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The philosophy of war in the context of the Ukrainian crisis
Material posted: Publication date: 01-11-2015
The article attempts to look at the Ukrainian crisis from the point of view of the philosophy of war. Invited to respond to a specific questions: what is the reason for war in Donbas, who is needed in that, and what consequences it has for the cultural space of the Russian world.

In the modern world in a cultural-philosophical paradigm war is represented the phenomenon awful, barbarous and doomed to extinction. Followers of such approach dream of the world of harmony and the actually-cultural society for ever cured of display of lack of culture to which they carry also war. Such points of view and dreams are based more on a version of religious belief, than on a sober estimation of events occurring all over the world both the human nature and a human society. To open anew all lozhnost the similar points of view it is not meaningful, enough to send all to work «war Philosophy» Andrey Snesareva, in introduction to which Andrey Evgenevich in detail enough considers similar statements of pillars of philosophical thought. By and large since the edition of this work has not changed anything, and the Second World War and numerous conflicts worldwide have only confirmed that fact that war as the phenomenon in human life and the states will not disappear in the near future anywhere and, on an extreme measure at present, it remains the phenomenon of human culture accompanying mankind throughout all its history.

For our article we will use definition of philosophy of war which was given by Andrey Snesarev: «the war philosophy is scientifically processed (or is easier obnauchennoe) a military world view». First of all, Snesarev offered for given subject to put a main point: why and what for to be at war? I suggest to consider this point in question in a context of the Ukrainian crisis and war for independence of Novorossii of Ukraine.

In March even before events in Odessa and the war beginnings in territory of Donetsk and Lugansk areas after a referendum in Crimea there was article in scientific magazine «Problem of national strategy» which was called «Use of handling technologies in the course of the Ukrainian revolution and information war against Russia». In event article in Ukraine have been considered, including, from the point of view of a hypothesis tehnogumanitarnogo balance. According to this hypothesis growing technological progress and increase in potential destructiveness of the weapon should be compensated development of new effective methods of cultural restriction of social violence. Destruction of such cultural regulators, displacement of balance towards increase in activity of aggressive individuals; occurrences in them of the weapon, and the main thing, possibilities it to use conduct to splash in social violence. Then I have written that «groups of self-defence of Crimea, armed potentially more destructive weapon, rather than insurgents of" the Right sector », have represented itself as« zhiznesberegajushchego the factor », the social violence which have prevented splash and crisis distribution on territory of Crimea».

Article left in magazine June issue. In time from a writing of article to its exit in Ukraine on May, 2nd there was an Odessa tragedy in which the crowd of aggressive Ukrainian radicals consisting mainly from football fans and members pravoradikalnyh of movements, has burnt in the house of trade unions of supporters of idea federalizatsii Ukraine, and divisions of National guards of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine and Armed forces of Ukraine under cover of "antiterrorist operation» have begun full-scale military approach against protesting east regions - Donetsk and Lugansk areas. Already on an example of these events it is visible that the conclusions made according to a hypothesis tehnogumanitarnogo of balance, about «zhiznesberegajushchem the factor» in which role groups of self-defence of Crimea have acted, supported by the Russian armies, have appeared true.

The situation in Crimea considerably differed from a situation in neogenic Donetsk and Lugansk national republics. If in Crimea at the first stage threat was made first of all by groupings pravoradikalnyh the movements, directed there for carrying out of actions of social violence and intimidation of citizens against Donetsk and Lugansk national republics divisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ukrainian army which are one of the most numerous and well armed armies of Europe have acted. Thus, in time from the Crimean events before events on Donbass in army and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine have been introduced pravoradikalnye elements of which numerous voluntary battalions, in particular, have been made. Other essential difference was that behind the back of the Crimean self-defence there was a Russian army with all its potential destructive power considerably surpassing Ukrainian, whereas the national home guard of Novorossii, armed originally only small arms, it was necessary to operate without hope of support from the Russian armies. In the first case we see considerable overweight in military potential on the party of Crimea, in the second case overweight over a home guard of Novorossii already on the party of Ukraine.

Consequence of two different situations were: in the first case - peace process of secession of Ukraine Republics of Crimea with observance of all rights of citizens (first of all the rights to life), in the second case - razvjazyvanie full-scale war with infringement of all conceivable ethical standards and the international agreements.

We see that military men do not act in a role of instigators and the war reason. Creation of groups of self-defence and a national home guard is natural reaction of a society to threat of application of violence in relation to it from aggressively adjusted Ukrainian radicals. War on Donbass became possible thanks to confidence of the Ukrainian party of the full military superiority over a home guard, and also confidence of impunity of application of violence in relation to inhabitants of region. The similar confidence was formed thanks to the tool of internal propagation, and also a position of the western countries which have supported the new Ukrainian power.

For disclosing of importance of concept zhiznesberegajushchego the factor it is necessary to be defined by that such life in its modern understanding and value. Still representatives of the nonclassical period of philosophy have realised that human life nadbiologichna and poslebiologichna and is not limited only to a survival, reproduction and adaptation. In process of development of a society and the person life began to be filled with new senses; in the modern world, for example in Russia, the person is not threatened every day with danger to die for hunger, a cold, illnesses or wild animals. Human life is filled sotsiokulturnym and the humanitarian maintenance. The modern philosophy says that «life has own unique value, life cannot be means, it is the higher self-value of life.

It is nobody it and there is nothing to prove necessity of the life ». Professor Menchikov explains this thought, asserting that« the world, because the world not the tool, not means for us, for you cannot angrily depreciate. Therefore resistance to internal depreciation of the world, to life depreciation in the world is important, than any attempts at life »are dangerous. In this sense attempt at life is carried out not only on its biological part, but also on it sotsiokulturnoe, valuable filling, therefore in the modern world war has got multicomponent character, and on the foreground there is a struggle ideological. Professor V.I.Samohvalova explains this attempt at a cultural component of human life as follows:« Filling, structurization, the consciousness organisation become a special kind of imperious technologies: changing one matrix for another, it is possible to replace the maintenance of the "life" proceeding in frameworks laid by a matrix. So, distortion of the historical past, change of semantic and moral accents in an estimation of historical events to a certain extent changes historical shape of the nation, calling into question subjects of its national pride. If to realise that the historical past of the people, memory of it, honouring of this memory is a basis and consciousness of the people, and sensation it of as a uniform generality similar revision of history appears as information war with historical ukorenennostju cultural consciousness ». Thus, zhiznesberegajushchy the factor is means of preservation and ohranenija human lives, including in its sense unique Russian cultural bytijnosti, not perverted aggressive ideological propagation.

In consideration of a question of human life on the foreground often there is a consideration of a question on meaning of the life. War acts in a role sotsiokulturnogo smysloobrazujushchego the phenomena, and for the different parties of the conflict its value will be various. For Donetsk and Lugansk national republics war became unique possibility to provide the existence, to protect the rights of citizens to life and freedom. For Ukraine war is possibility for the first time for all history to construct the monoethnic state with own ideology. In this sense for Russia and Russian people it is necessary to understand the nature of the Ukrainian separatism which has was a new symbol, involved Ukraine in war. Snesarev marked a huge role of symbols, often plain, for consolidation of the nation and a direction of huge national energy on war:« The nature of such symbol is full of a riddle. If you consider its maintenance, it will not give us the answer why this symbol once has made in the history the magic impact "." Huge in due time influence of these symbols or mottoes tells about the huge latent kinetic energy, about any their deep suitability for young weight of the people … These symbols-lanterns shining a way of development of mankind, and on this way registering and solving force is war ».

Concerning Russia from Ukraine it is untied, first of all, information and ideological war, also Ukraine tries to join and in economic war against Russia which was untied by the European Union and the USA, direct military collision with the Russian army, certainly, will be samoubijstvenno, therefore Ukraine does not resort to this type of opposition. However Russia does not need to be deceived in this respect, it is necessary to realise that the Ukrainian separatism, in its aspiration of branch from Russian world and an exit from sphere of influence of Russia is an objective reality, and Antirussian separatism - a symbol for struggle of any sort against Russia.

From Russia foreign powers bore dream of branch of Ukraine within centuries, carrying out in its territory Antirussian propagation and promoting any to Antirussian separative currents. It is interesting to address to I.I.Barinov's article «the Ukrainian doctrine in the politician of Austro-Hungary and genesis of the Ukrainian nationalism», published in the beginning of 2012, i.e. before events on a Maidan and wars on Donbass. In article Barinov draws parallels between a policy of Austro-Hungarian Empire in the end of 19 centuries and the beginning of 20 centuries concerning Ukrainians and the modern policy of the European union characterised by support of Antirussian orientation of the Ukrainian nationalism. According to Barinov, the policy on planting of the Ukrainian nationalism has led to deformation of mentality of the whole ethnic groups and occurrence of generations of people for which the Ukrainian nationalism was feature of their psychology, instead of simply political platform.

It is necessary to notice that origin of the Ukrainian nationalism occurred in territory of Galicia which are a part of Austro-Hungarian Empire. The further association of Ukraine as a part of the USSR has created preconditions for distribution galitsijskogo nationalism and its penetration on territory of the areas historically belonging to Russia. During the Second World War natives of the West Ukrainian areas actively co-operated with armies SS of Hitlerite Germany. The order of the Chief of Political Management of the Western front of divisional commissioner Dmitry Aleksandrovicha Lesteva «About Red Army men - natives of Western areas BSSR, USSR» in which it was told is known: «In parts of the armies which have arrived from rear districts, Red Army men - natives of Western areas USSR and BSSR among which fights from first days considerably enough widespread defeatist and anti-Soviet moods» are opened serve.

For understanding of danger of the phenomenon of the Ukrainian separatism for Russia it is enough to remember all a known phrase of Russian philosopher Ivan Ilyin:« Ukraine admits most ugrozhaemoju a part of Russia sense of branch and a gain. The Ukrainian separatism is the phenomenon of the artificial, deprived real bases. It has arisen from ambition of leaders and the international aggressive intrigue. Having separated, this state betrays itself on a gain and plunder to foreigners. Malorossija and Velikorossija are connected together by belief, a tribe, historical destiny, a geographical position, an economy, culture and a policy. Foreigners, podgotovljajushchie a partition, should remember that they declare it of all Russia century struggle. There will be no world and economic blossoming in the east at such partition. Russia will turn to a source of civil and international wars forever. The dismembering power becomes nenavistnejshim from enemies of national Russia. In struggle against it all unions and any means will be started... ».

In this sense all steps of Ukraine from desire to enter the European Union before cancellation of the regional status of Russian bear in themselves threat for Russia and Russian people. This threat should be completely intelligent and realised political and intellectual elite of our country. In such conditions all international contracts and agreements with Ukraine should be subjected audit, and existence of Ukraine as state independent of Russia can be called into question. Ukraine is used as base for division of the Russian world which protection should be basic idea of Russia as the states.

«Time the essential purpose of the state is its self-defence from external enemies that self-defence should be real, instead of lawful only; it is impossible to think of real self-defence without approach or without active actions. To indulge in vain hopes, when the opponent will collect the forces and will move on you in terrible weight and then only to feel has the right to be at war, it means silly to cringe to Molohom of the right, no more».

The nature of the Ukrainian separatism is necessary for considering in separate historical, cultural urological and socially-psychological researches, in given article we will consider the most obvious signs of its transformation into national ideology and a basis of designing of the new Ukrainian nation. Within the limits of Russian culture Ukrainian it is represented culture of South Russian countryside with characteristic for rural culture communal attitude, national suits and backward nationalism. Rural culture by the nature always communal which is expressed in a priority of communal interests over private and suppression of the person. Modern European (including and Russian) cultures by the nature are urbanistic, conducting to an individualization and atomizatsii the societies confirming the person of the person as self-value, result from comprehension of that of freedom and the rights of any democratic society.

It is necessary to distinguish two different ways atomizatsii societies: natural, based on natural historical development of the society, protecting the person of the person by means of development special sotsiokulturnyh mechanisms, and artificial, based on management methods the mass culture, directed on destruction and negation developed in a society sotsiokulturnyh mechanisms. In the first case there is a decrease in social pressure of a society on the person, thus the society remains structurally complete, its existence and development is provided with freedom of creative self-expression of the person within the limits of the acquired cultural tradition. In the second case there is a destruction of the society, and atomizirovannye persons with the destroyed cultural self-identification appear good stuff for formation of communities of primitive communal type.

Thus for introduction of culture of rural type in the big cities which are scientific, educational and industrial centres of Ukraine, methods of psychological manipulation are actively used by a society. First of all it consists in elimination of individual and independent opinion and substitution by its aggressive and primitive propaganda cliches broadcast by crowd. The given methods have been tested for a long time in management of social groups like football fans who crowd scan plain and aggressive slogans, thus the crowd finished to the raised emotional condition, is completely operated in respect of a direction of its energy on social violence and infringement of all cultural norms and restrictions.

Deprived of any inner meaning, except an aggressive emotional orientation, the phrases used as slogans: «Glory to Ukraine - to heroes glory!», «Moskaljaku on giljaku», «Who does not skip, that moskal» etc. up to the slogans containing obstsennuju lexicon, are broadcast from the state channels, on the Ukrainian areas and even at schools. The essence of this phenomenon consists in bringing down of a society to a crowd condition, the success of similar methods is caused by psychological predisposition of the person and a course of its evolution in which the herd had prime value for a survival and domination of the person over other kinds. It is not difficult to understand that planting of the Ukrainian Antirussian separatism goes first of all through manipulations with primitive instincts of the person, instead of through its realised free and democratic choice in favour of the Ukrainian culture which existence basically it is difficult to present in a separation from great Russian culture.

Thereupon in the cultural plan it is interesting to note occurrence big quantity of bright media persons among a home guard of Novorossii and absence comparable on popularity and popularity of heroes from the Ukrainian party.

War acts also in quality gosudarstvoobrazujushchego the phenomena. Snesarev wrote: «wars on a way of the historical development from a condition of the private phenomena more and more evolved towards expansion of the volume, bolshego and bolshego nationalisation of the functions to limits of full penetration by the requirements and influence in bowels of the state body, in its most thickness».

War on Donbass the Ukrainian propagandists and the western political strategists is represented, first of all, as war against Russia and «Russian terrorists». The Donbass war will be used as a basic state myth of new Ukraine. In this role of war and fight act from an antiquity so, for example, fight on Kosovo the field is considered as a basis of national consciousness of Serbs, Grjunvaldsky fight acts in this role for Poles, for Russia such wars and fights it is possible to name set, however still the most significant in respect of use at the heart of the state myth are fight on Chudsky lake and Kulikovsky fight. Ukraine up until that time had problems with creation of a similar national state myth since independence to Ukraine has been presented and provided by the help of Russia.

Now, despite all attempts of Russia to keep separate from the conflict on Donbass, the given war will be, anyway, is used as a basis of the state myth of new separate Ukraine from Russia.

Problem of a myth Rolan Bart names transformation historical intentsii in the nature, passing - in eternal. The Ukrainian nationalism, historically unreasonable, created as a political platform for counteraction of Russia, from marginal political movement turns to a basis of self-identification of the Ukrainian, a basis of the state myth. The Ukrainian nationalism initially comprised mifichnost, expecting a right moment for realisation, such moment is created by war. The myth nature is excellent described by Bart: «the myth arises from historicity decrease in things; things in it lose memory of how they have been made».

«With dexterity of the conjurer the myth has turned it inside out, has shaken out away all history and instead of it has placed the nature, it has taken away their human sense from things and has forced them to designate absence of that. Myth function - to delete a reality, things in it are literally exsanguinated, constantly expiring completely disappearing reality, it is felt as its absence». Having analysed typical Ukrainian nationalist slogans, we will face at once difficulty of their historical interpretation, for example, taking the slogan «Glory to Ukraine! To heroes glory!» We will find it difficult to tell, in what glory of Ukraine, when, whom and where it is extracted, who these heroes? The explanation follows from the myth nature:« The myth does not deny things - opposite, its function to speak about things; simply it clears them, comprehends them as something innocent, prirodno-eternal, does their clear - but not explained, and only ascertained ». It is Enough to tell that performances of all politicians of Ukraine, since the president, come to an end now with a phrase« Glory to Ukraine! »Or even its full variant that is perceived as natural, self-evident. The myth simplifies a reality of the person, deprives of its depth and removes contradictions.

Postulation of the Ukrainian greatness and the Russian meanness urged to cause in people euphoria concerning their ethnic accessory and that "heroic" struggle which they conduct against Russia. War from the Ukrainian party is penetrated mifichnostju: the army is at war with the Russian interventionists, and near Donetsk and Lugansk the whole Russian divisions which in a reality there nobody saw perish.

Bart wrote that «people the validity, and applicability» interests in a myth not. The president of Ukraine Peter Poroshenko in the congratulatory reference on the occasion of 70th anniversary of clearing of Ukraine from the fascist aggressors, published on an official site, has made the following statement:« Expensive participants ATO! You grandsons, great-grandsons and great-great-grandsons of those who protected the country 70 years ago. You worthy descendants of the brave ancestors. All Ukraine low bows to you for a daily feat, for courage and heroism with which you protect Ukraine from insurgents and interventionists. I firmly believe in our victory in Patriotic war of 2014, that my politiko-diplomatic plan will work and will bring the world to Donbass and all Ukraine ». It is obvious that the Ukrainian president means the Russian armies and Russian volunteers by interventionists. Thereupon no appeals and reminders on the general history and fraternal people will be heard, no comfortable residing for Russian people in territory of Ukraine will exist, since struggle against Russia and Russian people is a basis of a new national myth, and Antirussian separatism its main symbol. War is symbolical line behind which the modern history of Ukraine as the national state begins. For Russia in this case unique possibility to protect the rights of Russian population of Ukraine and to return the Ukrainian people in Russian cultural world and in sphere of the political and economic influence dismantle of the Ukrainian state and inclusion of areas historically belonging to Russia in the structure is.

The basic features of the Ukrainian crisis from the point of view of war philosophy have been above considered, in brief they can be described as follows, war represents itself as:

  1. Semantic the phenomenon designing a new national myth of struggle for freedom and independence of the Ukrainian national state, based on change of ethnic mentality of Ukrainians towards Antirussian separatism. For inhabitants of Donbass war represents itself as a way of protection of the Russian identity and life in its cultural-valuable components;
  2. Symbol the certificate, the line dividing an Ukrainian and Russian the people, quintessences of Antirussian separatism. Thus the victory in such war is not important, more likely on the contrary is undesirable, incomplete defeat in war with preservation of the Ukrainian national state will create on border with Russia a stronghold of Antirussian xenophobia, the state concordant on any adventures against Russia;
  3. The gosudarstvoobrazujushchego phenomenon, already now on intermediate results of the Ukrainian crisis the territory of Russia has increased, new state association of Novorossija from two while unrecognized republics is actually created, for Ukraine war can become the end of existence of the independent state, the reason of change of a political system or, at least, the phenomenon which has issued new borders of the state;

The tool inside - and foreign policy struggle, a subject of the auction, the propagation tool.

In the light of the above-stated, for Russia it is necessary to be defined with the state and national policy on all post-Soviet territory. In territory of all countries Guams (Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Moldova) - the organisations created as the Antirussian base on the post-Soviet territory, at present are available not settled territorial disputes and the frozen or active military conflicts. Preservation of similar position will strengthen the Antirussian orientation of a policy of these countries, doing impossible their integration into sphere of the Russian political and economic influence, and on the other hand will allow the western powers to supervise these countries promises in the permission of their problems and integration into the European Union and the NATO. It is obvious that the countries which are along borders with Russia, are in sphere of prime vital interests of Russia. Intensity at the Russian borders will increase in the future, most likely. So, for example, against war on Donbass, almost not noticed there was a new aggravation of the Azerbaijan-Armenian conflict in Nagornom Karabahe, conflict possibility between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, and also strengthening in these regions of the Islamites, connected with a withdrawal of troops of the NATO from Afghanistan remains.

It is necessary for Russia to think over the new form of application of armed forces for protection of own interests and the rights of Russian people to territories of all countries of the former USSR. It is possible to name the given form humanitarian, providing a preservation of peace, an order and a sustainable development on all post-Soviet territory, and the most important thing acting in a role of the guarantor of observance of the rights and freedom of Russian population. Russia and so constantly faces necessity of carrying out of similar military operations: in Dnestr region, South Ossetia, Abkhazia, to Crimea, thus facing huge counteraction from the western powers. Primary declaring of humanitarian character of application of armed forces of Russia could help with counteraction to foreign propagation and pressure upon Russia.

In this sense legislatively established, and, probably, and the order of application of armed forces supported with the international agreements in the humanitarian purposes would give a necessary legal basis. At present in the decision of humanitarian problems there are absolutely not involved and discharged forces ODKB.

The similar approach finds the reflexion in the Japanese philosophical concept «a sword, sparing life». The known Japanese master of martial arts of JagjuMunenori (1565 - 1646), serving by the instructor in strategy and art of fencing by a sword of three shoguns of a dynasty of Tokugava: Iejasu, Hidetada and Iemitsu, in the composition «Hejho kaden syo» («the Book about family tradition of art of fencing by a sword») wrote: «After all happens so that because of evil deeds of one person thousand suffer. Therefore the villain kill to keep life to thousand. And then the sword bearing death, truly turns to a noble sword tsurugi, sparing life».

About essence of military art of Jagju writes: «to Think that military art is intended only for murder of the enemy, wrongly. Its appointment - not murder of the enemy, but harm murder. It is a way, having killed the one and only villain, to give the chance to live ten thousand persons».

In this point of the concept «zhiznesberegajushchego the factor» and «a sword, sparing life» actually converge. The Russian army, compelled to settle conflicts to force aggressors to the world, to provide observance of the rights and freedom of citizens life acts really in a role of the sword, sparing.

Within the limits of given article it is necessary to mention also about accepted by the House of Representatives of the Congress of the USA of the resolution № 758 «resolutely condemning actions of the Russian Federation under the direction of Vladimir Putin which have led to a policy of aggression concerning the neighbouring countries, directed on achievement of political and economic domination», having obviously Antirussian character.

In a resultant of a part of the resolution the House of Representatives has decided that it resolutely supports Ukraine in its ways of the attainment of peace, an including withdrawal of Russian troops, disarmament of civil guardsmen, decrease in economic, power and political dependence on Russia; recognises the right of Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova to carry out the sovereign rights within the limits of the international-recognised borders (i.e. and in territory of Crimea, South Ossetia, Abkhazia and Dnestr region); condemns proceeding aggression in relation to these countries from Russia; urges Russia to refuse, and all other countries not to recognise joining of Crimea to Russia; urges the US president to give to Ukraine the help in the form of arms and the necessary prospecting information; calls all partners of the USA for refusal in cooperation with Russia in the field of arms, decrease in power dependence on Russia, replacement of the Russian energy carriers with the American gas; Urges to develop strategy on delivery by the American mass-media of the information to the Russian-speaking population; urges US State department to define the diplomats occupying key posts in Europe on whom Russia makes cultural or political impact, and to accept with the governments of their countries joint actions in relation to them; and also other appeals.

Attract attention appeals to approach to Russia practically on all fronts: from conducting information war, search of the Russian allies and supporters, restriction of cooperation in the field of arms, economic and political pressure before obvious political and economic support of Ukraine in its war against Russia and Russian world, and also provocative statements in relation to other not settled territorial conflicts which the USA for creation of the centres of intensity at the Russian borders can be potentially used.

In the resolution actually in the open it is said that from the point of view of the USA Russia should refuse the national interests and from the influence in Georgia, Ukraine and Moldova, to betray the citizens, the Russian, Osset and Abkhazian people living in territories of Dnestr region, Novorossii, Crimea, South Ossetia and Abkhazia, and Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia should enter EU and the NATO. The absolute humiliation and loss of any international influence of Russia will be a consequence of such steps, except «restoration of friendly relations from the USA».

The American experts soberly estimate the happened conflict of interests between the USA and Russia concerning Ukraine. George Friedman writes: «the USA are interested in preventing occurrence of new European predominant force. Russian need to protect the buffer zone which has exhausted in due time Napoleon and Hitler. Both requirements - it is far not an idle whim, and it is difficult to present, how it would be possible to satisfy them simultaneously».

The only thing that do not understand (or meaningly ignore) Americans are that at the time of Napoleon and Hitler Ukraina was not any buffer zone, and was a part of the Russian state. Whether not clear buffer zone is necessary to Russia is that question on which it is necessary to answer, proceeding from own national interests.

It would be desirable to finish article a phrase from the book of the captain Kulchitsky: «There is nothing worse indecision. The worst decision, than fluctuation or inactivity is better. The missed moment you will not return».

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Anton Lestev

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