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The combined use of manned and unmanned aviation in the first half of the XXI century
Material posted: Publication date: 29-04-2018
The aircraft is considered military-political leadership of the United States as a major instrument of national security and success in modern military conflicts are characterized by high dynamism of the actions of the warring parties, significant spatial scope and time limitations the planning and coordination of aircraft formations.

In the future, dramatically increasing their opportunities associated with the emergence of new constructive-circuit design of aircraft, improving the accuracy of aircraft on the background of reducing their weight and size. To ensure more effective use of aircraft is planned to extend the scope and increase the number of UAVS, development and refinement of the combat use of forms and methods of joint actions of manned and unmanned aviation at the decision of the reconnaissance and strike tasks.

The focus of the Pentagon to the issues of joint use of manned and unmanned aviation emerged in the assessment of involvement of UAVS in military conflicts of the late XX - early XXI century and directions of development of the armed forces of potential adversaries. The transition of most countries to the seventh level of technology allows independently with minimal logistical expenses, to organize serial production of unmanned aircraft technology for military purposes. The American developers can't create a significant technological advance in this area that would allow them to continue to occupy a leading position in this field.

United States, necessarily involved in this race, are forced to spend enormous financial resources, to look for "fresh" ideas and new ways to implement them.

At the present stage, considerable experience in the field of joint use of manned and unmanned aircraft have accumulated in the United States army. So, the army aviation is working on a procedure of a specialized attack helicopter, the an-64E "Apache guardian" in conjunction with the UAV RQ-7B "shadow-200" and the MQ-1C "grey Eagle".

The helicopter crew, having "order" BLAH, communicates with them in real time, controls his flight, information tools and weapons. According to American military experts, this allows to achieve such advantages over the enemy as long range target detection, a greater margin of aircraft weapons (TSA, the total ammunition are tools of the helicopter and UAVS), as well as the low probability of hitting the helicopter due to the reduction of the period or complete exclusion of his stay in range of enemy weapons.

Empowerment on the use of helicopters and UAVS in the group is associated with a number of organizational and technical measures, the main of which are the introduction of UAVS in military reform the structure of aviation units, conducting training of flight personnel (theoretical, practical, psychological) and technology to the operation in a single composition.

In this regard, it is expected to expand the range and increase the number of BLAH teams in AA. The composition of the combat teams AA introduced three platoons of four UAV RQ-7B "shadow-200" in each and one company, having armed with 12 UAV MQ-1C "gray Yoke." It is envisaged to improve management tools and information exchange with the devices while increasing the security of the channels, expanding the options of joint use with UAVS of several types, improving technology transfer management and procedures in emergency situations.

Summarizing, the analysis of the results of a joint application, synthesis and evaluation of the various, until hypothetically possible, use aircraft equipment of different design and management principle allows to determine the main directions for further theoretical studies and practical activities. The formation of their content and the definition of stages implemented based on the principle of "unity of approaches in all kinds of national armed forces." It's in the future will significantly expand the range of tasks for which it is possible to jointly use aircraft of different species.

As a major thought leader in the field of UAVS and manned aircraft is the management of advanced studies of the Ministry of defense (DARPA). Management of the major long-term programmes which will lead to a significant increase of the effectiveness of the aviation units of mixed composition, include the following:

1. Control system small group BLAH

The implementation of this program involves the creation of a system that extends the autonomy of the UAV and the group simplifying their application in complex physical-geographical conditions and/or active electronic countermeasures by the enemy. The main goal is development of "joint autonomy", which is understood as synchronization of information within groups of UAVS, the development of a number of options of joint actions and adjustments as changing circumstances. The operator has only to select one of the suggested options. The advantage is to increase the survivability of the individual blah BLAH because of the ability to share necessary data with other members of the group in case of failure or suppression of any systems (e.g., navigation or targeting).

As a matter of priority requirements to the control system of the UAV stands out the ability to manage a group of such devices without constant monitoring.

User interface and algorithms for autonomy are based on an open architecture based on existing standards used in other types of aircraft. Further, this unification will allow for integrated operation with maximum opportunities for interaction.

Operator, managing a group of UAVS will have current data about its status, the status completed and Queuing tasks, and about possible algorithms of actions. If necessary, the commander can allocate for the monitor part of a group of UAVS, to give them call and send the newly formed group on a new quest. The tasks assigned to them before this is automatically redistributed among the remaining machines. After the assignment, the group continues to operate on the basic plan or await the new jobs, depending on the pre-generated sequence of actions. Stipulates that the UAV can be transferred to other operators, depending on the situation.

In practice, this system may soon be introduced in the Navy in the framework of the pairing UAV MQ-4C "Triton" and AWACS and control E-2D, the electronic warfare EA-18G "classic guitar player keyboardist pianist" in the air force - management of shock UAVS aboard combat aircraft F-35A.

2. Management system action items a mixed group

As a priority before the developers aim to create a management system that is able to distribute functions and to coordinate actions of groups in overcoming the air defense system. In fact the whole tier penetration will be a multi-component militant groups who must obey the same system, many times accelerating the transfer of information, with a high level of integration of all components.

It is planned that the "center" of this system will be the fighter (multifunctional aviation complex), which plays the role of the air command post. The fighter pilot will make their own decision on the action. In order to reduce the temporal parameters of the cycle of output, input and transmission of control commands is created an automated system of support of decision-making.

As the main means of obtaining intelligence data about the elements of system area or air defense facility planned to use a UAV, delivery of which in the area of performance tasks will be to carry out unmanned transport aircraft (presumably on the basis of the C-130 "Hercules"). In the case of a decision to defeat as ASP can be used cruise missiles, most of which is on transport aircraft, or reconnaissance UAVS.

3. Multifunctional BLAH

Distribution of tasks of intelligence and to defeat the object between the means often leads to a decrease in the efficiency of its destruction and, as a result, to the loss of initiative on the battlefield. To compensate for this disadvantage is provided due to the establishment of semi-Autonomous cheap UAV capable of operating in both combat and reconnaissance version.

After launching drones should be grouped based on the principle of "swarm" to form a local network with which communication will be characterized by stability and continuity. In this case, transmission of control commands and high-speed exchange of information on mutual position of UAVS in the group will be provided through the use of advanced systems of construction order of battle. UAV equipped with a warhead and radar guidance system must operate for a given program to capture radar radiation target. After the target, he enters into a dive and hit it. With the failure of capture (radar turned off) blah BLAH can go into patrol mode, followed by a repetition of the attack. According to the plan of the experts of DARPA, at the end of the job, the survivors of the UAV must return to the aircraft carrier by means of a special system of intercepting devices in the air.

In the course of action in groups tier penetration most of them will inevitably be destroyed, but the remaining will be able to reach the target and incapacitate one or more elements of anti-aircraft missile system. In this case, the enemy will spend a significant amount of ammunition, and the ratio of the loss in financial terms would be comparable. This method will allow you to quickly break a large enough "gap" in the air defense system of the enemy and create favorable conditions for the actions of its aircraft.

During a RAID of combat aircraft-interceptors planned application of UAVS as electronic warfare and remote repeaters. These promising abilities of drones, on the one hand, will reduce the ability of airborne radar aircraft of the enemy, and on the other to increase the detection range and the application of ASP to be a friendly aircraft.

Important mass RAID blah BLAH will be in direct support of ground forces. As conceived by the leadership of the U.S. air force, the combat capabilities of the ground units have increased considerably due to the use of a single information and communication network. Having the opportunity to obtain information from any of the drone being in the area, the commander on the battlefield will be able to use it for decision making or even to take control, blah BLAH, and then applying it as a precision weapon.

A significant contribution to the development of the theoretical basis of joint use of aviation professionals at the Center for strategic and budgetary assessments. In one of its reports on the tactics of gaining air superiority in the future, the result of the simulation of the scenes of aerial combat was to evaluate the possible joint actions of groups of UAVS and manned stealth aircraft with detection equipment of long-range and their effect on the ratio of possible losses.

According to experts of the center, the use of multipurpose UAV long duration flight in formation with the aircraft, made by technology Stelt and armed with missiles "air - air" super-large range (very long range air-to-air missiles), can greatly increase the efficiency of their actions in operations for the conquest of the air.

In General, it should be noted that the question of developing algorithms use a large number of interacting UAVS on the principle of "swarm" at the present time is particularly relevant. However, development of such algorithms and the use of a group of UAVS that possess "collective intelligence" and meets the conceptual requirements of "joint autonomy", involve considerable difficulties, reflected in particular in the absence of basic experience combining heterogeneous systems of this kind.

Along with this, the development of approaches for the combined use of manned and unmanned aviation in the U.S. army faced a number of problems, the main of which are the following:

  1. The lack of a legal framework governing the permissible limits of the autonomy of UAVS and robotics in General, and of the responsibility that needs to occur in the event of emergencies, allowed because of artificial intelligence, especially in matters of lesions;
  2. Increased demands psychological stability and level of training of the pilot, controlling the actions of multiple UAVS;
  3. Poor study the technical aspects of the integration of the diverse combat and support systems.

For the acquisition and accumulation of such experience in addition to the development of appropriate systems within the main programs of DARPA, the leadership of the U.S. armed forces adopted the decision on carrying out of competitions among the cadets of military academies, the purpose of which is to improve tactics use groups blah BLAH and its practical exercises.

In preparation for the competitions is given eight months. During this time the group of cadets species academies develop systems and control, design of air combat and the composition of the set of aircraft required for the task.

So, in conducted in April 2017, the competition was attended by more than 40 cadets of military academies of the United States. In the course of performing the flight task, to develop the application, namely: the installation of a virtual weapon BLAH labels on air target (air combat simulation), landing devices on the basis of the enemy (imitation of destruction of ground facilities) and logistical support "swarms" (as evaluated by how quickly and how much BLAH, the team can start and how long will they last in the air for the competition).

Special attention was paid to the protection of BLAH from the opposition, since the communication channels and management of potentially vulnerable and the loss of expensive equipment in real conditions will cause considerable economic damage, while the captured equipment could be used against American troops.

Thus, the output to the next stage of development of aviation technology, the leadership of the armed forces of the United States says 'the fact that in a complex, rapidly changing environment people due to the physiological characteristics are often not able to make the right decision. In some cases, machine intelligence can compete with a person, to learn and to build capacity in speed and accuracy of decision-making. All this leads to the theoretical basis and practical development of issues of joint use of manned and unmanned aircraft as the best option.

At the present stage the main objective of this work is to increase the efficiency of performing reconnaissance and attack missions while reducing the risk of losing expensive manned aircraft and crew, while significantly reducing material costs. Work on the creation of systems that work together to use manned and unmanned aerial vehicles, conducted in all branches of the armed forces, the obtained results are regularly summarized and used to adjust activities based on the principle of unity approaches.

However, such joint use of aircraft of different type, class, and belonging to the species of the armed forces is only an intermediate stage towards the creation of self-organized mixed groups of UAVS, capable of functioning with a high degree of autonomy and make their own decisions based on the situation.

The reality of 2050 is almost 100% transition to unmanned aircraft, operating under the control of artificial intelligence. It will determine the course and outcome of armed struggle in high-tech wars of the future.


Tags: USA , AME , aviation

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