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Military artificial intelligence: book two
Material posted: Publication date: 01-01-2018
2017 saw the flash of interest in the application of artificial intelligence in the military field. About this important field of technology development said last year, everything from journalists and experts to the military and presidents. Accordingly, this "hot" theme of numerous articles and other materials, but there are not so many voluminous works. However, they are.

This summer he published a book of Amir Hussain (Amir Husain), the founder and chief Executive officer "Sparkassen" (SparkCognition), one of the leading US companies in the development of artificial intelligence, and in the spring of the following year will be published Paul's book Scarre (Paul Scharre), Director of the research program of the wars of the future the Washington-based Center for a new American security.

Amir Hussein. "A sentient machine: the coming age of artificial intelligence" (The Sentient Machine: The Coming Age of Artificial Intelligence)

Amir Hussein — among those of 116 experts in the field of artificial intelligence who this year signed an open letter to the UN stating that "an Autonomous system of lethal weapons can lead to a third revolution in warfare" and that "we recognize a special responsibility for the approaching the storm". However, Hussein said that he opposes any action that could lead to slower technological progress. The letter, in his opinion, pursued the aim to draw international attention to the "potential dangers that can present an Autonomous system of lethal weapons, and the lack of broad international discussion on this issue." Hussein is optimistic.

And Hussein is an attempt to consider on the positive side, the use of artificial intelligence in future wars. Hussein worked with the former commander of US forces and NATO in Afghanistan General John Allen (John Allen) on the concept of "so" and considers those who speak about the need to preserve the human in the decision chain or semi-automatic systems, "spineless" people who don't even understand what's going on. The very essence of autonomy is the exclusion of a person from the chain, when the decision must be taken in the shortest time and the system does not have this reserve fractional seconds to consult with a person to destroy, for example, the rapidly approaching threat or not. On the battlefield will win the one who quickly decide and react. There are no equal cars.

According to Hussein, Autonomous systems already exist and work. Gun "Gatling Phalanx" (Phalanx Gatling) on US Navy ships destroy both missiles and manned aircraft, viewing them as a threat. System "aegis" (Aegis) also has an automatic mode that allows it to open fire not only on missiles, but also for manned sites, and without any intervention of operators.

Since China and Russia for its military development of artificial intelligence without regard to moral limits, according to the author, this leaves no opportunity for the United States and forces the States themselves to work actively in this direction in order not to lose a new arms race.

Hussein believes that we should not focus on limits of action of Autonomous systems person, and it is necessary to initially program the "moral options" in artificial intelligence. Moreover, should one part of the military system, one robot begins to take unethical decisions because of an error in the software or hackers, the other part of the system should be able to disable or destroy the "bad" robot.

Hussein is confident that the military system of the future will be more accurate than it is today. It will be swarms of "smart bullets" which will kill the enemy with fantastic precision. On the other hand, in the sky and the sea people will determine the "sector of death", in which, in his opinion, no civilians, and already within the sector to give full autonomy to kill and the freedom of action of military systems. Big data and the progress in the recognition of objects by machines will allow them to perform tasks efficiently and with minimal errors.

The author suggests that the use of artificial intelligence is not something separate happening in the armed forces, this is a General trend of technological changes in all spheres of life of society, and it would be foolish to ignore the benefits of participation of Autonomous systems in combat. Genie is already out of the bottle and it is necessary to learn to live.

Paul Scharre. Draw army: Autonomous weapons and the future of war (Army of None: Autonomous Weapons and the Future of War)

Scharre, former army Ranger, a veteran of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, tightly worked on the topic of military robots and artificial intelligence, former Deputy Secretary of defense Bob Marcom (Bob Work) and now an arms expert, in his work traces the development of Autonomous systems, ranging from German torpedoes "Wren" (Wren, the world's first production torpedo with an acoustic homing head) during the Second world war to the concept of the Autonomous robotic tank armies of the future.

His book is based on dozens of interviews with leading military analysts, commercial developers, psychologists, political scientists, and on personal observations in the development of technologies for time of service in the U.S. army.

For about thirty countries, according to Scarre, are armed with defensive Autonomous systems that are still working under human supervision, and today in the world there is a race for the creation of Autonomous offensive weapons. The military is pushing the development of unmanned vehicles, machine vision and improved accuracy in recognizing images with neural networks. Skarre also draws attention to the fact that Russia and concern "Kalashnikov" working on the creation of combat units, able to determine the goal and autonomously make the decision to open fire.

A separate range of issues is the ethical issues that arise with automated weapons. The extent to which you can delegate to machines the decision to strike and fire at the enemy? Might be robots with artificial intelligence will be able to destroy the enemy with incredible accuracy, negating the "collateral damage" of civilians? Or Vice versa, in the goals of artificial intelligence could be a disaster and lead to the mass deaths of innocent people? Should a responsible country with a democratically-liberal device to develop Autonomous weapons? How to counter countries that are not preoccupied with questions of morality and will in any ways to pedal the establishment of an Autonomous military systems? Easy answers to these questions is no.

Skarre actively uses the term "men-centaurs" when on the battlefield of the future will operate and human and artificial intelligence. The emergence of the term originates from the definition of the game of people-chess players with the use of computer assistance, which came up with Garry Kasparov. In chess it's called "Cyborg-ches" (cyborg chess), "Centaur-ches" (centaur chess) or "digital/chess centaurs". According to Scarre, you need to stop thinking only within the framework of the dilemma "or people or robots" and try to find the use of technology, when man and artificial intelligence working together. A good example is performance testing Apache and drones, when the pilots of the helicopter along with a computer controlled semi-Autonomous operation of the drones.

The former commander of NATO forces in Europe James Stavridis (James Stavridis) in a review of this book concluded: "be Afraid! Very, very afraid!". Stavridis warned that the world is rapidly moving to the most important in the history of the wars, the turning point, when the war will lead to artificial intelligence, and society, most likely, simply not ready. In his opinion, the book Scarre will be discussed and influence the debate about the autonomy of war for decades.

Ilya Plekhanov


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