All of this "Spark" asked the former head of the Analytical Department of the KGB of the USSR, scientific Director of tsiit "Inteltek", one of the founders and member of the Presidium of the Council on foreign and defense policy (SWAP) Vladimir Rubanov.
— Vladimir arsentevich, Russia is in a state of information war with the West?
— The concept of "information warfare" today is embedded rather political propaganda than a vocational meaning. It launched the Western journalists in the early 1990s, years during "operation desert Storm" in Iraq, when it was first comprehensively involved in formal advocacy structure and widely applied aimed at foreign audience misinformation running established the Pentagon office of strategic influence. Since then a lot has happened, changed, and methods and strategies and means. The basis of today's views, is the relation to the information space as the theater of military operations (along with land, sea, air and space), in which you can exert covert influence on the behavior of the enemy, that he did not know about this, but I made a decision or committed such actions that are contrary to his intentions or hinder their implementation. Victory in the information war means subjection of the enemy and absolute power over him. This is the concept of George Stein, who calls the goal of information warfare on the minds of those who make the key decisions of war and peace, the use of capacity and capability the strategic level. It is, therefore, about the transformation of information warfare in a "war of knowledge" or, as it is defined by the author of the concept of "epistemic warfare." Obviously this is far from the common understanding of "information war" as a large-scale propaganda aimed at a mass audience.
But when you turn on the TV and nothing high-tech propaganda in Africa and it is propaganda...
The main technological objective "information war" — capture and control information channels and flows and protection against similar action by the enemy. The weapons and methods then evolved with the development of information technology: if in the 70-ies of the last century it was about an active confrontation on the level of radio-electronic means (once I did), then today they added a physical weapon (anti-radar missiles, means of generating the magnetic pulse, etc.) and psychological (modern media and global informati) exposure, capital alteration, or destruction of information and databases, and finally funds, allowing you to disrupt or paralyze the network security infrastructure asset management, etc. This is a very important direction of reflection of a real threat in the event of a military conflict and the organization of the system of ensuring national security. In the field of electronic warfare, Russian weapons are, by the way, at a high enough level, but have a critical vulnerability due to the lack of its own component base.
— What does information superiority?
— The concept is much wider information war, and includes in addition to addressing the military aspects of security economic, technological, scientific and cultural component. So, to overcome technological dependence in critical areas, we implemented the program of import substitution. But these programs are concentrated on the reproduction of existing products. Thus, we deliberately condemn ourselves to the backlog. Play developed by someone a product or technology is no big achievement. The problem is not the availability of products, and in the intellectual and creative capacity to invent them. Independent creation of complex software platforms is possible only with a developed industry with systems quality testing, remediation, and global systems support their use. Put yourself in the place of the head, which is necessary, for example, to select software for the management of hazardous chemical production: developed and showed its reliability the product is a foreign producer or domestic development without practical confirmation of reliability. What are the risks danger: possible malicious behaviour of a foreign supplier or domestic same mistakes a novice developer? But in the first case, the software is tested with the security structures on the subject of undeclared features (bookmarks, a suspicious command), and the imperfection of the product can be determined. We have requirements to prohibit the purchase of state-owned corporations of imported software. But immediately after the release of similar solutions (with a fair share of propagandistic flair) at the "support domestic producers" begin to change, allowing foreign software in "exceptional cases." This is understandable: in practice, priority is given to quality of software, and not the country of manufacture. By the way, in the US management system for the Ministry of defense rely heavily on solutions from SAP (Germany) in the presence of a developed IT industry. But non-professional, involved in political demagoguery approach to information security has found a vivid expression in the acclaimed "law of Spring". What's the point in recording and storing data traffic that has no means of decoding and analysing the gigantic information flow?
— Would be access, and to perform...
— If only it were that simple! What is a filter? Key words? But the program will recognize the word the combination of letters and not their meaning and not in context. And the jargon? Example: you need to identify information associated with the money, and you run the keywords "money", "Finance", "accounts" etc. And what they say "friends" online? On "pasterns". Add the word "grandmother" as keywords — you will get so much garbage, that will not find. Attackers can even use their own slang and come catch them in a giant thread with such intelligence! Far from Informatics people believe that the more information the better. But experts know that the problem is just too much information. From year to year the number of verbal slag increases with increasing speed, lowering the level of concentration of useful information. This turns the "data warehouse" in their "graveyard" where, apparently, rest and "the law of Spring".
Russia still believe that it is important to develop the "factory" and not "laboratory". But effective today can only be manufacturing our own unique product, not replicating someone else's.
— Can the programmers to solve these problems?
— The fact of the matter is that this is not the competence of programmers and the so-called architects. It's the people and structure modeling of processes and systems management, analysts, experts on the formalization of the description of the respective spheres of activity and the architects of information systems. This is the top level of modern IT-industry, its intellectual core. These are the brains, for which today there is a hunt on a global scale. We have the specialization and expertise of the architect are superficial and formal. Usually the architects of information systems and representatives in interagency councils are appointed Deputy heads of departments in PR and GR in accordance with the position, not training. But it is this category of individuals acts as the Directors tasks for programmers. In world practice, the level of generated information technologies is determined by the persons engaged in the ontological (semantic) design, and not the creation of technical solutions. Even the world's software companies begin to move from software to management consulting, removing the programming and technical niche. It is difficult to expect impressive successes of Russia in the InfoSphere, if we have a major figure continues to be the programmer. Type, for example, in Kazan "Innopolis" several thousand programmers, systems architects and designers of large-scale innovative problems for them there. It's like that to recruit the production team an aircraft factory without the presence of the chief designer of the aircraft and expect the result will appear by itself. The matter is that developers of large-scale global systems to manage them in the process of operation. So, in the creation of Facebook and the definition of its functionality played a great role in the security services and the Agency for advanced research, U.S. Department of defense (DARPA). The system architecture and technology of network management, sorting and analysing the information protection in the functionality of the system and can do the necessary analysis on the demands of the state in automatic mode — cheap and reliable. They do not need to do expensive and inefficient add-ons, like the "Spring law", as the usage scenarios of these systems and social networks in information warfare is inherently in their architectural solutions.
Yes very simple. The results of processing the data about the facts of access of Russian scientists to certain resources, for example, it is relatively easy to determine the topics, successes and problems of Russia in a particular industry. Just select Facebook interest to the professional community, to perform what their representatives say, for example physics, what I write, what books to read, and everything becomes clear. However, such information management and Analytics can be implemented with the help of machines and "smart agents". By networking and viruses modifications of consciousness to run. For example, today active demand technology video on demand ("movie on demand"): followers usually do not want to waste your time looking for the masterwork, and software developers manage video streams can have a "discreet service" through the promotion of a certain content, thereby programming the minds of users. Such funds — from the Arsenal of media and epistemological confrontation. And here, of course, we have to live with your mind, to build their models to fit their goals and objectives, otherwise we run the risk of repeating the sad experience of the Soviet electronic industry.
— What happened to her?
— It is ruined in the Bud. Attempts to bridge the gap by copying foreign models using scientific and technical intelligence provided to the development of electronic industry a disservice. Copying someone else instead of developing their own competence resulted in the loss of appropriate mathematical schools, modeling skills and design, research Foundation, the intellectual and cultural soil where you are born and grow. To reproduce other people's models and algorithms in hardware is not very difficult. China and the countries of South-East Asia has shown impressive advances as a "factory" of modern electronics. But the "laboratory" of electronic equipment are concentrated in the U.S., and it depends on them, what, when, how much and how many will be able to produce "factory". In some cases up to 90 percent of profits from products "factories" receive "laboratory". In Russia still believe that it is important to develop the "factory" and not "laboratory". Thus, we enter into price competition with China, Vietnam and other countries in South-East Asia, and for that we have to drop the price of labor below the level of those countries. How do you like it? Effective today can only be manufacturing our own unique product, not replicating someone else's. At the turn of 1970-1980-ies of the United States adopted and successfully implement the program of "scientific laboratory in the world". In this strategy they pull together brains from all over the world, and instead sell to other countries the license for the production, created in their laboratories. See the difference? They calculated that the biggest revenue comes from research and development — they're upstairs modern economic pyramid, below — sale technology, and its basis — manufacturing. The idea is simple: control over science — control of the world by concentrating the best brains from around the world. At the initial stage of this strategy was doubted. I remember how former U.S. Secretary of state Eagleburger expressed concern about the fact that too many foreign scientists working in U.S. defense research and development centers and would be good to them "shake", and something about vigilance forgotten. Familiar rhetoric?
— And he said the scientific community?
Said that traitors among the intelligence and military are statistically more than among scientists, so if you don't give rest itching on the part of "cleansing series", let them start with themselves. In addition, the researchers reminded that they bring are useful for the solution of military problems and ideas can bring even more good if they were backed by the world's best brains. With this approach, the protection of scientific and technical intelligence is not a priority, as the one who plays someone else's, is doomed to lose. It formulated the principle: the only way to win in competition is to run faster than others. And they were right: today in the IT-industry update models is every six months, and it means that stealing these developments are useless — they are obsolete before the product output to the market. An advanced "laboratory" methods of industrial espionage to catch up. In the United States correctly calculated: the highest value today is the creative mind, it is much higher, than his yesterday's results. The most important is the ability to respond to key contemporary challenges, create innovative solutions. And this can be done only by trained creative people. And this was the main key of the success of the United States on the path to dominance in the field of knowledge, and therefore, in the global information space.
— What's in Russia?
— In Russia established the SKOLKOVO Foundation and a number of development institutions. I myself am a member of the Advisory Board of this Fund. Like, here it is — our response to DARPA. And the answer was weak and far from adequate. Thousands of tiny initiatives you can not make even one more or less large-scale project promoting Russia to a higher position in the global technological and information space.
— And how the process is organized in the US?
— Take, for example, a cell phone — it has a plate with a chip and a battery. Modern developments in the field of miniaturization and energy efficiency has reached the level of the atom. Where next? DARPA brain poses the questions: to move out of the plane in the volume can? And replace the electricity to light? In the United States has identified 25 areas of fundamental mathematical and physical studies, sharpened the solution of these two fundamental directions. And put them in front of scientists of the state Agency with the position of the national intellectual leader, responsible for the future. I at the same time looked at the list ran: there were 270 areas, the most heterogeneous, with no strategic ideas and understanding of some breakthrough technological direction is formed as a result of their successful completion. Instead of a purposeful strategy — compilation of individual plans of individual scientists and research teams. But 100 large mice it is impossible to make even a small elephant! However, the elephant we have to do and don't want all the busy mouse hunting. Led as discussions with senior leaders one of the state Corporation and asked who their competitors are. It is the largest American company Northrop Grumman. Asked what our corporations are the problem. Began to call the lack of millers and other industrial occupations. Asked about IT professionals and their incentives. The question caught by surprise. Had to explain that their global competitor material production is 17 percent, and 34 percent for information technology. The Americans kept a digital model, which provides a global cooperation organized by the digital image. Molding form for the matrix to cut a workpiece and drill a hole in a part of the template — is simple enough. But to find and encourage those who are able to build digital models of complex systems and to organize globally organized digital production is the most important thing today. It is this layer of professionals is the main value and driving competitive advantage in the modern economy. But raw materials, energy and products we believe at world prices, and the costs of experts with unique competences in internal instructions. The brain and leaked to competitors. And not to shout while these unique specialists to the top, as couldn't make their grandparent Lefty: "Tell the Emperor that it is impossible guns brick is clean!" And while the "professional patriots" actively seeking "fifth column", the descendants of the Lefties slowly flow away abroad. Along with their brains and valuable knowledge. A generous gift to the competitors and rivals. But fewer are those who can think properly.
Is about the fact that we are not focusing on the threat?
— There is a real risk for Russia is the growing gap in the peaceful rivalry, without which it is questionable success in the military sphere. Information security in this approach is the need to speedily resolve the flaws of their information technology development. But, as he said Chernomyrdin, "I try to make it better, and it turns out as always". Back to the "SKOLKOVO" Foundation. It's designed to provide creative freedom and supporting creative initiatives. In fact the post office for their new "scientific bureaucracy": to pay salaries to employees of "SKOLKOVO" took nearly two times more budget money than all grants to support projects. The average salary in the Fund is close to 500 thousand rubles (almost 14 times higher than the average for Russia). But try to specify even five times lower salary to attract professionals in the justification of the project for a grant! Again, as always: no support structure for science, and science as a justification for feeding the spending of money. In fact it turns out that the main scientific developments in Russia — again, the official, though on the payroll in "SKOLKOVO". In the United States — on the contrary. The first principle of the work of DARPA to lose a man worse than to lose money. Second: the new project should be to oppose the traditional approaches. Can you imagine the fate of the project for grant support if it is contrary to the concept of some academician? In the United States at the forefront is the man of science, and under him, structure is created. There perfectly understand the difference between, say, by Keldysh and staff of the Institute in his name. And provide funding for specific academic with an idea, and not the structure. As a scientist engaged in science — it is given the economists and lawyers who help the scientist, and not make every day in front of them to report.
And whoever steers the process?
— You will be surprised: mostly science fiction. And in Hollywood as "dream factory" is not only an entertainment for shirnarmass, but a manufacturer of images and meanings for the entire planet. With Hollywood and Hollywood are used by many internationally known specialists in the fields of IT and artificial intelligence. By the way, Timur Bekmambetov is one of the recipients of the "SKOLKOVO" project, implemented by order and in cooperation with Hollywood. This futuristic approach the Americans closed the main hole of his science — she is too focused on profit, rapid implementation. But in the United States have learned to invest in a "fantastic story". When I spoke with Anita Jones, at that time head of DARPA, the us propaganda was already developing a theme of "star wars". Russia also tried to tell the world about technical unfeasible "star wars". So, we were told that to receive money from the budget for "the fantastic story", which through the decades to become a reality, can only be so — with the help of Hollywood and dreams for the nation, through a new way and style of life. And they were right: the fantasy of "star wars" DARPA has developed many technologies that today they are the basis of breakthrough innovative solutions with practical application.
Summary of state information policy — the constant aspiration of the Russian youth to work exclusively in large companies or government agencies. The current situation is the result of dominance in social groups with parasitic-consumer attitudes.
— It turns out US rely on culture and science?
Yes. The economy in the developed world today is culturocentric: the top of the socio-economic hierarchy is occupied by those who identifies and solves new problems, creates and promotes symbols. Like Steve jobs with the brand "Apple". Simultaneously, the displacement of the center of formation and management of economic processes from the sphere of production in the field of Finance. So the task of turning ideas into a profitable enterprise is solved by competition for consumers, not for producers. In technologically developed countries, science has evolved into a complex social institution, which determines the structure of society and national identity. Today in the world there is nothing more effective than the value created by knowledge.
Is the digital economy?
— Partly. In the digital economy it is important to create a social model where the consumer was connected to the intermediary and the producer — the so-called multilateral platform markets for which the French Tyrol did a couple of years ago, the Nobel prize in Economics. In digital reality the car is not a means of transportation, and complex computer driven network. Even the "smart machine" — already too yesterday: who needs it without the "smart city"? In the EU a year as busy with a digital transformation of the economy. In Russia, to be fair, a number of state-owned companies also inserted this paragraph into their plans, but while the Declaration was all. Today in the West, the head of the corner is not even technological ideas, and social. Thus, the population of developed countries is aging, and because social networks are beginning to be used not for the sake of talking, as a medium of providing their participants mutual services, self-service in a wide range — from tips, to helping with concrete actions. We are also trying to create a system of telemedicine, but still copied someone else's experience and technology. Again, not enough designers of networks, architects of complex systems with an excess of administrative barriers.
— Why not?
— Because society is not aware of such a need. It is the result of 20 years of cultivation in the mass consciousness of the "world of consumption without production." The result, if you want, Russian state information policy — the constant aspiration of the Russian youth, according to sociologists, to access administrative and resource rents, the dream to work exclusively in large companies or government agencies. The leaders of the preferences of Gazprom, the President's administration and law enforcement agencies. This bias affects the prestige of industrial occupations including. The current situation is the result of dominance in social groups with parasitic-consumer attitudes. And the threat to national security today comes not from the talkative of the Internet and especially not from industrial espionage or propaganda from the West, and from such perverse attitudes within the country and from the real leak so we need today brains.
Interviewed By Svetlana Sukhova
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