Center for Strategic Assessment and forecasts

Autonomous non-profit organization

Home / Defence and security / New in the military / Articles
Cloud the future of American
Material posted: Publication date: 09-02-2013

In March 2013, the deadline given by James Clapper on the formation and commencement of operation of the modern information infrastructure of the intelligence community of the United States, the full capabilities which will be achieved by 2018.

The bet is placed on the technology named "Cloud computing". According to experts, the formation of a single distributed cloud computing environment will help to achieve budgetary savings and provide a new level of information security. You are ready for the Americans in the pursuit of information superiority? What can we answer?

100 years after the invention of radio began the next stage of implementation of information technologies in the military. Now there is a transition to the combined use of the advanced achievements in the systems of command, control, communications, computers, intelligence and surveillance, precision weapons, long-range, unmanned and robotic warfare. The only difference is the scale of what is happening. In fact, the revolution in military Affairs, the main purpose of which is the widespread computerization and automation of processes of armed struggle.

It is quite natural that Informatization has affected and exploration, making it more comprehensive, timely and reliable. As noted at the time, former CIA Director David Petraeus, "in recent years there has been a growth in intelligence disciplines such as signals, species, special technical intelligence, and he was associated primarily with the spread of information technology. But the real breakthrough was achieved by integrating these intelligence disciplines, as well as coordination and cooperation of all elements of intelligence."



The U.S. intelligence community is a set of Federal agencies, organizations and services, bodies responsible for providing top military-political leadership of the country the necessary information for the regulation of foreign and domestic policy and national security of the state. Its members included Federal agencies, which can be divided into two types – military and non-military. Affiliation to the military is determined by the administrative subordination of the Ministry of defence: the Office of national security (NDS) Intelligence Agency of the Ministry of defense (DIA); National geospatial intelligence NPR); National office for aerospace intelligence (newcr); the intelligence of the land forces, air force, Navy and marine corps.

Nonmilitary members of the intelligence community represented by eight agencies: the office of the Director of national intelligence (DNI); the Central intelligence Agency (CIA); Office of intelligence and research Department of State; Federal Bureau of investigation, Ministry of justice; the Department of intelligence and security office for the fight against drugs; the Office of information analysis and infrastructure protection Department of homeland security (DHS); Coast guard; Department of intelligence and information-analytical activities of the Ministry of Finance; the intelligence division of the Ministry of energy.

During the existence of the intelligence community were marked by UPS and downs, he held various reorganisations, has updated and redistributed the tasks of its members. But despite this, to achieve real integration of disparate agencies into a single community for a long time did not work. "It is funny, when security services have used communications firewalls – firewalls (firewall) is not to ensure the security of resources in the Network and to restrict access of other members of the intelligence community for their information.

It is the lack of interaction, according to some American analysts, was the cause of many errors leading to catastrophic consequences. Therefore, one of the main directions of activities of the office of the first Director of national intelligence John Negroponte was the formation of the so-called unified information and communication space within the intelligence community. To this end, the unit Director was introduced a special position of project Manager, created several new centers, as well as released documents defining the procedure of interaction and organization of work of the members of the intelligence community. But despite all the efforts to create a common information and communication space (ESPI), decision-making on necessity of creation of new digital databases and the development of plans for a centralized system of training of specialists of information and analytical services, the first results could only be achieved by his successor, Mike McConnell.

Unlike its predecessor, McConnell, spent in office for less than two years, was able to overcome most of the technological, organisational and, most importantly, red tape and form from 17 disparate agencies unified community. That's when it was launched a new information-retrieval system like Google, bringing together databases of all departments of American intelligence and for the first time after almost 10 years of bureaucratic muddle which allowed employees of information-analytical departments to obtain access to all relevant materials.

The deployment of such a system was impossible a few years ago, when in full swing was an interagency struggle, and each service has implemented its programs for the development and implementation of information solutions. However, the Association of all agencies of the intelligence community unified search and the postal service was not an end in itself. Most importantly, according to McConnell, was to improve the efficiency of information-intelligence activities, which directly depend on the level of information exchange. To achieve this, the office of the Director of national intelligence was carried out a range of different activities.

These include the creation of a library of national intelligence; the formation of a single analytic space (A-Space), functioning as a special application of a global system for transmission of intelligence JWICS. The development of a regularly updated matrix of priorities of national intelligence (National Intelligence Priorities Framework), which is a special Toolbox identifying needs for intelligence and adjustment tasks extractive and analytical units. The establishment of intelligence community interagency multifunctional analytical groups to address the most complex and urgent tasks RASER (Rapid Analytic Support and Expeditionary Response) and SHARP (Summer Hard Problem Program), and much more, including Intellipedia database.

By defining strict rules of interaction and implementation of information exchange between all agencies of the intelligence community, as well as setting the responsibility for their failure, McConnell has not forgotten about "the gingerbread" for their subordinates. Along with a number of guidelines relating to questions of increase of efficiency of information-analytical work, preparation of new functional duties of employees of subordinate departments, McConnell comes just three months after his appointment signed document ICD No. 655 on the proposed system of incentives. The new Directive defined the new system of rewarding employees who have distinguished themselves in the service and made a significant contribution to the activities of the intelligence community and national security of the country.

Interesting is the fact that the list of new incentives and rewards accurately reflect all the current problems faced by American national intelligence. So, for outstanding achievement that demonstrate, promote, and above all teach the culture of the organization of interaction of various departments of the intelligence community and ensures an effective exchange of intelligence information, has introduced a special award of the Director of national intelligence "For the organization of interaction and cooperation". For the introduction of innovative technologies and proposals to overcome emerging threats and challenges to national security – established an annual award "Galileo", and the heads of intelligence agencies could count on a medal "For the reform of national intelligence", which is awarded for outstanding contribution to the implementation of the goals and objectives of the presidential decree "On prevention of the terrorist threat and the reform of the intelligence community", as well as the integration of national intelligence agencies.



The next stage of reforming of American intelligence is also aimed at improving the effectiveness and efficiency of information exchange between members of the intelligence community. In addition, management believes that significant and on the optimization of budget expenditures. According to experts, these measures will allow for six years to reduce the costs associated with the purchase and operation of hardware and software, by 20-25%.

Cloud technology will be the basis for the formation of a new space created in the framework of the initiative, called the Intelligence Community Information Technology Enterprise (ICITE). The initiative itself was presented to the public in late 2011, a few days after Director of national intelligence announced plans for the sequestered budget of the intelligence community more than $ 10 billion. And almost half of savings will be generated through optimization of the paragraphs of the budget on information technology.

Guide ambitious project entrusted to the chief of service of information (and automation) of the apparatus DNI El Tarasyuk. His service al Tarasiuk began leading engineer at the radio "Free Europe"/Radio "Freedom". Held technical and managerial positions in the CIA, carried out operational tasks abroad. He later managed the information center, and from 2005 to 2010 he headed the information service (and automation) of the Central intelligence Agency. In January 2011, for outstanding achievements in guiding the reform and integration of the activities of the intelligence community medal For the reform of National intelligence".

The idea underlying the development and implementation of distributed information technology cloud computing in intelligence activities, has long been a stable trend for many Federal agencies and private businesses and USA and has led to a significant reduction in their labor costs. In addition, with cloud-based data processing there is the acceleration of work with desktop workstations, and mobile devices. However, users already don't care about the operating system, infrastructure and software, which work directly. All of this is available through the cloud service, available in the form of one or several deployment models: private cloud; community cloud; public cloud or hybrid cloud. In this type of model is determined only by the requirements of the service and the user's needs. Additional preferences associated with a reduction in operating costs, and energy costs; simplify processes, extensions or the creation of new hardware and software systems; continuous availability of the documents stored on the cloud; unlimited volume of stored information; the ability to work with the applications anywhere where there is Internet.

Despite a long-felt need of the planned changes, they will undergo painful. In one interview the project Manager said: "I know what enormous sums are spent on information technology, virtualization, standardization, operating in a single Agency, and I know that similar work is carried out and other agencies of the intelligence community. This is a huge amount. Just so the business will not abandon them".

In practice, the planned changes include several initiatives related to the introduction of modern technologies, in the long run allow to simplify and speed up information exchange procedures, but also dramatically reduce the associated costs. Among them are the following. Ensure the standard "thin client" computers for most users of the intelligence community. Integration of cloud computing technologies and architectures, which provides the organization of interaction with other networks (clouds). Modernization of the data transmission channels and optimization of existing software applications. Concept development and design of a consolidated client application and environment that implements the concept of the desktop to ensure the formation of a new architecture.

The work of the CIA will become more transparent for the entire U.S. intelligence community cloud computing. Photos Reuters brings together specialists of the "big five" of the intelligence community (CIA, DIA, NPR, novcr and UNB), which accounted for the bulk of the budget of American intelligence. For example, the CIA and NSA are developing a closed (safe) cloud computing environment for the entire intelligence community. RUMO and NUGR implement the concept of unified desktop for all departments. In March 2013 formed to be connected to the first 2000 users a year whose total number can reach 60 thousand

The new project is not even about cloud computing as such. In fact, his goal in uniting the efforts of American intelligence agencies for creating distributed capabilities of the single services. The project implementation will allow to provide access to the necessary databases and applications from any computer of the intelligence community. Disappear very need of finding the right computer or the installation of switches and hubs for communication between multiple networks, and gauzes. However, no special secret technology to create not planned. Will be based on ready hardware specifically adapted for the needs of the security services.



Currently, the United States formed a steady trend toward targeted Informatization of the intelligence community, the Armed forces, and the country as a whole. And it is quite objectively, as in modern conditions of political, economic and technological environment information technologies are considered as innovative tool for enhancing the capabilities and competitiveness of the state while saving money. That is why the introduction of cloud technologies cannot be considered only as an initiative of the leadership of American intelligence. Rather, it is the state policy aimed at unification and optimization of the entire information infrastructure in the United States, as well as to support the introduction of breakthrough technological solutions. So, on February 8, 2011 was adopted "the Federal strategy of development of cloud technologies". Later similar strategies were signed in a number of Federal agencies.

For example, "Strategy of cloud computing" U.S. Department of defense was published in July last year. This document reflects the intention of the Pentagon to transform the approaches in which it purchases, operates its information tools and manages them in order to improve the efficiency of task execution, performance, and security of its information systems. Thus, in the U.S. military began a large-scale transformation of information structures, involving the formation of a single information space. According to the developers, it should provide new opportunities for the collection, processing, exchange of information, and security regardless of the location of the user and the hardware.

The U.S. Department of defense, as part of further efforts to form ESPI came out with an initiative to connect not only your office, but also the industry and other government agencies. Already by the years 2016-2020 in the generated space needs to integrate the many disparate clouds of the Ministry of defense, the intelligence community, the military-industrial complex, government and others. According to representatives of the U.S. Department of defense, for successful implementation of plans it is important to understand that the efforts to create a common information and communication space not only aimed at the deployment of networks, their consolidation and integration, and to improve the effectiveness of the Armed forces in wars and armed conflicts of the future.

In addition to trying to optimize the daily activities of the troops, improving the efficiency of their use in military conflicts, the Pentagon is also counting on the economic effect of the inevitable optimization and the reduction of all elements of network infrastructure. Most importantly, the American reformers do not plan on "breaking through the knee" to the established systems that have their own traditions and peculiarities of functioning. They have prepared a softer and more innovative approach, and an assistant in doing so, they will be all the same information technology. For example, initially, the Pentagon plans to retain responsibility for the operation of all deployed and functioning in the interests of the various services and offices of the networks, but under the overall control of Agency information systems U.S. Department of defense. And only after the completion of the formation of cloud ESPI will be possible to identify deficiencies in the overall structure and carry out optimization measures. For example, the us military reformers hope to unify disparate postal systems deployed in each of the Armed forces, combined commands, and others. The expected economic effect can be quite noticeable, as only the number of data centers within 10 years will be reduced from 1,500 to 250.

Thus, there is a widespread trend of Informatization of government agencies and the private sector in the United States. While the main emphasis is on new technologies of cloud computing. On the other hand, we must not forget about the already held lobby. His main goal was to increase profits for their companies information. Confirmation of this can be a hosted app in the "Federal strategy of development of cloud technologies". It presents data office of management and budget under the President of the United States about the potential costs of the Federal agencies and departments on cloud computing. If the amount is not astronomical, it is very significant. For example, the expenses of the Ministry of justice can be 200 million. The Ministry of labour – 400 million. National aeronautic and space administration plans to spend 800 million dollars., The Department of state and the Department of energy will spend 1 billion. The Ministry of health and social services – by $ 1.4 billion., Ministry of Commerce – $ 1.8 billion., The Ministry of transport – $ 2 billion., The Pentagon – $ 2.1 billion., and expenses of the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of internal security will exceed $ 2.4 billion.

As we consider the current trends of the information age, whether to get involved in a new race ubiquitous information and which can offer the Russian science?



The main direction of intellectual effort in the information age were determined, and in General it is linked to issues of globalization balanced fundamental actions with information (collection, storage, processing) to automatic processing of growing flows. These issues are addressed by functional integration of computing resources through global networks of industrial technologies of distributed computing.

The first step in the widespread use of distributed computing was done through the introduction of grid systems, industrial standards which developed in the late 90s of the last century. Their advance was accompanied by an active advertising and significant financial flows. Nevertheless, by the beginning of the new century the scope of the grid system close to saturation, and the interest in them has receded.

Cloud technology has become the next step in the development of difficult web of distributed computing. They are implemented in the advanced network architecture "client-server" computing with enhanced interpretation, aimed at providing not only information, but also resource-intensive algorithmic services in a wide ranges of applications. Undoubtedly, cloud technology will significantly expand the scope of distributed information processing in the corporate level. Including to further the goals of improving the work of US intelligence.

However, hidden in the clouds and serious flaw. Different clouds are built on different technologies (there is already a lot, and many companies offer their own hardware and system platforms). Therefore, there will not be a single space. In addition, it is not clear how easy it will be to merge and summarize the functional services of different clouds. It appears that the system aspects of hardware integration can be less of a hassle than the integration of existing narrow-purpose function spaces. The situation is similar with the current state of various DBMS, vast amounts of data which are already cornered, but the Association of these data is given extremely hard. With cloud technologies even more difficult.

To merge and have to integrate not only data, but also the space of algorithmic services. And this is a host-only combinatorics with its "curse of dimensionality", and the larger objectives of the integration, the harder it will be to solve them in the framework of cloud computing. Masking the reasons for the heterogeneity include "thin clients", which in the absence of alternatives it is impossible to refuse, they are, in fact, hiding pockets of heterogeneity in grid clusters equipped with a special multilayer system services of any complexity level.

To overcome the limited capacity of the cloud needs a full-scale functional integration of the aggregate computing resources of global networks. To do this, first you will need to address the root causes of continuous reproduction of the heterogeneity of the computing environment, then to ensure the formation of freely scalable and seamless-programmable universal algorithmic space (UAP). With the elimination of heterogeneity in this space will be possible General solution to the problems of distributed processing across a range of tasks and the total of computer networks, which, like almost every universal solution to ensure the dramatic expansion of coverage and reduce the labor intensity. Moreover, the generation of the desired set of clouds under specific classes of tasks into a single ADF will require by orders of magnitude smaller expenses of resources and time, since it was originally fixed host-only networking causes of the reproduction of diversity, entailing and the curse of dimensionality.

Therefore, attempts to repeat the foreign plans in the aspiration to achieve reasonable parity in the race of cloud integration is futile. For us it is strategically short-sighted and very costly, because of the full implementation of ADF resources, the country's existing computer networks, would be enough, and the tenth part of the Finance plan for the eviction of American clouds.

Russian science and the military-industrial complex in a number of areas ready to offer solutions related to the development of new element base and its architecture, providing the formation of the UAP. During this pilot batch of the prototype domestic element base with a fundamentally new architecture "control computer on a chip" that support the ADF can be implemented on available technologies of designing and manufacturing VLSI for two to three years at a relatively low cost.

Send mail print bookmark Discuss on forum to Post in LiveJournal Share on facebookShare on twitterShare on vkShare on livejournal| More Sharing ServicesЕще to make the right choice, we need to realize that the current technological wave, which are part of grid computing and cloud computing, has already exhausted itself. For a five-year cloud the horizon of the Americans with the most advanced technology and large finances, is a real product, which, of course, will have time to take effect. For us, in the absence of comparable resources, he, as usual, will result in a 10-20-year period very expensive, but ineffective measures. During this time, clouds are guaranteed to get away from the main stage, as happened with the grids. Alternative to one – to begin to create a leading world level technological groundwork for the formation of a universal algorithmic space. The only way Russia can get a unique historical opportunity to overtake, not catching up. Not by increasing the speed of driving on a foreign road, but due to the timely turn in their invisible country road, lead the future.

A. Kondratyev, Y. Zatuliveter


RELATED MATERIALS: Defence and security