptually developed military policy;
  • full and adequate military and economic support and funding of the armed forces, other troops and bodies;
  • stable functioning of the domestic military-industrial complex on the latest scientific and technical base;
  • the mobilization ability of the economy to meet the needs of the army, other troops and bodies in time of war;
  • the status of the mobilization base adequate to ensure the mobilization deployment of the armed forces, other troops and bodies;
  • constant readiness of forces and means of civil defense, guaranteed willing and able to perform their functions in time of war;
  • the ability to form regional forces for security and defense, military, state and special objects, objects of vital functions of population, transport and communications, energy, and nuclear and other dangerous objects;
  • the adequacy of potential threats to system deployment (basing) of the armed forces, other troops and bodies, including the country;
  • maintaining in depth on the strategic and operational directions of the military infrastructure;
  • the presence of a full supply of mobilization resources;
  • information security control of the armed forces, other troops and bodies;
  • standards and demanding time structure, material resources, and curricula of military educational institutions;
  • a high level of social security of servicemen, the full realization of their social guarantees;
  • mainly the contract system of manning the armed forces.

military-Patriotic education of youth on the basis of knowledge, understanding and skills to the assessment of real events of military history, the opposition as propaganda and mythologizing consciousness.

Given the high technology of modern warfare, the role of the factor of adequate military and economic support. We are talking about equipping the armed forces with armaments, military and special equipment, developed on the basis of the military-scientific potential of the country. This, in turn, requires a concentration of financial and material resources, effectiveness of their use.

Modern war requires complex equipment (re-equipment) of the armed forces with modern systems and armaments, military and special equipment and maintaining them in combat readiness. The experience of the war in Syria showed the need for a multifunctional (multipurpose) weaponry, military and special equipment with standardized components.

Modern war is always carried out using (testing) new models of high-precision weapons, means of combating air and space defence, communication systems, intelligence and control, electronic warfare, unmanned aircraft and robotic percussion complexes, systems of individual defence of personnel.

Modern warfare is impossible without the management based on information management systems and their integration with management systems and weapons complexes and automation of the management bodies of the strategic, operational-strategic, operational, operational-tactical and tactical scale. Factor of Informatization, as shown by local conflicts of recent years, provides a tactical advantage.

Own production of these weapons systems and equipment involves a coordinated development of the military-industrial complex in the system of military-economic activity of the state, integrated (in related fields) with the civilian and military sectors of the economy. Plays an important role in the protection of state secrets, the legal protection of results of intellectual activity of military, special and dual purpose.

The experience of local wars, the situation in Syria indicate that in the modern local and regional wars are often attended by various political and military coalition. Success factor in such wars will be the improvement of military-political and military-technical cooperation with foreign States. First of all, it is necessary for peacekeeping, confidence building measures and reduction of global and regional military tensions in the region and the world at large. At the same time, the factor of internationalization of the conflict provides political and other support that is essential for achieving the result.

Thus, modern war, with other than total wars of the past conceptual rationale, however, has the same key success factor – comprehensive state of complete readiness for war.

In modern warfare cannot be used by such factors of victory in the great Patriotic war, as the geographical space of the USSR, mobilization type of economy. Not guaranteed allies, not defined comparable with the military levels of patriotism and ability of the people to heroism and self-sacrifice.

Based on the commitment of the Russian Federation to use political, diplomatic, legal, economic, informational and other instruments of nonviolent action to resolve conflicts, Military doctrine of the Russian Federation is defensive in nature. Hence, a key success factor in modern warfare seems to be the perfect military organization, including the efficient and safe operation of the system of state and military administration, communication, military and economic support adequate to the tasks of the state defence planning, territorial and civil defense, reserves mobilization of resources, including weapons, integrated experience logistical, social, medical and scientific support of the armed forces, etc.

Thus, the extension of the concept of "war" requires us to rethink the definition of victory in war that are not so clear and has the victory factors specific to each kind of war. In modern war, victory must be considered obtaining and securing geopolitical advantage of one of the parties, the achievement of the goal involved in entry into the war. A huge impact on the victory are military-technical, moral-psychological, economic, and information factors. Success in modern warfare cannot be achieved without the forces and means of information confrontation, the formation of a single information space of the armed forces, other troops and organs.

List of sources used

  1. The military Doctrine of the Russian Federation. Approved. Russian President 25.12.2014 № PR-2976 // the Russian newspaper. 2014. Dec 30, No. 298.
  2. Creveld, Martin Van. Technology and War I: To In Charles Townshend The Oxford History of Modern War. New York, USA: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  3. Joint Pub 3-13 "Information Operations", DOD US, February 1998.
  4. Arapova, N. P. Socio-informatsiologii approach in the theory of information warfare: author. Diss... kand. polit. Sciences. 10.01.10. M., 2003. 21 C.
  5. Gudkov, L., Victory in war: towards sociology of a national symbol // Monitoring. 1997. No. 5 p. 12-19.
  6. Grushkin, P. J. Conflict and a new type of information space in post-industrial society// mass media in the modern world. St. Petersburg readings: proceedings of the 51st int. scientific.-pract. Conf. (19-20 April 2012) / ed. ed. S. G. Korkonosenko. SPb. St. Petersburg state University, 2012. With 164-169.
  7. The Security Council meeting 1 October 2014 Transcript // President of Russia. Official website http://www.kremlin.ru/news/46709
  8. Kuzmovich, A. V. War in the modern world political process, Army and society. 2013. No. 2 (34) Pp. 89-93.
  9. Kuzmovich, A. V. Evolution of the theory of modern war, Army and society. 2013. No. 1 (33) Pp. 138-142.
  10. Rybas, S. J. the End of the Soviet Union // Economic strategy. 2011. No. 7-8.
  11. Slipchenko V. I. Wars of the sixth generation. Weapons and military art of the future. Moscow: Veche, 2002.

 

[1] Creveld, Martin Van. Technology and War I: To 1945. In Charles Townshend The Oxford History of Modern War. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. – 2002. – p. 206.

[2] Opt. cit. p. 319.

[3] Kuzmovich, A. V. War in the modern world political process, Army and society. – 2013. – № 2 (34) – Pp. 89-93.

[4] Gudkov, L., Victory in war: towards sociology of a national symbol // Monitoring. – 1997. – No. 5. – P. 12-19.

[5] Kuzmovich, A. V. Evolution of the theory of modern war, Army and society. – 2013. – № 1 (33) P. 138-142.

[6] Military doctrine of the Russian Federation. Approved. Russian President 25.12.2014 № PR-2976 // the Russian newspaper. – 2014. – Dec 30, No. 6570 (298).

[7] Dunayevsky, I., Svetlov, M. "Song of Kakhovka" (1935).

[8] Military doctrine of the Russian Federation. Approved. Russian President 25.12.2014 № PR-2976 // the Russian newspaper. – 2014. – Dec 30, No. 6570 (298).

[9] ibid.

[10] US DOD dictionary – battlespace.

[11] the Security Council Meeting 1 October 2014 Transcript [Electronic resource] the Russian President. Official site. – Mode of access: http://www.kremlin.ru/news/46709 free. The title. screen.

[12] Arapova, N. P. Socio-informatsiologii approach in the theory of information warfare: author. Diss... kand. polit. Sciences. [Text] M. – 2003. – S. 12.

[13] Slipchenko V. I. Wars of the sixth generation. Weapons and military art of the future [Text] - M.: Veche. – 2002. – P. 26.

[14] Joint Pub 3-13 "Information Operations", DOD US, February 1998.

[15] Grushkin, P. J. Conflict and a new type of information space in post-industrial society // mass media in the modern world. St. Petersburg readings : mater. 51]. scientific.-pract. Conf. (19-20 April 2012) [Text] Resp. ed. S. G. Korkonosenko. – SPb. – 2012. – With 168.

[16] Rybas, S. J. the End of the Soviet Union [Text] Economic strategy. – 2011. No. 7-8.

[17] Creveld, Martin Van. Technology and War I: To 1945. In Charles Townshend The Oxford History of Modern War. New York, USA: Oxford University Press, 2002. – p. 91.

Vashchenko Natalia


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