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Vectors of development of military strategy
Material posted: Publication date: 07-03-2019

Chief of the General staff of the Russian Armed Forces army General Valery Gerasimov spoke at a General meeting of the Academy of military Sciences.

It was conducted in a military-scientific conference dedicated to the development of military strategy in modern conditions. The meeting was opened by the President of the Academy of military Sciences, army General Makhmut Gareev. The participants – members of the Academy of military Sciences, administrative Board of the Ministry of defense of Russia, representatives of presidential Administration, State Duma and Federation Council, as well as leading scientists of the Russian Academy of Sciences, universities and research organizations of the military departments – discussed the nature of future wars, armed conflicts and the most urgent problems in the sphere of defense.

A report on the main directions of development of military strategy and the tasks of military science was made by the chief of the General staff of the Russian Armed Forces – first Deputy Minister of defense of Russia, army General Valery Gerasimov. His report we offer readers.

In modern conditions has been the development of the principle of warfare, coordinated application of military and nonmilitary measures, with a decisive role of the Armed Forces

Transformation of military threats

– Traditionally, the annual conference of the Academy of military Sciences is a platform for exchanges of military specialists on the most topical and problematic issues of military science. The results of the conference essentially determine the further directions of its development, resulting in always widely discussed both in Russia and abroad.

This year we are considering issues of development of military strategy in modern conditions.

Military strategy as a science "...the art of driving the troops" originated in the early last century and developed on the basis of research experience of war. In General, the strategy is "...a system of knowledge and action for prevention, preparation and conduct of the war".

Currently expanding the types of warfare and significantly changed their content. An increasing number of actors involved in the armed struggle. Along with the armed forces of sovereign States fighting various gangs, private military companies and the self-proclaimed "quasi".

Actively involved means of economic, political, diplomatic, informational pressure and demonstration of military power in the interests of enhancing the effectiveness of non-military measures. Military force is used when attempts to achieve goals by non-military means.

Meanwhile, the geopolitical opponents of Russia do not hide that intend to achieve political goals not only in the course of local conflicts. They prepare for war with the "high tech enemy" with the use of precision weapons from the air, sea and from space with the active conduct of information warfare.

In these circumstances, our Armed Forces must be ready to conduct of wars and armed conflicts of a new type using the classical and asymmetric means of action. It is of paramount importance for the development of the theory and practice of military strategy becomes the search for rational strategies of war with a different enemy.

We need to clarify the essence and content of military strategy, the principles of prevention of war, preparation for war and its conduct. Should continue to develop forms and ways of using the Armed Forces, especially in the strategic deterrence, as well as to improve the organization of state defense.

The evolution of the main strategic concepts

In the process of development of military strategy has gone through several stages of evolution – from the "strategy of destruction" and "strategy of attrition" to strategies of "global war", "nuclear deterrence" and "indirect actions".

The US and its allies have defined the aggressive vector of its foreign policy. They worked out the military action of an offensive nature, such as "global strike", "mnogomernoi battle", it uses the technology of "color revolutions" and "soft power."

Their goal is the elimination of the statehood of the unwanted, the undermining of sovereignty, change of legitimately elected institutions of state power. So it was in Iraq, Libya and Ukraine. At present, similar effects are observed in Venezuela.

The Pentagon has begun to develop a fundamentally new strategy of warfare, which has been dubbed the "Trojan horse".

Its essence lies in the active use of "protest potential fifth column" in the interests of the destabilization with the simultaneous strikes of the WTO on the most important objects.

I would like to note that the Russian Federation is ready to counteract any of these strategies. In recent years, military scientists together with the General staff developed conceptual approaches for the neutralization of the aggressive actions of potential enemies.

The basis for the "our response" is "strategy of active defense", which, given the defensive nature of the Russian Military doctrine envisages a range of measures to proactively neutralize threats to the security of the state.

It is the justification of the developed measures should be scientific work of military scientists. This is one of the priority areas of ensuring security of the state. We need to get ahead of the enemy in the development of military strategies go "a step ahead".

In Syria were first developed and tested in practice a new form of application of the units of the Armed Forces – humanitarian operation

The unity of theory and practice

The development of the strategy as a science should cover two areas. This development of knowledge about the war and the improvement of practice on the prevention of war, preparation for it and its maintenance.

Area of research military strategy is armed struggle, its strategic level. With the emergence of new spheres of warfare in modern conflicts methods of struggle increasingly shifted to integrated application of political, economic, informational, and other non-military measures implemented based on military force.

But still the main content of the military strategy are the issues of preparation for war and its conduct, primarily the Armed Forces. Yes, we consider all other non-military measures that affect the course and outcome of the war, provide and create conditions for the effective application of military force. It should be understood that the confrontation in other spheres represents a separate direction of the activity with their "strategies", ways of action and appropriate resources. In order to achieve a common goal, we should carry out coordination, not directly control them.

The strategy should deal with forecasting the nature of future wars, the development of new "strategies" of managing them, preparing the overall state and Armed Forces for war. In this connection it is necessary to update the list of research tasks, and create new areas of scientific activity.

Of course, work in these areas of military strategy, should lead the Military Academy of the General staff together with the Academy of military Sciences.
For more effective consideration of the issues requires the involvement of all the scientific organizations of the Ministry of defense, the scientific potential of the interested Federal bodies of Executive power. As practice shows, issues need to be discussed at scientific conferences, to consider in the course of the round tables.

Only in this case they will bring new results in the theory and practice of military strategy.

The principles of prevention, preparation and conduct of the war

With the changing nature of war and the conditions of its preparation and conduct cease to apply some of the principles of the strategy, the other filled with new content.
The principle of preventing war consists in forecasting of development of military-political and strategic situation in the interest of timely detection of military dangers and threats and timely response.

Principles of advanced preparation state for war, provided constant high combat and mobilisation readiness of the armed forces, as well as the creation and maintenance of strategic reserves and inventories.

In modern conditions has been the development of the principle of warfare, coordinated application of military and nonmilitary measures, with a decisive role of the Armed Forces.

Still relevant the principle of achieving of surprise, determination and continuity of strategic actions.

Acting quickly, we must preempt the enemy, their preventive measures to identify vulnerable locations and to create a threat of inflicting unacceptable damage. It enables the capture and retention of strategic initiatives.

Work on the refinement of existing and the rationale for the new principles should continue, with the concerted efforts of the entire scientific community. It is necessary to form the principles of a common, universal nature and principles of action with regard to the specific prevailing situation.

With the main directions of development of theoretical provisions of a military strategy. However, as the great Russian commander Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov: "Theory without practice is dead...", that is why the practical activities of military strategy it is impossible to imagine without scientific justification.

The system is forecast scenarios

The fundamental basis for the practical work of the strategy is the establishment of a research forecast scenarios, initiating and waging wars. That is a reasonable forecast scenarios of possible conflict serves as baseline data for the development of forms and methods of using the Armed Forces. Currently investigated theoretically and practically confirmed by the rational forms of use of Armed Forces in which important part are the actions for strategic deterrence.

Today, Washington continues a policy of expansion of the system's military presence directly on Russia's borders, the destruction of the system of Treaty relations on the limitation and reduction of armaments, leading to the disruption of strategic stability. So, in 2002 the US unilaterally withdrew from the Treaty on the limitation of anti-ballistic missile systems.

The next step after the demonstrative suspending participation in the Treaty on the elimination of intermediate-range and shorter-range may be the refusal to extend the Treaty on the limitation of strategic offensive arms SNV-3.
Recently, the Pentagon has repeatedly stated its intention to use the military to space. For this, a new kind of troops, space forces, which creates conditions for the militarization of outer space.

Ultimately, all these actions can lead to a sharp aggravation of the military-political situation, the military threats that we have to answer the mirror and asymmetric measures.

Measures of strategic deterrence

As a consequence, the actual task of developing military strategy is the study and improvement of measures of nuclear and non-nuclear deterrence. Any potential aggressor must understand that any form of pressure on Russia and its allies is futile.

Our response will not keep itself waiting. For this adopted and deployed modern weapons, including fundamentally new types of weapons.

Began mass production of new weapons and equipping their Armed Forces. "Avangard", "Sarmat" latest weapons "Peresvet" and "Dagger" has shown its high efficiency, successfully tested the systems "Poseidon" and "Petrel". There is a planned work on creation of hypersonic missiles of sea basing "Zircon".

No doubt the fact that in this area we have a strong lead compared to technologically developed countries of the world.

So, the decision on carrying out scientific and development works for the development of ground-based hypersonic missiles, medium-range and shorter-range.

The creation of new samples of the weapon will not draw Russia into a new arms race. Sufficient to deter the number of new complexes will be created in the framework of the planned military budget.

By our Western partners policy compels us "to the threat to respond to a threat", to plan future attacks on the centres of decision-making, and the launcher that allows the combat use of cruise missiles at targets in Russia.

Military scientists need to intensify research to find and implement new ways of using advanced weaponry, as well as the justification of forms of counteraction to possible military action a potential enemy in space and from space.

"The strategy of limited action" outside of Russia

An important role for the development of the strategy has the Syrian experience. His synthesis and implementation allowed to identify new practice area – performing tasks on the protection and promotion of national interests outside the territory of Russia in the framework of the "strategy of limited action."

The basis of this strategy is the creation of self-sufficient grouping of troops (forces) on the basis of one of the formations of the Armed Forces with high mobility and able to make the greatest contribution to the solution of tasks. In Syria, this role is assigned to units of the aerospace defence forces.
Critical to the realization of this strategy is to gain and retain information superiority, outstripping the willingness of management systems and comprehensive support, as well as covert deployment of the necessary groups.
Received the justification of the new methods of actions of troops during the operation. The role of military strategy was to plan and coordinate joint military and non-military actions of the Russian group of troops (forces) and formations of the armed forces of the States concerned, paramilitary structures of the countries – participants of the conflict.
Came the development of post-conflict resolution. In Syria were first developed and tested in practice a new form of application of the units of the Armed Forces – humanitarian operation. In Aleppo and Eastern ghouta in the short time we had to plan and carry out measures to evacuate the civilian population from the conflict zone simultaneously with the task of fighting to defeat the terrorists.

The results achieved in Syria has allowed to identify the current direction of research into the use of the Armed Forces in the course of performing tasks for the protection and promotion of national interests outside the national territory.

Forms of utilization of troops (forces) in the framework of the "strategy of limited action"

One of the directions of strategy development to the creation and development on the basis of modern information and telecommunication technologies, unified system of integrated forces and means of reconnaissance, destruction and control of troops and weapons.
It is designed to detect, the issue of targeting and the application of selective attacks on critical targets in the time scale close to real strategic and operational-tactical-nuclear weapons. In the future, military science necessary to develop and justify a system of comprehensive destruction of the enemy.

The next direction is associated with large-scale use of robotic systems for military use, primarily unmanned aerial vehicles, to enhance the effectiveness of a wide range of applications.
Another direction was the establishment of a system to prevent the use of drones and precision weapons. Here the decisive role played by the forces and means of electronic warfare, which provided the possibility of selective exposure based on the type of object, its structure, criticality over time.
The task of military science in this area is primarily the scientific study of questions of creation of strategic system to counter unmanned aerial vehicles in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and justification of future strategic systems, electronic warfare systems and their integration into a single system.

Again: digital technology, robotics, unmanned systems, electronic warfare – all of which should be in the agenda of development of military science, including military strategy.

The interaction of components of military organization of the state

One of the characteristic features of modern military conflicts is to destabilize the internal security of the state holding enemy sabotage or terrorist action.

That is why the elaboration and improvement of the system of territorial defence, its structure, methods of construction, substantiation of a complex of actions for its constant availability is an important direction of development of military strategy and objective military science.

Currently a lot is being done for the implementation of measures of military and non-military nature committed by ministries and departments in the interests of defense of the state. It is necessary to continue the study of the coordination forces of the Federal Executive authorities, distribution of powers, management tasks of territorial defense during the escalation of the military threat and in crisis situations.

Particularly relevant is the study on the creation of a comprehensive system of protection of crucial objects of state infrastructure from the impacts in all spheres in the period of direct threat of aggression, when the enemy would seek to destabilize, to create an atmosphere of chaos and ungovernability.

This question is new in the theory and practice of military strategy and is subject to a comprehensive study. The result of the work should be the theoretical position, but in practice we have developed a system of joint use raznovidnostei of forces and means to ensure comprehensive security.

The confrontation in the information sphere

Until recently, military science studied the issue of using the Armed Forces in the traditional areas of warfare – on land, in the air and at sea.
The analysis of the nature of modern warfare has shown a significant growth of the importance of such areas of confrontation, as information. The new reality of the wars of the future will be including the transfer of military actions in this sphere. However, information technology has become, in fact, one of the most promising types of weapons.

Information sphere, having no distinct national borders, provides the possibility of remote, covert action not only on the critical information infrastructure, but also on the population of the country, directly affecting the national security of the state.

That is why the study of questions of preparation and conducting of actions of information character is the most important task of military science.

Digital technology, robotics, unmanned systems, electronic warfare – all of which should be in the agenda of development of military science, including military strategy

Increase the combat power of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation

The priority of military strategy is to study the issues of increasing the combat power of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. It is determined by the number and qualitative composition of the Armed Forces, their staffing and technical equipment, psychological state, level of training, readiness and combat capability of troops and forces.

Currently planning and implementing a program for the acquisition of the Armed Forces by contract servicemen. By the end of 2025 the number will reach 475 000 troops. The need for conscription of citizens for military service will be reduced.

Today the officer corps of the Armed Forces, staffed by trained professional staff. Have combat experience that all the commanders of military districts, military associations, unions and air defense force, and 96 percent of commanders of combined arms units and formations.

All types and kinds of troops of the Russian Armed Forces are developing in a balanced manner, on time equipped with modern arms. Significantly strengthened the nuclear triad, which plays a key role in the preservation of strategic parity. The share of modern weapons in our nuclear component has reached 82 percent.
Markedly increased level of operational and combat training of troops and military authorities. Qualitative change of their capabilities.

The sudden check of combat readiness confirmed the ability of forces to rapidly transport units over long distances, to strengthen the group on strategic directions.

Traditionally, an important direction is improvement of the system of ideological and moral and psychological stability of the population, first and foremost, soldiers. With this purpose in the Armed Forces of the recreated system of military-political work.

Cooperation of the Ministry of defence, defence industry

An important direction of development of military strategy and the task of military science is the search for new approaches to the development of relations between military strategy and economy. In the interest of preparing the country's economy to defence objectives the strategy is designed to answer the following questions. What possible war, and in which areas to prepare economy? How to ensure its survivability, sustainability? How better to place the objects of economy, taking into account their protection?

The thesis of the classics of the national military strategy of the brigade commander Alexander Svechin "Economy will be able to subdue the nature of warfare" made almost 100 years ago, has become an objective reality.

I note that currently a lot is done with common efforts of the Ministry of defense and the military-industrial complex. First of all, has built an efficient system of interaction.

Research organizations on the basis of analysis of experience of military action involved in the formation of the requirements to arm and monitor their implementation at all stages of development – from conceptual design to state tests.
Thus, the military science on the basis of forward-looking vision of future wars determines what should be the promising samples of weapons and military equipment. While military scientists proactively conduct research on the substantiation of forms and methods of their application.

The complexity of modern weapons is such that to establish its production in a short time with the beginning of hostilities is unlikely. So everything needed should be produced in required quantity and to enter the army in peacetime. We should make every effort to provide technical, technological, organizational superiority over any potential adversary.

This requirement should be a key in setting targets and in front of the military-industrial complex to develop new weapons. This will allow companies to conduct long-term planning, and scientific organizations will be given the guidelines for the development of fundamental and applied research in military science.

The main tasks of military science and the ways of their solution

What is important today for military science is advancing towards the practice of continuous, focused research on identifying the possible nature of military conflict, the development of a system of forms and methods of action, both military and non-military nature, definition of directions of development of weapons systems and military equipment.

Extremely important is the rapid introduction of results fundamental and applied researches in practice of troops.

The solution of these tasks is vested primarily at the military-scientific complex of the Armed Forces. In recent years, the military-scientific complex has had some success. Thus, within the framework defined by the General headquarters of scientific research was prepared the source data for military planning for the next medium-term period (2021-2025). It is the basis for specification and design documents Plan of defense for the new period.

Our military science has always been able to see and dissect the problem at the stage of their emergence, ability to quickly sort them out and find solutions.


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