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People with "Stars". As skydiver Andreev set a world record secret
Material posted: Publication date: 16-12-2014

In 1962 Soviet test pilot-parachutist made a successful jump from "near space".

Unparalleled achievement

October 14, 2012 Austrian skydiver thrill-seeker Felix Baumgartner made a successful jump from a height of about 39 kilometres, building in free fall speed 1357,6 km / h. 25 October 2014, the top Manager of Google, Alan Eustace exceeded the result of Baumgartner, having made the jump from a height of 41 420 m and runup 1321 km per hour.

However, it is worth noting that experts have identified the achievement of Eustace in a special category — if you jump he used a stabilizing parachute, greatly facilitates the position of a person when jumping and relieving from the deadly "twist" in which the body goes into an uncontrolled spin.

So the achievement of Felix Baumgartner is more "clean". But the Austrian extreme updated during your jump, many records, not surpassed the achievement of the Soviet parachutist Eugene Andreev for the duration of free fall. Baumgartner was in freefall for 4 minutes 20 seconds, and Andreev — 4 minutes 30 seconds.

The parachute instead of the front

Unlike Baumgartner and Eustace, skydiving for Eugene Andreyev were no sports, no extreme passion, and a real profession.

He was born in Novosibirsk on September 4, 1926, was raised in the orphanage of the city of Serov.

When the war began, 14-year-old Zhenya studied at a vocational school, after which stood up to the factory machine, sharpening of blanks for shells.

In the midst of war he was drafted into the army, sending to study in the regiment. Eugene dreamed about the Navy, but, once in the infantry, still rushed to the front to fight the Nazis.

However physically strong and healthy man was left with a reserve regiment, from which is then sent for medical examination. After the young soldier declared: he was sent to the Armavir flight school, where he had to master the profession of a skydiver.

For a real paratrooper every jump is a joy! Like all cadets, he first thoroughly mastered the duties of the stacker of parachutes and only then was allowed to jump. The first jump student Andreev carried out confidently, without fear, and gained the approval of trainers.

After undergoing special training Eugene Andreyev became a member of a test group parachute equipment research Institute of the air force.

Shark see? But it is!

In 1947 Andreev together with colleagues began to experience the salvation for pilots new, only come into service jet aircraft.

Among the test jumps were jumps with the landing, not in the warm Black sea and in the icy Barents.

As the saying goes, not afraid of anything only fools. Nesterov Andreev was afraid of nothing in the sky but at sea he became sick from... sharks. Before jumping experienced sailor told him these waters during the war, the pilot who jumped with his parachute in the sea, was eaten by a shark.

So far this story was true is unknown, but, as he recalled Andreev, all night he dreamed exclusively of the shark.

However, work is work, and the next day the parachutist, clad in a test suit, executed the jump. Together with him was to splash down a rubber boat, tied to it a cord.

However, things went awry. The boat was carried away by a strong wind and the cord that connected it with the jumper, ripped detail of the costume Andreeva. Icy water started to get in the rescue suit, which has lost buoyancy. With great difficulty, Andreev managed to con the gates of the suit, remained afloat.

But the skydiver admitted that it seemed like a detail on the possible "shark danger". However, cost — flown the helicopter successfully took the test.

For example Maresyev

Testing of ejection seats and other equipment held for parachutists many dangers. During one of katapuljtirovalisj with a high-speed bomber, which he believed Andreev is not very complicated, the parachutist immediately after leaving the cockpit felt a wild pain. The fall was abnormal, and he suddenly saw his right leg which was lying horizontally on the air stream at an angle of ninety degrees to the body like a foreign object.

Some incredible way injured pilot managed to make a relatively soft landing. As it turned out, at the moment of separation in his hip hit the chair. The injury was horrific — leg turned into a bloody mess, 16 inches bones were crushed into small pieces.

"He, Alexei Maresyev, conscientious man was." Still from the film "the Story of a real man". The doctors of the Sklifosovsky Institute verdict: amputation! But the 27-year-old skydiver insisted — save the leg, want to get back into the profession. To do the impossible decided the surgeon, Alexei Smirnov, who together with his colleagues two months "glued" crippled bone in pieces. Another year went into rehab, and then Andreev appeared before the medical Board.

Members of the Commission, after reviewing the medical records, announced: will serve, but no jumps.

And then Evgeny Andreev has received almost as much as the pilot Alexei Maresyev, decided to demonstrate to the Commission their capabilities.

From the memoirs of Eugenia Andreeva: "doctors Look, shake their heads. No, like, friend, serve, serve, but to jump — I'm sorry. Ah right?! — I think. How ran up, did a back flip, on one hand a rack fixed... "to Hell with you, — waved General, the Chairman of the Commission. Jump"".

After a terrible injury one leg jumper was shorter than the other 4 inches. But this did not prevent him to make a unique test jumps.

Why cows don't like skydivers

Sometimes, the team had an unlooked-for problems upon landing. One group, composed of Andreev jumped to a precision landing in the specified area. Land was common and not a sign of any problems meadow.

But when parachutists began to descend, it became clear that the landing site of a peacefully grazing herd of cows. And to get the testers had among cows.

The first skydiver landed on the cow riding. He hurried with her to get out, but here on the poor animal dropped the dome, covering it entirely. Cow, panicky by, began to dash, dragging not had time to release the parachute. After a few minutes on the field real chaos began. Cow desperately mooing, paratroopers tried to collect the parachutes and get out of this nightmare. And then there was the bull, clearly intending to teach a lesson to the intruders.

Order was restored only with the appearance of an old shepherd, who drove away the bull, helped the paratroopers to get out and bitterly lamented, "What are you, the falcons, all the cattle I broke up?"

Experiment job Queen

In the early 1960s, Eugene Andreev, as one of the best skydivers test, was included in the group who worked on the testing of rescue equipment for the first Soviet cosmonauts.

After Gagarin's flight, in the autumn of 1962, job chief designer of the Soviet space technology, Sergei Korolev, was a planned experiment by skydiving from "near space" — from a height of 25,000 meters.

The secret experiment was called "Star". The participants were assigned to Evgeny Andreev and Petr Debts.

Dolgova was to test the automatic parachute of his own design, which should open the parachute immediately after jump. He had to make a jump in a special suit. Jump Andreeva has to be carried out in conventional high-altitude anti-g suit for fighter pilots. He had to fly in free fall is about 24 kilometres, expanding the dome is only a kilometer from the ground.

November 1, 1962 from the landfill, which is located under the city of Volsky of the Saratov region, went up the stratosphere balloon "Volga", the cabin of which simulated the descent vehicle of the spaceship "Vostok". Before lifting Dolgova and Andreeva was subjected to desaturation — blowing lungs with oxygen, from the blood was removed the nitrogen, so it is at high pressure does not "boil".

The ascent lasted three hours and 25 minutes. During this time "Volga" has reached a height of 25 458 meters. According to the program of the experiment, the first was to make the leap to Evgeny Andreev.

4 minutes 30 seconds

From the memoirs of Eugenia Andreeva: "I blew off the lid of the hatchway, through which I had to eject, at parting waved Dolgova, rolled over on his back, the heat was less, and forth. I had a lot of jumping at night. And yet the sky was amazing: thick, ink black, and the stars — up close. Glanced over his shoulder down, and there's a blue, bright orange sun... how Nice".

Free drop from "near space" began at 10:13. Andreev flew to land back down in the position in which it is extremely difficult to control your body. Managed to roll over at about the height of 12,000 metres. My hands were cold, so numb, and the glass mask oledeneli. Trying to warm the hands that are needed by the parachutist as rudders, Andreev compresses and decompresses them, which led to a breakdown in a tailspin. But squeezing-unclamping given effect — returning feeling in her hands has allowed the skydiver to stabilize flight.

The first flight of the Wright brothers. Fragment of the diorama. Suddenly jolted sharply Andreeva — generated automation has released the parachute. He soon landed safely.

In freefall Evgeny Andreev spent 4 minutes 30 seconds flying during this time, down 24 500 meters.

"Only he has not returned from fight..."

Once on the ground, the parachutist first looked in the sky there was visible the dome of a parachute Pyotr Dolgov. It seemed that the jump of the second test is going as planned.

Technique really did not disappoint, but Andreev's partner landed already dead.

Experts who developed the program of the experiment "Star", did not consider one nuance — at an altitude of over 25 miles to the cabin of the stratosphere balloon had more time to rarefied air to come to a state of stability after the jump Andreeva.

Piotr Dolgov started the job on time, under the plan of the experiment. But at this point, the cab still continued to sway. Because of this, when you exit the cab Debt hit his face mask on the small pin in the hatchway. The pin struck in the mask opening 9×16 mm Test pilot died as a result of depressurization.

By the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on 12 December 1962 for courage and heroism displayed during the testing parachute equipment, Eugene Andreev was awarded the title of hero of the Soviet Union, order of Lenin and medal "gold Star". The same award was posthumously awarded to Peter Debt.

Evgeny Andreev completed his military service with the rank of Colonel, and in 1985 became one of the first in the country who was awarded the title "Honored parachutist test pilot of the USSR". Andreev got badge number 3.

For the record Felix Baumgartner its predecessor did not survive. Eugene Nikolayevich Andreyev died on 9 February 2000 at the age of 73. He is buried in the cemetery of the village of Leonia Shchelkovo district of Moscow region.

Andrew Sidorchyk


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