Qualitative analysis suggests that the share of modern samples of weapons and military equipment in the Russian army three years ago was 20 – 30%, while in armies of the world the figure is over 70%. Scientific and technical progress in the creation of new and more effective weapons and military equipment is not in place. Historical analysis shows that the development of weapons, military equipment and ammunition was in close connection with the General progress of civilization.
In turn, the development of means of armed struggle ultimately leads to changes in tactics and operational art. Methods and means of warfare in the history of mankind have undergone drastic changes. More and more development of system of remote weapons, such as ballistic missile system
and complexes of the WTO. The range is increasing, causing also improvements. In addition, the current geopolitical situation in the world is not to wage war solely by military means. Modern war is complex, includes methods and tools for non-military suppression, such as "fifth column", the information war, economic oppression, war intelligence and counterintelligence, etc. the Beginning of hostilities takes place when all other non-military ways of weakening the state-the enemy is exhausted.
The relevance of the topic of the research is that in modern conditions creates a huge need to improve not only weapons but also the forms and methods of warfare. The objective of this work is the search for contemporary trends in the development and use of the armed forces of the enemy based on the experience of past wars and conflicts.
The main trends of the changing nature of armed struggle show that occurs the spatial extension of the scope of military operations, the magnitude of the impact of combat systems, as well as the displacement of the center of combat operations in the aerospace and information spheres (figure 1).
1. Historical lessons and insights the experience of past wars
Critically meaningful experience of all wars (including the great Patriotic war) has a unique importance, as the forms and methods of armed struggle not appear out of nowhere, and include the achievements of the past.
Military leader involved in the training of troops for combat operations, have a very clear understanding of the nature of the war. Often, unfortunately, the troops prepare for the last war, and the experience of the last war, to the detriment of the case is presented as a benchmark in all:
- and in the organizational-staff structure of troops, and their weapons,
- and in the forms and methods of warfare. But none of the wars are absolutely not repeated.
The desire to give a predictive analysis of the war and the armed struggle of the future is not an easy task. This is due to necessity of knowledge a radical change not only in intergovernmental relations but also in the development of science and technology, weapons, intelligence activities, as well as in military construction, the planning, the art of war. The knowledge expressed by a scientist is always relative and bears the burden of subjectivity.
History teaches, and the experience of the war confirmed that the enemy attacks at the most inopportune moment, so the status of the military power of the state and fighting capacity of his army should be maintained in adequate condition.
You must understand that war is not only armed struggle on the battlefield. Before the war the enemy uses every opportunity (political, economic, informational, etc.) to weaken the enemy. Armed methods of struggle are used only when you cannot achieve goals by non-military means. The war provoked not by the strength and weakness of the object of the attack.
However, there are General trends and patterns in the preparation of the armed forces that cannot be discounted.
- One should clearly distinguish between political and military level of the entry of the state into war. Political level (creation of political alliances, a breakdown of alliances and coalitions of the enemy, creating a favorable political environment for the war) responsible political leadership of the state, and the military (including issues of strategic deployment of troops, forces training for war, optimal ROR, command and control system) are the direct responsibility of the military leadership of the country. The desire to mix these levels is an attempt of shifting the responsibility for inadequate preparation of certain spheres of state for war (the experience of the great Patriotic war – the attempt to shoulder the entire responsibility for the failure to join the army in the war for Stalin).
- Should devise a system of governance in special legal modes of operation (modes of military and emergency provisions with the respective legal provision). Currently in Russia there is no that in the years of the great Patriotic war was called "laws of war". Moreover, the inability of pre-war structures of governance in terms of the war led
to create t-bills and VGK, which ruled the country in real time (the meetings were held daily), and their orders had the force of martial law. Established national defense control center in Russia today is effective in peacetime (in the war the functions of it are broken), so you need a system of governance based on a network of protected (hidden) control points, etc.
- In terms of the demographic crisis and the threat of waging large-scale war requires the transition to a system of accumulation of mobilization resources on the basis of the reservists who signed the contract
with MO for service in the reserve (to maximize
in accordance with the concept approved by the President of the Russian Federation dated 04.05.2007 G.
No PR-735 – experiment of service in the reserve). In addition, you must restore the system of the parts of the frame based on which to match future parts and connections if necessary.
- It is necessary to create complex system of information protection in the public consciousness of Russian society, that in the conditions unleashed against the Russian Federation in the information war seems to be the primary event.
- The last war showed that war is not the armies and economies.
Only a strong economy mobilization of a type capable of providing the army and society in war everything you need. The necessary restructuring of the Russian economy and the withdrawal of the shareholders (and governments) of the strategic enterprises and critical industries to representatives of foreign capital. In wars of a new generation of more significantly increases the dependence of the armed forces of the belligerent States of their economic opportunities, than defeat their enemy. Consequently, the level of violent impact on the economy will make such a significant size that will require, in advance, to conduct appropriate activities not only for their defense but the protection and recovery of
In addition, you should think about creating a well-protected material resources and their optimal placement on the territory of the country (hence the need to review the structure and placement organizations Grew the reserve), to recreate the system of industrial enterprises – doubles in the country (in order to avoid their destruction in a massive first strike). (Be mindful of the sad experience of accommodation of the district, army and divisional depots in the vicinity of the state border in the first weeks of the great Patriotic war).
- Improving the quality of weapons, in principle, involves reducing the number of their types, universalization, reaching a rational ratio of offensive and defensive means in accordance
with the real threat. This ratio should be adjusted
depending on changes in the international arena. The main indicator here should be saving these settings, which are able to repel external aggression and to organize a retaliatory strike. The experience of the great Patriotic war shows that the actual enhance the combat capability of associations and connections SV by equipping them with new weapons could not be implemented.
- Even then there is a tendency to rapid moral
and physical aging of weapons and W and, as a result, the rearmament of the army. Important is the timing of the development, production and deployment of weapons. At the same time not be carried away by innovations
in armaments (these samples road and the state is unable to organize mass production of such samples). In the case of large-scale military operations will have to fight those samples which have stood and are now in service (and which stocks are available). Therefore, you should not get involved supernova samples of the high-tech weapons, we should improve methods and forms of struggle using the existing samples (which showed the experience of the database are in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Moldova, Chechnya, Eastern Ukraine and Syria). Weapons are expendable war. It should not be exclusive,
and effectively and to meet the ratio quality-cost.
- Important is the principle: "Teach the troops what is necessary in war, and the only way, as is done in war." Incorrect pre-war prediction can cast the armed forces in its development for
More than 10 years ago, and in the ensuing war, misguided military planning could lead to severe consequences, until the defeat in the war. Time to change the mistakes, as it was in the initial period of the great Patriotic war, may not be.
- Remains firmly in the principle of military art, weapons determine tactics. In other words, advanced means of struggle lead to drastic changes on the battlefield. Historical experience convincingly shows this. Most developed countries take the necessary measures
to reconstruct its armed forces, will quite probably have the opportunity in the 20-ies of the XXI century to wage war sixth generation. These wars will start, go and end very differently than all the previous ones.
- Unity in the community, the lack of the fifth column, the strong rear is the key to successful armed struggle of the army in the field.
- The experience of the great Patriotic war and local wars clearly shows that since the beginning of the war, the air force should focus on the main task – the conquest of the air by conducting air operations to defeat aviation groupings of the enemy. It proves the feasibility of their centralized control of the commander of the air force. The decentralization of the air force was difficult, and at times excluded the maneuver. Should be created a reserve of aircraft in peacetime to replenish losses.
- Peculiarities of training of the enemy troops to maintain
in a constant state of readiness should be considered in combat training of military defense. In threatened periods of combat training should be organized so that they could provide cover objects (the experience of the last war air defenses of the border military districts at the beginning of the war due to various reasons are on grounds far from their connection that led to the violation of the integrity of connections and decrease in their performance).
In General, summarizing the analysis of the initial stage of the great Patriotic war, and the failed accession of the country and the army in the war, I would like to draw attention (not only on the analysis of the monograph, but also on a comparison of its provisions with other authors who have studied this problem). The tragedy of June 22, 1941, in reality, was the mix of the huge number of factors, tightly woven together. First of all, historical conditions, economic interests, strategic plans, self-serving calculations, clan interests, illegal and often criminal actions, national and non-professional ambitions, courage and cowardice, heroism and betrayal, selflessness and selfishness, the honest performance of military and civic duty and dishonesty, etc.
2 New trends emerging at the turn of XX–XXI centuries
- Military conflicts and local wars undertaken in the XXI century, the initiators of which were the USA, demonstrated and confirmed not only the American military and economic power, but also the desire of many countries to support their action to go into orbit involved in the division of the global pie (such as Poland and Ukraine in the Iraqi events in the beginning of 2003) and to solve their various interests. So it was in military actions in Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, Iraq.
- Without a doubt, the prevailing influence on the determination of the reason for the outbreak of conflicts and finite military and political objectives of all campaigns of the last decade has provided U.S. economic and political interests. The world's limited raw material resources is forcing the American leadership to bear this in mind and be declared a zone of its national interests in those regions that have substantial oil reserves and energy.
- The experience of local wars and armed conflicts of recent decades testifies to the established tradition of their unleashing. As a rule, inter-state conflict arose when its armed component was carried out in conditions of sharp differences
in the economic development of the States of the aggressors and the country exposed to attack.
- The new objective factor can be considered as a comprehensive Informatization of the military, which allows you to automate the process of collecting and processing data about the enemy and their troops, almost
in real time to respond to changing circumstances, to identify and bring tasks to the troops (forces), with high precision to restore ammunition on target and to monitor the effectiveness of fire strikes. Information warfare is becoming an essential component of the armed and other struggle between the States (coalitions of States).
- Analyzing the experience of war, war and armed conflicts that took place only in the last 60 years, it is possible to detect the changing patterns in the development of arms: a smooth, gradual evolutionary process of development and modernization of the known types of weapons began to give way to abrupt to update. This is especially found its expression in the fact that in this period, not just new weapons and the whole combat system, able to perform
the tasks that previously relied mostly on manpower. For example, in the Korean war (1950-1953) was applied to nine previously unknown types of weapons. In the Vietnam war (1964-1975). these types were already 25. In wars and conflicts in the middle East (1967, 1973, 1982, 1986) – about 30. But the war in the Persian Gulf (1991) – more than 100. However, it should be particularly noted that the emergence of new and better weapons led to a change in the forms and methods of armed struggle.
Thus, the use of jet aircraft in the Korean war led to a change in the struggle for supremacy in the air, but it didn't change war strategy in General. In the Vietnam war for the first time in large numbers of used helicopters that led to changes in combined arms combat – he bought the air-land in nature, but again the nature of war has not changed. In the wars in the middle East were conducted experimental launches of high-precision weapons, but here the character of the war did not change. But in the war in the Persian Gulf for the first time has changed the nature of war in General, there was a real revolution in military Affairs, although there are those who for various reasons would not like to see it.
The war in the Persian Gulf and precision-guided missile strikes by NATO aircraft on combat positions of the Serbian troops in the war in Yugoslavia convincingly demonstrated the potential of precision weapons and has given a powerful impetus to its development that leads to significant changes in the forms and methods of armed fight and practical transition to war new generation.
- Massing of forces and means, including aviation in the interests of achieving the objectives of the operation. If the Vietnam war (1960 to 1970) required the use of 15 %, the operation in Iraq "desert Storm"
(1991) – up to 30 %, the events in Yugoslavia – already up to 65% of forces and means of the U.S. air force.
- Due to the fact that conventional means massive exposure simultaneously throughout the enemy's territory, its military and civilian facilities did not exist, to achieve the strategic results of the war were fought on its occupied territory, a long offensive operational-strategic scale mainly numerous land groups, which in turn led to huge losses on both sides. Everything radically changed with the advent of precision weapons. Its development may ultimately lead to the fact that the outcome of the war can be solved without a ground phase (according to many military experts!). Massive global impact of the WTO on critically important objects will lead to chaos in the military-political situation, man-made disasters in a particular country and allow her to dictate the terms without the use of ground troops.
This weapon's severely tested in local wars and armed conflicts of the last fifteen years and is already becoming a very scarce commodity on the arms market.
It is known that in the war in the Persian Gulf, these high-precision cruise missiles launched at a range of 1200-1500 km, successfully hit about 80% of all important military and civilian targets in Iraq. It gave a powerful impetus to the development of entirely new missiles of this class – "Fasthack", which will have a higher accuracy of hitting the target than missiles "Tomahawk" and it is possible that they will subsequently remain in service
In conditions when in many countries there is a continuous development or the creation of the armed forces, when taken long-term programme for the development of new types of weapons and military equipment, becomes especially valuable prognostic vision of the war of the future, let's say, 15-20 years or more. It is necessary to know today, because today should be developed and put in production of future weapons and create such armed forces which will be able to conduct armed struggle and the wars of the future.
Precision weapons will require serious navigation software. Will create navigation system based on satellites. It can be argued that such systems already have been tested in recent military conflicts.
- The war of the future generation, most likely, will not be long protracted, and the whole process of the armed struggle will proceed more rapid on laws and rules that will be imposed the strongest – those who are most prepared for such wars.
First expect a massive attack on the information area to suppress control points and communication centers to ensure a lack of coordination of all forces and means of armed struggle.
Based on the strategy of warfare by NATO (especially the US) should be expected as a first strike use by the opponent of means of the WTO .If precision means completely incapacitated the economy and key military targets of the enemy, his military force would lose fighting capacity will fall apart. The party is not ready for such a new war will be forced to go the old-fashioned way and she has no choice but to go for its many ground troops for defense, although it may not resist ground, the enemy.
The revolution in military Affairs expected a huge new leap in the development of armaments and consequently in the forms and ways of armed struggle. A new era of wars, weapons of high technology, the era of significant releases of man and all manpower from participation in the armed struggle.
- Despite the increase in spatial scale of the armed struggle in the war of the new generation navigation software will significantly improve shooting accuracy of conventional non-nuclear missiles of various range. Improving the accuracy of shooting is the most economical way to improve the effectiveness of their application. If by increasing the power of the charge of conventional type, say, twice the destructive power of missiles will increase by 40 %, improved accuracy is also twice as increase its killing power by 400 %, i.e. 10 times. All missiles of short, medium and long range action, with a warhead of conventional type, will also be high-precision. In General, the accuracy of all precision weapons in the next 10-15 years will increase not less than five times. This will be achieved mainly due to the precise navigation of each of the flying missiles, and also due to the correction of their flight to the target using special devices placed on the artificial satellites of the Earth.
Existing and developing in the leading countries of the world high-precision cruise missiles, UAB and UAK conventional type of land, air and sea-based can apply only under conditions of information superiority. Will need by means of information processing, intelligence (as electronic, and with the help of special forces) and communications to quickly receive accurate, timely and secure information to properly respond to any conflict with the immediate goal of mastering the situation and take the necessary decisions. To do this, probably will have to develop completely different than it is now a global military command, control, intelligence and communications. You will need to have communication information networks, covering all areas of armed struggle to almost all over the globe. At the same time need to prevent the enemy to obtain information to control its troops and weapons. Information superiority has to be achieved through superiority in mobility, speed of reaction, in the exact impact on the enemy and at the lowest possible risk to their forces and means. Information superiority should be implemented through: control of the maneuver forces and means of fire; a massive and time-consuming use of precision weapons; address the full logistical support; reliable protection of forces and means at all levels.
In this period of transition will act in conjunction with strategic non-nuclear means, air, sea and land forces and the means of delivering precision weapons and weapons based on new physical principles. In large measure this will contribute to the ongoing development in addition to high precision tools and other types of weapons and especially weapons of directed energy, and automated guidance systems of precision weapons, new explosives, high-performance data processing ultra-high performance, as well as electronic warfare.
3 Development of the nature, forms and methods of armed struggle
in the XXI century
The change of armed struggle involves not only the production of a new high-tech weapons, but also change mindsets and as a result the emergence of new ways of warfare.
The development of military science is a process of expanding the development of the spatial continuum of warfare from the strategy of the General battle at one point in the Napoleonic wars and the linear strategy in the second half of XIX – early XX centuries, to the deep operations on the continental theater of operations before and during the Second world war and then to volume (air and space, air-ground and ground-naval) operations at the end of the twentieth century. Today
to increase the spatial indicators of warfare is added to the active and increasing use of information continuum. This is one of the main trends of the modern armed struggle .
Changes in the nature of the fighting occur not only because of the emergence of new weapons, but the new structure of military forces that use these weapons. In the sphere of active hostilities are increasingly involved traditional types of supporting activities, such as intelligence, electronic warfare, shielding and masking events. Under the changing nature of warfare means a change in the fundamental relationship between offensive and defense, space and time, nature of the lesion and ways of maneuvering.
The German armed forces in 1940, is not dominating neither the number nor the quality of the tanks, however, defeated the French and British armed forces. The Wehrmacht got the advantage and won, thanks to the holistic concept of warfare, which included the following elements:
- change in the organization units;
- the change of tactics of command and control;
- equipping tanks with radios.
Created by the structure of the Wehrmacht Panzer division, mainly not contrary to the military doctrine that existed before the advent of armored vehicles.
A military-technical revolution on the modern stage will require a radical restructuring of the armed forces. In recent years, American military experts predict the imminent revolutionary change of the nature of the fighting. In describing these changes they speak about them as about military-technical revolution. Military-technical revolution will become the beginning of a fundamental restructuring of the American defense system, which would entail a revision of the current structure of the army, as a result of sharply reduced armed forces, and in research
and development will be invested unprecedented funds. Change the armed forces will be put forward new requirements for the education of military specialists. New elite armed forces – the specialists of "information front" will come to the fore,
and will be the basis of new personnel for senior military command.
In the early 80-ies of the Soviet military experts, headed by Marshal Nikolai Ogarkov, then chief of the General staff, has put forward a promising theory that the coming technological revolution will make conventional weapons as effective as a tactical nuclear weapon of low power. Time has confirmed that armored vehicles can be found in the March and attack normal missiles, carrying a huge number of homing anti-tank shells – and all this from a distance of several hundred kilometers. Strike will be within thirty minutes after the detection of the column. In the new military doctrine N. In. Ogarkov stated:
- turn from defensive to offensive action preventive action;
- turning away from nuclear weapons first-use of nuclear escalation;
- the development of the concept of summation of efforts С4І (command, control, communications, intelligence, computerization);
- the development of precision weapons and mobility of troops;
- the direction of the main efforts on strategic non-nuclear deterrent forces.
On the basis of the Soviet concept and then during the Iraq war of 1991, American military analysts articulated a different understanding of this important issue. With the advent of modern powerful aircraft the Americans decided to bring to life the air war doctrine of Douai. In his doctrine put forward the idea of victory in the next war only the air force. Country, managed to destroy enemy aircraft and bomb his city, will be the winner. The Gulf war showed the BBC in a very favorable light, but it was for them a favorable environment. The United States possessed a powerful, well-trained troops, preparing for confrontation with the Soviet Union in world war II, enjoyed military and financial support for almost all developed countries, and the time and theater of war was ideally suited to aerial operations.
Therefore, experienced experts were skeptical of claims that the conduct of this war was a revolution. American Admiral William Owens, Vice Chairman of the joint chiefs of staff, wrote about the imminent emergence of a "system of systems". He wrote about the world wide web, which will bring together different types of sensors mounted on satellites and naval radar, unmanned aerial vehicles and acoustic devices, long-range and will supply military information of any interested user. Thus, using the information received from the satellite or on-Board aircraft radar, it is possible to launch a missile attack on the tank, the helicopter, causing the blow will be
in dozens of miles away. A revolutionary breakthrough, according to this concept, will be the unprecedented ability of the American military to gather, evaluate and use vast arrays of information on any theater of military operations (Owens talked about the square of 200 by 200 miles).
All three concepts – "Soviet", "aviation" and "owenshouse" – reflect what is happening in the army changes only partially. Meanwhile, the revolution really began. But its course will be influenced by powerful forces that are outside the military sphere. More precisely, this revolution that changes the structure of the armed forces, will be the result of different processes, among which are those that began long ago, decades ago.
Fighting in the framework of such a paradigm are likely able to take the form of information warfare which means the conflict associated with information at the strategic level between Nations or societies. The conduct of hostilities in the new environment requires a whole new paradigm. Its main provisions can be summarized as follows:
- each component of the system plays a role in determining the outcome;
- predictable and unpredictable phenomena exist and interact, leading to creation of complex networks with a huge number of variables, making impossible the prediction result;
- a small change in the system input can lead to disproportionately large changes in the results;
- system – individuals, armies, bureaucracies – tend to evolve in their complexity; complex systems in case of meeting challenges can reorganize itself.
Fighting in the framework of such a paradigm are most likely to take the form of information war, which means the conflict associated with information at the strategic level between Nations or societies.
One of the new forms of conflict is the concept of network war. Network war – the new concept of warfare (emerging theory of war), developed by the head of Department of reforming of the armed forces of the United States (Office of Force Transformation) under the control of Vice Admiral Arthur Cebrowski. The developers of this theory believe that in the near future this theory, "if you will not replace the traditional theory of the war, it significantly and irreversibly qualitatively change it." Network war connected with information technology, on a deeper level they are forms of war for knowledge – who knows what, when, where and why, and how secure a society or military in relation to knowledge about themselves and about the enemy.
Network war means a conflict of information between States and societies. It means trying to disrupt, damage, or modify what a population knows or thinks about themselves and the world around. Network warfare can be targeted at the elite or public opinion, or both. The meaning network of the principle that the main element of the whole model is "information exchange" – the maximum expansion of the forms of production of this information, access, distribution, feedback. The network is a new space information, which deployed the main strategic operations as a reconnaissance and military nature, as well as their media, diplomatic, economic, and technical support. Units, communication systems, information support operations, the formation of public opinion, diplomacy, social processes, intelligence and counterintelligence, ethnopsychology, religion and collective psychology, economic security, etc. – all this is now seen as interrelated elements of a single network, among which there should be constant exchange of information. The main purpose of keeping a war is: "a Set of actions aimed at shaping the behaviour of friends, neutral and enemies forces in a situation of peace, crisis and war." To achieve this goal in advance:
- establish full and absolute control over all parties to actual or potential hostilities;
- deliberate and total manipulation in all situations –
in peacetime, the preparation of the war and during the war.
In carrying out this objective, all countries, peoples, armies and governments of the world are deprived of whatever independence, sovereignty and subjectivity, turning into a rigidly controlled and pre-programmed mechanisms, which means direct planetary control, world domination, a new type. As a result, the enemies, and occupying a neutral position of strength, in fact, obviously subject to the imposed script, do not act according to his will. It's winning the war before it started.
The purpose of network war is the absolute control over all participants of the historical process in the world. And here not required:
- direct occupation;
- mass invasion or capture territories.
Excessive military action and huge military spending. Network – a more flexible weapon, she manipulates violence and military force only in extreme cases and the main results achieved impact on a wide range of factors – information, social, etc. the media is massively irradiated with readers and viewers with streams of visual and semantic information, built on the patterns of the country concerned.
One of the varieties of network war is war consciently. This war is connected with the domination over the individual and on identity change, that is, on consciousness over the individual. The result Constantinou war, certain types of consciousness must simply be destroyed, cease to exist, they should not be. And the carriers of these consciousnesses, on the contrary, can be saved if they refuse forms of consciousness – objects of destruction and defeat. The destruction of certain types of consciousness involves the destruction and re-organization in communities, which constitutes this type of consciousness. The ultimate goal of using Konstantinovo weapon is withholding people from current forms of mega communities. The destruction of the people and turning it into a population is due to the fact that nobody wants to associate and relate themselves to polyethnism, which until then had belonged to. In recent years, the network of war became increasingly apparent. They were under the US in Iraq. Libya, Afghanistan, Ukraine, Syria, Iran, are preparing against Russia
Speaking about military-technical revolution, it should be noted that it is a combination of complex processes involving drastic changes:
- in the control system war-at all levels of command.
- in the construction of the armed forces and the training of personnel;
- creating and adopting new types of weapons, the use of which is able to qualitatively change the nature of warfare.
The system of decision-making and management of the war should include all levels of command:
- top political;
- the Supreme military;
Progressive tennisace leads to the development of template forms of orders. The order defines the activities of troops. The order may be designed for action, limited in time and space, for an unlimited action in the temporal and spatial relationship,
and can also set actions, the boundaries of which are identified only in General terms in the spatial relation and not identified in time. The battle creates a new situation, which every time requires decision-making, and often very fast. Expect in such circumstances, the chief in most cases, guidance for action not. Since, having autonomy and without receiving instructions, the slave quickly loses confidence and is reluctant. He should be given the opportunity to Express themselves. The capacity and commitment of the chief
and slave, each in his station, should be integrated, and only through the cumulative efforts to achieve the fullest possible impact on the troops.
In the new armed forces faster you will lose their traditional division into types of armed forces – land, naval and air (in some countries there are still Marines). The era of mass armies, two centuries after its inception, coming to an end. To respond to the growing diversity of conflicts and wars and to transform the military organisation of the state can be different.
Analysis of the practice of military construction shows that there are two possible ways:
- The first is the permanent formation of an independent military structures created under the decision of specific tasks, the number of which is constantly increasing due to the growing diversity of conflicts.
- The second is to give preference to the choice of multifunctionality and versatility of the armed forces, this choice is more promising and adequate to the challenges of modernity.
In Germany it is quite seriously discussed the possibility of incorporating the border police in the composition of the Bundeswehr as an army corps.
In the era of globalization the soldier how to use of violence along with the traditional functions of a fighter is often necessary to combine in one person the quality of police officer, diplomat and social worker. Today it is difficult enough to predict with absolute precision what other challenges have to be addressed the personnel of the armed forces in the near future.
With the arrival of the army in all countries new types of weapons, such as surveillance systems, AWACS and UAVs, it will be impossible to hide the movement of armored units
and connections, to create a quietly in the rear of the defensive lines, to hide the location of ammunition depots and car parks. In the modern world the main type of weapon was highly accurate, "smart" weapon of distant radius of action, therefore, can make the first strike. Being armed with precision missiles and shells able to hit a target at great distance. The army, with such high-tech weapons can cause great damage to any armored group, both on the March and in the places of permanent deployment. Stationary objects also become more vulnerable. Fighting in the future will turn into a fire combat using very sophisticated artillery and rockets.
With the emergence of a new kind of fighting – the information war, including sabotaging the computer systems of the enemy, could change the nature of a preemptive strike. In these circumstances, the first blow may not be overt, anticipating military operations with conventional weapons. The suddenness is one of the means to achieve success. The actions of the attacking side, taken suddenly, can paralyze or undermine the moral strength to stop calmly and soberly assess the situation and, finally, to weaken the power of decision. The principles of surprise and measures for its prevention come to the fore. To anticipate how it will unfold a war started by the removal of the computing systems of the enemy down, extremely difficult.
Changing methods of warfare does not preclude the use existed before. The creation of nuclear weapons made it unnecessary to conventional weapons. Similarly, the technological revolution of our time will not lead to the rejection of the use of guerrilla tactics, terrorism, or weapons of mass destruction. Under certain tactical flexibility, you can use old weapons and after appeared more sophisticated. The ways of war are changing not only due to the continuous technical progress, but depending on how States use the army for political purposes.
On the course of military-technological revolution will impact global politics. If during the cold war there was danger of a global conflict such as the 1st and 2nd world war, which determined the direction of the military thought of that time, in the next few years, global conflicts will probably give way to local conflicts (although to some extent there remains the possibility of any escalation of a local conflict into a regional and global). Local conflicts, which began after the 2nd world war, do not stop
In the future, military technology can allow the smallest countries to successfully confront the big States. Large States, attempting to use military force to solve local problems, while seeking to avoid significant human and material losses in a new situation can be difficult. The enemy, anxious to prevent the intervention may inflict on the aggressor devastating blows. To neutralize the superiority of the aggressor at the level of expensive
and effective mega systems (such as satellites or aircraft carriers) will require the Microsystem, for example, a cruise missile. History shows that new means and methods of warfare emerge all the time. Once Napoleon blamed Kutuzov that the Russians do not fight according to the rules, is unacceptable (asymmetric – one would say today) for the French means.
One of the most common types of armed conflicts of our time is the so-called asymmetric conflict. His classic example is the clash of regular military forces irregular (guerrilla, insurgent) forces.
Under the influence of a fundamentally new strategic factors does the content of the armed struggle. Among these factors a special place belongs to the development of precision weapons (WTO), the emergence of new means of electronic warfare and space systems intelligence and navigation.
Under the influence of these factors in the local wars of the XX and early XXI century is the emergence of new forms of the armed struggle is a precision battle. This battle involves not only short-term exchange of air strikes, but also the intense struggle of the parties in all spheres of application of armed forces on land, in the ocean (sea), air and space. The fighting on the ground will take the form of defensive and offensive operations, counter clashes, swift raids in the mutual, deep penetrations of the forces of the parties, aimed at maximum use of fire strikes and the consolidation of an success. It is possible to melee.
Development trends are possible of saving manpower, the conduct of hostilities, due to the replacement of human combat high-tech means, involves the use of the enemy, in case of the outbreak of hostilities in the absence of direct contact between ground forces of the warring parties, by application of HQs ranged WTO with increased striking power.
Keep in mind the following trends and characteristics of armed struggle in the present conditions and future operations:
- about themain task of defeating the enemy dare fire
and electronic defeat, the significance of range management fire fight;
- a crucial role in the fighting will play aviation, precision weapons and well-protected error-correcting anti-aircraft defense;
- in the operational building (order of battle) of the forces must be operational within the framework of real-time reconnaissance information centers.
Modern armed struggle is a struggle of point, is highly intensive, and sabotage, conducted under the comprehensive technological support. By conducting a brief analysis of the nature
and characteristics of armed struggle shows that the basis of the potential of aggression began to make the forces and means of aerospace attack, without which no cost, no conflict. In this country, which is unable to reflect air-a space attack, were forced to stop their fight and admit defeat. The pattern of dependence of the outcome of military operations from the results of the confrontation in the aerospace sphere has become an objective reality. Therefore, probably, the purpose of missile defense systems is likely to be not intercepting enemy missiles and destroying satellites.
The wars of the future may begin and virtually end with the long air-space offensive operation together with the operation (action) of the shock forces and equipment naval forces and operations of electronic warfare. To begin with the application of a global impact. The duration of such joint operations can be 60-90 days or more. The fighting will be primarily robotic machines which are operated by operators hundreds of miles away. Features military action future wars:
the constant threat of sudden application of a proactive opponent of the first cathode-fire strike with decisive influence on the course and outcome of the first operations, and the threat of the enemy new types of weapons;
- especially the "fighter" the nature of warfare from the beginning of its development and maintenance;
- the transience of the air-land battle in the absence of a continuous front and with open flanks;
- the tension of the struggle for the seizure and retention initiatives, the conquest of air and space and information space;
- dramatic change in the situation and methods of action, due to the high mobility of troops and the efficiency of fire defeat;
- the increase in spatial scale at the same time of hostilities with the use of all destruction means;
- the increasing role of the defense forces, populations and objects in the rear of the country from existing and promising means of destruction.
In the war with a strong opponent of achieving victory by holding only air and space operations is not realistic. The results of this operation you should still be able to use to complete the defeat of the enemy. To solve this problem without the use of ground forces almost impossible. Understands the military leadership of the leading countries of the world. The army will retain its value, which is currently in many States actively are equipped with high-precision and other new types of weapons. In theory and in practice the armed struggle will continue to exist such objective phenomena and concepts as operations, strategic deployment, maneuver, regroup, attack and defense, and more. Conditions, forms and methods of their implementation will change significantly. The future for a more flexible and diverse forms of building combat formations, the readiness of military units to self-a highly maneuverable inshore action, development of tactics, operational maneuver groups, etc. In the development of forms and methods of conducting offensive operations in the future, predicted the following trends:
- withthe convergence of the results of operations and defeat enemy forces using conventional weapons and weapons of mass destruction;
- the transfer of the center of gravity of the armed struggle against the destruction of the opposing groups of troops (forces) of the provisions of direct contact their defeat by the application of a distant fire strikes, early deprivation of the enemy's ability to conduct combat operations;
- maintaining the required effectiveness of troops (forces) with the General decline of the fighting strength of formations of the Armed Forces as a whole; groups of troops (forces) at the operational areas due to an increase in the proportion of rapid deployment forces;
- the mobility of combat that will develop rapidly, without the presence of continuous fronts, and wear highly maneuverable character – when you enter the battle of mobile groups they will avoid frontal frontal action while overcoming fortified borders and seek to penetrate exactly the depressed centers of resistance;
- increasing the depth of simultaneous and sequential fire (energy) weapons and the coverage of active hostilities the entire depth of the operational formation of his groups; the increase in spatial scale of the air-space-ground maneuver; the dominance of the "non-contact", the remote action over the middle of the fight;
- a variety of tactics – point, selective, deep strokes WTO, raids on the enemy's rear airmobile units and groups, the massive deployment of helicopters and fighter jets, helicopters-Directors of interference;
- enhancing the role of the air battles mixed composition of aircraft-helicopter units, integrated effect of diverse forces and means of air and space attacks on control systems, intelligence, electronic warfare of the enemy;
- the dominance of the zonal-objective, focal struggle.
- the increasing influence on the outcome of an armed confrontation subversive subversive actions;
- the sharp increase of the role of high-speed integrated intelligence and space weapons systems, capable to carry out reconnaissance of targets and inflict blows on them in real time.
During the strategic offensive operation the main component will be a strategic blow. Depending on the goals of the operation (war) and the correlation of forces is planned the application of one or more such blows. Strikes are to destroy the military and economic potentials of the enemy and suppress his will to continue the war. The parties will strive to achieve the goals of the war by one or more strikes during the strategic air and space operations, so future war could be fleeting. Armed struggle it will leak on the scenario imposed the strongest side, the one that will be better prepared for war and will fight in the best moment of sudden action.
The process of technical re-equipment of armies is not one-sided. Therefore, despite the fact that the nature of modern armed struggle is not comparable to the armed struggle in wars of the XIX
and XX centuries, the defense will be able to find an effective way to counter attack. Talented Russian commander Alexei Brusilov, analyzing his rich combat practice, came to the conclusion that the potential defense is its ability to impose its will on the enemy, in its activity. In his memoirs he wrote: "the Best form of defense is at least possible transition on the offensive, i.e. to defend should not passively, which inevitably leads to defeat, and perhaps more actively, causing the opponent in sensitive places heavy blows". The defense on the ways of action will be integrated with the offensive. In terms of ground-air-space of the "extended battlefield" in the presence of an acute shortage of forces and means of a forced form of action will be unfocused defensive front and depth. It can be applied in operational and tactical scale.
In the operational level, such a defense is based on retention of Autonomous army (corps) or a part of their forces and resources in vital areas and objects on a separate operating areas, combined with the action of mobile parts of the cover, creating fire screens
and firing the bags in the unoccupied intervals.
For such a defense characterized by uneven distribution of forces and means in areas. Building a distributed defense may be different, but most often, the main strength of associations (connections) will focus in depth, to carry out maneuver a second echelons and reserves to the dangerous areas during the defensive battle.
At the tactical level defense relies on a system of defensive areas, units, and strongholds of the militant groups (platoon, company). The basis for these battle groups can be tanks, infantry fighting vehicles and armored personnel carriers, as well as minefields. With this defense against superior enemy forces, it is necessary to reliably secure the flanks and the joints between the nodes of resistance, using small arms and antitank weapons to create fire pockets, apply ambush actions, as well as controlled minefields. Mobile defense requires associations at least equal to the enemy's operational mobility, of excellent training and a rigid discipline of the troops, as well as exceptional handling.
The traditional division of military actions into two types – the offensive and the defense has not fully reflect the changes in the character of the armed struggle – will be the typical defensive and offensive actions. Dominant during defensive and offensive actions will be a remote method of confrontation, which "balances" the possibility of the parties pre-emptive, launch-and counter-retaliation. Increases the value of holding aircraft and rocket and artillery preparation, which, combined with the conduct of aerospace operations with the use of weapons based on new physical principles, is able under certain conditions to disrupt the enemy's advance, or significantly reduce its fire superiority and to seize the initiative.
The previously dominant middle firefight on a number of issues falling by the wayside. However, it is necessary to form the commanders of the various degrees of non-standard tactical thinking, the rejection of the schematic, formulaic approaches. Tactics, as a true martial art should be constantly improved based on historical military experience of the Russian (Soviet military school), foreign armies, given the experience of the wars of the past centuries. Operations, electronic firing, air and space, ground-offensive-defensive, impossible to do without tactical actions, which may, perhaps, at the initial stage will be a supporting character, but later (when not excluded the use of positional forms of combat) will take their rightful place.
Combined arms fight will be different in scope, content, and conducted not only in the tactical area but also in the operational depth, as evidenced by the experience of modern wars and armed conflicts.
In a tactical zone of fire defeat of the forces is a field of artillery and strikes of SVN.
For air strikes, the enemy can use a large Arsenal of firepower: a tactical aircraft; helicopters of army aviation; cruise and ballistic missiles; unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), a driven side (high-precision) weapons, which includes missiles (UR), operated aviation bombs and cartridges (UAB, UAC) anti-radiation (anti-tank) guided missiles (PRR, ATGM).
The list of weapons from enemy aircraft is quite extensive, and its backbone is a precision weapon that allows you to selectively hit any ground targets. In addition to the WTO of weapons especially noteworthy in the army aviation, which in the tactical zone plays a crucial role.
Aerial combat is the most important part of combined arms combat, since its results directly affects the combat readiness of troops and their operations. Currently, all military units are composed of forces and means of air defense, which is their ability to combat enemy aircraft implemented in the form of air battles, reflecting the attacks on covering troops while in their combat formations.
In modern combined arms combat and operations to successfully tackle this critical task possible only in a complex, collaborative effort among all forces and means, able to struggle with them, both in the air and on the ground, as well as by countering his intentions. As a result, the battle of combined arms formations and units acquires the features of a ground-air combat.
Modern tactical in addition to combat, which still remains the core basis includes the system providing the supporting action. With the changing conditions of warfare planning operations will have to prepare and conduct military actions in a shorter and even in a very short time. The planning of the battle and his organization require:
- the specific objectives of the battle;
- areas of focus;
- the most appropriate setting, ways of action, leading to the successful solution of the problem;
b) create the necessary groupings of forces and means in the strategic and operational levels;
C) build a suitable order of battle at the tactical level;
g) the organization of interaction between the armed forces and elements of the combat order;
d) ensure the invulnerability of this order of battle for the entire course of the battle, providing all the necessary rebuilding;
g) organization of uninterrupted supply troops with everything necessary;
h) doing all the fight in accordance with the decision taken.
This means, in particular, subject to the overall principle of centralization, unity of command the importance of full extension of the front of the work, the empowerment of staffs, chiefs of arms, services. They need to resolve many issues independently, in concert with the military headquarters and among themselves, as with very limited time and the rapid development of events the commander is no longer able to personally address and resolve all critical issues of preparation and conduct of operations, as it was in the past. Need a far greater initiative and independence at all levels, handling. Thus the special role of managerial ability of commanders at all levels.
Modern war is a complex political, economic, informational and social impact on the defense of the state.
Technological progress does not stand still and presents new ways of warfare. Completed the transition States leading from the strategy of massive use of manpower to use more sophisticated, requiring less human resources
and ensuring more effective engagement of the enemy (complexes
and the WTO system) weapons.
Thus, the main feature of the content of armed struggle in wars and armed conflicts of the XXI century consists in the fact that the new form of warfare can be described as voluminous, covering all aspects of the armed struggle (land, sea, air, space), where electronic, economic, psychological, informational and military effects will be carried out with increasing intensity in time and space, to achieve decisive results in the shortest possible time to deprive the enemy of the initiative and freedom of maneuver.
It is therefore necessary to develop new forms and methods of warfare to provide greater survivability of personnel and VVT in the event of conflict with all possible weapons from nuclear weapons to weapons based on new physical principles.
It should be noted that the content of the armed struggle of the future will change significantly, military action possible in the wars and armed conflicts will be conducted according to the laws and regulations of the country which is most prepared to implement in practice the most advanced achievements in military and technological fields.
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