Among the most important priorities of development of any society always stood out for his safety. 5 February 2010, Russian President signed the military doctrine of the state, which was a further development of the national security Strategy of the Russian Federation up to 2020 In the military doctrine of 2010 States expressly that the military threat to Russia on a number of fronts tend to increase [1,2,3,4]. Safeguarding national interests is carried out by the state by all available means, and this issue is not just limited to the military sphere.
Problems that are associated with military power (force) of the state, occupy an important place in the activities of the leadership of most countries in the world.
In a modern environment there is a need to maintain States for its defense and providing military protection of their interests through the development and continuous improvement of all elements of the military organization.
Necessity of the emergence of the military power of the state, the nature of its management and utilization is associated with the need to achieve external political objectives. Military policy manages the processes of creation, improvement and use of military power of the state.
Military power of the state, as a product and instrument of policy depends entirely on its needs.
The value of the military power of the state is quite dynamic and can vary within wide limits. The dynamics of this change depends on the political objectives of the state and ultimately determined by politics, by approving military spending in the state budget. Thus, we can say that the level of implementation of the military potential of the state, the degree of its transformation into a military power based on the policy of the country.
This question is important not only from the viewpoint of improvement of the military power of the state, but also the development of the country as a whole. The fact is that excessive increase in the degree of implementation of the country's military potential in peacetime can undermine the principles of dynamic development of society. The desire to excessive growth of the military power of the state, may not strengthen, but weakened the country militarily. Not accidentally, the Marshal of the Soviet Union B. M. Shaposhnikov warned that "If the war is lost due to surge of the economic power of the country, such a loss may happen already before the war with high military budget, the severity of which is not consistent with the solvency of the population, and the military budget does not go hand in hand with economic development of the state."
Therefore, a very important ability and skill to choose the optimal value of military power, which would allow, on the one hand, to solve the problems the country military and political objectives, and with another - not to create too great difficulties to the normal development of the country as a whole.
The government can increase their spending to increase military strength without sacrificing other areas of public life only within the framework of the annual increase in gross domestic product (GDP). But if the state will go beyond that, the means to increase military power will need to be withdrawn from other sectors of society.
But it is quite another thing when the state there is an immediate military threat. In this case, the state seeks faster to implement its military capabilities in accordance with the prevailing situation. This occurs by carrying out military mobilization in the open or hidden form. The government has to shift power and funds from other spheres of public life in the military sphere.
Military force serves as a "backup" policy in parts of the world, all of which are key from the point of view of geopolitical, geo-economic interests of one or another power.
The role and place of military force in military security and solution of crisis situations is manifested through the system of its tasks.
Overall objectives of use of military force may be:
- Prevent the threat of war;
- Deterring a possible aggressor;
- Liquidation (settlement, resolution) of a crisis.
Prevention of attempts of power pressure on the part of any state or coalition of States, for example, the Russian Federation, especially when the possibility of escalating a looming military threat military threat, is by demonstrating the resolve of the use of military force.
Deterrence is the psychological impact on the enemy, both political and moral, through the demonstration of his power (ie deterrence force). The main purpose of the deterrent is the prevention and suppression of attempts of States (coalitions of States) to allow the use of military force contradictions with Russia convincing demonstration of the determination of the use of military force. Such determination must force the opposing party to renounce the use of military force or from holding stock military pressure due to the inevitability of receiving a powerful pre-emptive strike.
Thus, the main means of preventing military threats and deter a possible aggressor is to demonstrate the military forces of the state. The world practice shows that it is quite often applied in relations between States and, under certain conditions, allows to achieve specific political objectives without resorting to direct armed violence.
However, in the history of plenty of examples where the demonstration of military force, planned to prevent war, only contributed to the expansion of the scale of the conflict and provoked the enemy to inappropriate actions. This suggests that the problem of demonstrations of military force requires a more in-depth, thorough research.
Everyone understands that every country strives to be considered as sufficiently militarily powerful state. This gives you the opportunity to get out from under the impact or reduce it from an equal military power or a stronger power, but also a certain way to influence more militarily weak state.
One of the most effective forms of achieving these goals is the demonstration of military force, deeply embedded in the complex of methods of foreign and military policy.
The demonstration of military force is the continuation of the diplomatic efforts of the state, as in this case, the military force "is applied" without armed violence.
- State (s)-"the viewer";
- Certain "sample" action first against the second (other).
- In this state-"the audience" as follows:
- What you need to make changes in forms of communication with the "demonstrator";
- What steps should be taken, as they will be punished.
In peacetime demonstration of military power is carried out in order to demonstrate the increased combat power, so that the "country audience" could change the form of address with the state, or to maintain performance on its military power so that no one had thought to change the balance of power and forms of address with the state.
Demonstration of military power in peacetime can be implemented in the following forms:
- exercises or military maneuvers;
- the presence of naval forces in certain sea and ocean zones, the flights of strategic aviation in remote areas;
- participation in exhibitions of armament and military equipment;
- demonstration of the possession of any kind of weapons, new features or properties of weapons and military equipment;
- the test of a new type of weapon;
- the conduct of military parades.
The most effective form of demonstration of military force is conducting exercises and military maneuvers. During their country-demonstrator against the background of the operational-tactical situation shows their firing and maneuvering capabilities of involved military units, equipping them with weapons and military equipment, level of personnel training and many other parameters.
Another form of demonstration of military force is the presence of naval forces in certain sea and ocean zones, the flights of strategic aviation in remote areas. It is intended to convince that the state has real possibilities for the use of military force and defend their national interests in the regions remote from the mainland, the troops (forces) can be delivered in a timely manner to the proper area and provided with adequate fire support.
Partially military power of the state is shown in the conduct of military parades. In the course of their shows samples of weapons and military equipment available to the armed forces, as well as the latest development.
The traditional form is a demonstration of the capabilities of weapons and military equipment, the establishment of new records.
An important form of demonstration of military force is to show samples of military equipment and weapons and their opportunities in the exhibitions of weapons, public conduct their tests. For example, the demonstration of anti-aircraft missile systems allows you to reliably judge the reliability of the air defense system of States.
The main factors that ensure the success of the demonstration of military force, are:
a) Central leadership and the resolve of the military-political leadership;
b) thoughtfulness and coherence of political, military, diplomatic, economic and informational measures;
in) possession of real military power .
Historical experience shows that the demonstration of military force reaches its objective if it is carried out in accordance with the basic principles: credibility, flexibility, determination, and proportionality.
The implementation of the principle of credibility requires that the "demonstrator" provided "the viewer" the opportunity to evaluate the possible effects of the use of military force a country "demonstrator", the vulnerability of objects of state and military significance, groups of troops (forces) of the state-"the audience" and thus to convince him that the military threat is real.
The principle of flexibility is that the party making the demonstration of military force, sets the rules and passes the country-"the viewer" grounds for decision on further development of the conflict.
The principle of determination is that when the requirements of the country-"demonstrator" the use of military force is inevitable, and the situation can no longer be returned to the source. Its implementation can only be carried out in the presence of strong political will among the military and political leadership, willingness and determination to follow through in achieving political goals are advanced.
The essence of the principle of proportionality is that the goal, which seeks to "demonstrator" should conform to its military capabilities, and concessions can go "spectator".
Thus, the demonstration of military force is a tool for achieving political and strategic goals in peacetime and the initial stages of development of the conflict and is an integral part of the Arsenal of military-political security of States.
The demonstration of military force is a coordinated action of the armed forces, aimed at strengthening the credibility of political, diplomatic and informational measures and economic measures undertaken by the government in the resolution of international conflicts and the psychological impact on the opposite side.
While ensuring the military security of the country and its national interests should avoid both absolutism and the underestimation of the demonstration of military force. Without a powerful armed forces no display of military force impossible. In the new geopolitical environment, effective conflict management is ensured through an integrated and coordinated use of political, diplomatic, informational, legal, economic and other measures. Therefore, the rate only on the demonstration of military force and the determination of its application is devoid of any political and strategic vision and can lead to unacceptable failures and catastrophic consequences for the country and strategic stability in the world.
The idea of the military power of the country needs constant maintenance in peacetime. Disregard the demonstration of military force is dangerous and can lead a potential enemy to the illusion of impunity and, as a consequence, to provoke him to aggression. To convince the enemy in reverse, in the course of armed conflict is much more expensive than to demonstrate military strength in peacetime.
However, it should be safeguarded against the excessive display of military strength. This may lead to the fact that the state begins to rely only on military means of solving problems that ultimately can lead to the creation of the image of the aggressor and international isolation.
Thus, in conclusion, we must say that the demonstration of military force in peace time should be an essential attribute of the military policy of the state and to serve as the main means of preventing military threats and deter a possible aggressor.
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