The military Department completes the implementation of one of the most high-profile and interesting projects of recent years: the establishment of a National control center of defense of the Russian Federation. To Tell The Tape.<url>" about the new structure agreed first to the head of NCWA — Lieutenant General Michael Mezentsev.
"Ribbon.ru": Michael Paton, the media and expert circles have already broken thousands of copies on the theme of the need to establish the Central command post of General staff and the governing body of the army and Navy for many years — the National defense control center. What are the objectives of the center, what is the fundamental difference from the former PCU?
Michael Mezentsev: First of all, I would like to start with the fact that the national control centre defense of the Russian Federation currently created and how organizational structure performs all the tasks assigned to him in full.
But the need and appropriateness on the basis of the Central command post of the General staff has much deeper reasons than a simple increase in status.
The fact is that created in the Soviet times the Central command post of General staff functions ensure reliable control of primarily the armed forces, including strategic nuclear forces and other forces and means, standing on alert. With this task he coped quite effectively.
However, the organization of defense of country a much more complex concept. This process is not limited to the control of the armed forces.
Indeed, in the case of real security threats our country is already in a period of threat in the process of organizing the defense includes all Federal authorities, their territorial bodies, regional and local authorities. Moreover, for the purpose of defense and used resources of non-state actors of all forms of ownership: companies, energy companies, transportation and so on.
Here, given the enormous amount of heterogeneous resources belonging not only to agencies but also to non-state organizations, as well as the geographical extent of our country, is of particular importance is a need for optimal distribution and concentration in the shortest possible time in a given area.
In this case, I would like to emphasise this especially, all the movement and concentration of resources must additionally be synchronized with the action plans of the armed forces.
Conducted research and in-depth analysis of existing security threats and capabilities of the military organization of the country to neutralize them showed that in modern conditions to ensure that these challenges need a unified management body, operating on completely new principles, and are equipped with modern telecommunication and computing facilities.
Such a body of defence needs in real-time to continuously track the changing military-political situation in the world, get complete and reliable information about the status of all troops and military formations in the country, the presence of an existing material resources. When setting specific objectives is necessary on the basis of comprehensive analysis to model the situation and propose to the leadership of the country one or more variants of a guaranteed task.
NCUA RF, computer graphics
Photo: defense Ministry
With the establishment of the National control centre defense of the Russian Federation the need for such a permanent management mechanism will be fully satisfied.
Is it possible in General to describe the structure of the centre?
It is based, broadly speaking, consists of three control center:
- the control center of strategic nuclear forces, intended to control the use of nuclear weapons by the decision of the higher military-political leadership of the Russian Federation;
- command and control center responsible for monitoring military-political situation in the world, the analysis and forecasting of threats to the Russian Federation or its allies; the same centre manages the use of the armed forces, as well as troops and military formations not included in the structure of the Ministry of defense;
- the control center of daily activities, conducting the monitoring of all the activities of the military organization of the state relating to comprehensive support of the armed forces; this center also coordinates the activities of the Federal authorities to meet the needs not part of the Ministry of defense of other troops, military formations, bodies and special formations.
The national center will continuously accumulate all information from the status and position of the troops to food procurement and the state defense order? Amounts of data must be enormous.
You are absolutely right. Therefore, "heart", so to speak, of the national center is a special software and hardware representing one of the most powerful supercomputers in the world. As part of this hardware-software complex together available information resources of all ministries and agencies, allowing the national defense control center will work with constantly updated data, having a defensive value.
For example, to continuously monitor the condition of transport infrastructure on the routes of movement of troops, terrain and traffic congestion, the condition of waterways, to assess the impact of adverse weather conditions, emergencies and even a great many factors and conditions. The number of parameters that must be considered and constantly kept up to date, measured by many hundreds.
Using these data on the basis of specially developed mathematical models calculate the best options to complete specific tasks in the field of defence, set by the government.
Experience shows that even when using the most modern automation technologies the role of humans in the management process is not reduced. Who will run the defense supercomputer, and most importantly, to accept or reject proposed solutions: specially trained military or civilian personnel?
You rightly drew the problem on the frames. They have, as you know, decide everything. We, of course, was originally paid to the issue of training very seriously.
The fact that the current system of military education is focused primarily on training command, engineering and other profiles for the troops (forces). And the necessary applied knowledge and skills of officers already receive as service in the armed forces.
But we are creating a new management body, unique in the history of the armed forces was not. For picking are selected the most, as they say nowadays, "advanced" and experienced officers with extensive practical command experience or manage complex weapons systems in the armed forces, as well as the experience of staff work. However, for duty in the National center of defense, even this level of preparation they still not enough.
So, in the interests of the National defense control center organized the careful selection and training of officers in the eight military academies for training programs and additional professional education, with emphasis on the mastery of the most modern information and telecommunication technologies.
And to perform the tasks of integrated study of problems of defence, training, quality analysts, including officials of other Federal Executive authorities and enterprises of the defence industry, the Military Academy of the General staff successfully created the management Institute for national defense. There used teaching methods meet the highest international standards. So with the staff of the National control center of defense of the country is no problem.
And are you not afraid that all data in a single point — the national defense control center — dangerously simplify the task of the so-called "probable enemy" by bringing down all of the system management of a precise hit on it, say, a cruise missile?
No. The national defense control center is a system, scientifically speaking, with a complex morphology. All storage and processing of data is carried out in a particularly secure, geographically distributed and multiple overlapping centers, linking all levels of management of the military organization of the country from top to bottom and use special algorithms to preserve data integrity. Ensuring the safety, security and the guaranteed work of the National defense control center in any setting were one of the key conditions formulated during the preparation of project documentation and implemented when it is created.
Mikhail Evgenyevich, all this applies to data flows and control systems. But the military leadership and the staff of the centre cannot be similarly "reserve". And even when the theoretical deterioration of the situation it is difficult to imagine them moving across Moscow clogged roads out of the city centre...
This will never happen. The security of National defense control center are guaranteed, as you know, not only on the perimeter of the building on Frunze embankment, but for the hundreds, if not thousands of miles away from Moscow. However, when designing a complex of buildings of the national centre, of course, we also worked on such scenarios.
Unfortunately, I can't tell you all the details. Let me just say that the national center, in addition to its primary function — defence, is a complex logistics hub. Moreover, not all transport infrastructure is literally and figuratively on the surface.
Some of the transport capacity of the National center provide rapid movement of people, and not only them, from a conditional point a to point B. But in modern conditions this is not enough. The transport infrastructure of the National defense control center allows to provide efficient movement of people and special cargo in any direction and at any distance, not only by road but also by air and even by water. For this purpose, a special helipad and mooring facility providing mooring and Parking lot of river ships and boats.
I will add that almost next door to the National defense control center is a complex of medical institutions. Pirogov and center for cardiovascular surgery named after A. Bakulev, not equipped with landing pads for medical helicopters for emergency transport of seriously ill patients. So if you need transport opportunities created by the national center can be used not only in the interests of the Russian defense Ministry.
The creation of NDCC was one of the major military projects in recent years. If we take the analogues of the previous times, the closest in functionality and purposes is the Supreme command in 1941-1945, which also focused all of the controls as war machine and economic life of the country in the interests of war.
The cause of these patterns in time of peace was the changing nature of war itself. With the beginning of the great Patriotic war on 22 June 1941 the Soviet Union had a many hours to create a military command structure and the day — to debug its work. In modern conditions, nor days, nor hours may not be. The readiness of the armed forces to take immediate action without switching to the mode of wartime became one of the main requirements of today's military reform, in which, in particular, were established interspecific operational-strategic command, including starting work on 1 December, the USC "North". NCUA thus gives the military command structure a finished appearance, allowing if necessary switch immediately to the military regime. No one can say whether the new structure to work as intended, but its very presence gives hope that the desire to check that it performs "on itself" anybody did not arise.
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