"Life is given to exploration. 25 years at the head of the GRU."
Three pages about the most important
The time when Peter Ivanovich Ivashutin (1909-2002) was the head of military intelligence, called the "age of Ivashutin". He passed on to his successor a real "Empire of the GRU," which led technical intelligence, aviation, space, naval (on the initiative Ivashutina was built large scout ships "Crimea", "Caucasus", "Primorye" and "Baikal"1), of course, undercover. Patriarch intelligence claimed that "any, even very modern technology can't produce those classified materials that are able to the intelligence professional. The human factor was and still is in exploration in the first place..."2
As soon as any call his eyes: and respectful, "Peter the Great", and in my own way - "uncle Pete". However, the higher the prestige he created the "Empire" is not affected. Previously disparate forces of the military intelligence of the Armed Forces were included "in the overall ensemble working in unison means": that is Peter Ivanovich "harnessed" in a chariot of3.
A quarter of a century allotted to him in this post, there have been five leaders of the party and the state from Khrushchev to Gorbachev; five Ministers of defense, Marshal Malinovsky, Grechko, Ustinov, Sokolov, Yazov; five chiefs of the General staff - marshals Biruzov, Zakharov, Kulikov, Ogarkov, akhromeev. And all of them, starting with Leonid Brezhnev, used to the fact that at exactly 9: 00 on their working table was signed by General by Ivashutina quick reference (3 pages!), containing the latest intelligence. (You can only imagine what a great historical source will be given to the researchers when documents are declassified, and a new perspective then come the seemingly well-studied events.)
In those rare days when such help for any reason is late even for a few minutes, call SCS was heard anxious calls: "What happened?!" So high was the authority of military intelligence in the "era Ivashutin".
On the background of Pushkin...
How to tell about the life of a man whose fate was covered with an impenetrable veil of state secrets? How to make the story interesting and say what to speak prematurely? Peter Ivanovich Ivashutin simultaneously call and scout N 1, and a General without a biography. To comprehend the character of this extraordinary man, we should remember one very picturesque episode of his long life.
In early 1983, fulfilling a personal instruction of the new Secretary General Yuri Andropov, Moscow was flooded with "flying patrols", seeking everywhere and catching violators of labor discipline - in theaters, baths, a cafe and Woe to those who happened to be there during working hours. Fans of the "order" was jubilant and affectionately remembered the laws of 1940, when a 15-minute delay could pay a real prison term. General Ivashutin, loved the case, "in the mood"4, to quote the classics of Russian poetry, remained unmoved, but probably remembered the poem "Angelo" Pushkin favorite:
Springs rusty came again into the movement,
Laws stood up, grabbing into the clutches of evil...
In the claws of the "flying squad" hit the officer in the Command post of the GRU: "after daily watch it with friends at a shift went into a cafe to have lunch and celebrate the birthday of one of them"5. A command post was established at the initiative Ivashutina and worked round-the-clock accumulation of reports from all organs of military intelligence. Its main objective was the continuous monitoring and detection of signs of preparation of a potential enemy to attack the Soviet Union. It is in the depths of the Command post was compiled analytical reports each morning courier communication delivered to the senior officials of the USSR. Of course, the detainee "flying squad" officers could not tell anything about the nature of their work, or by what right he during working hours sitting in a cafe. Was made an official document of the worst violator of labor discipline, directed to the chief Command post of the GRU.
The situation was difficult. Campaign of ruthless struggle against the violators of discipline were political in nature and was controlled "at the top". At that time rightly said that it is better to be the victim of accidents than to fall under another decree and become a victim of the campaign. The chief Command post of rear Admiral Milukov reported the incident to General of the army Ivashutin. The fate of the officer hung in the balance. Peter Ivanovich listened attentively to the report and asked for the identity of the guilty. The characteristics were positive. Hosted by the eloquent dialogue. The General asked:
"And you, comrade Milyukov, attended sometime with friends the restaurant?
On my affirmative response, he concluded:
- Works well officer? So let him work. And campaign, will remain campaign"6.
This phrase is key to understanding the lives and destinies Ivashutina.
In exploration - through the sky
He was able to distance himself from the held in the country political campaigns. Not only worked well but also was an example of professional competence. "For decades he worked 12-14 hours a day, never complained of fatigue, working, without nervous breakdowns, was attentive in the analysis of operational situations"7. Always adhered to the principle: "Every matter must lead a real specialist"8.
And thus his biography cannot be separated from the history of the multinational country. Have Ivashutina was an ordinary biography of a man who had to live in an extraordinary time. "I was born in Brest-Litovsk in 1909. My father... was born in Ukraine, mother - Belarusian, but I consider myself Russian"9. Seventeen boyish years the son of a locomotive engineer, he started his career working on repairing railway tracks at the station Gorodnya. He graduated from the evening faculty. Twenty-one, joined the party, and a year for the mobilization of the party was sent to study in 7 of the Stalingrad military aviation school them. Stalingrad red banner of the proletariat, which he successfully graduated in 1933, Before the war, the school was considered the best in the air force.
The pilot, and then the commander of the crew four-engine heavy bomber ТБ3 Peter Ivanovich forever loved aviation and have kept this love till the end of life. It is possible that this affected the choice of the building, where should be placed the GRU. Time and space converged to one point: from the window of an office office of the chief of the GRU was clearly visible Khodynka field, where once housed a military airfield. Flew out and it landed a military pilot, Ivashutin. When General of the army as the chief of GRU had been in the army, he "was always interested in aerial reconnaissance"10. And at the end of his life regretted only one thing: no chance in August 1941go to bomb Berlin!
The bad memory 1937m he entered the air force Academy named after N. E. Zhukovsky, but managed to study just three full semesters. In January 1939, the senior Lieutenant of the air force Ivashutin, again on the mobilization of the party, was seconded to the NKVD and sent to serve in the military counterintelligence. It was a time of hopes and expectations. A month earlier, was removed from his post "iron Commissar" Nikolai Yezhov. Passed "the ninth wave" the Great terror. Waves of mass repression began to subside. Some of the victims of the "Yezhov terror" even began to release. Began selective rehabilitation. The new head of the NKVD Lavrentiy Beria was in need of frames.
In early February 1939го Ivashutin withdrew their three "head over heels" and received the first spartanii - became captain of state security. Going to work in the government yesterday, a military pilot has climbed three steps on the ladder. His spezzani meet a Colonel in the army: red army Colonel and captain of the GB wore in the lapels of three "sleepers". In fact, Ivashutin soared even higher: he became the head of the Special Department of the 23rd rifle corps.
Contact Zhdanov, conflict with Zhukov
The corps took part in the war with Finland. Advocating solely about the interests of the case, the captain of the GB Ivashutin directly over the head of his superiors, addressed to the Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU(b) Andrey Aleksandrovich Zhdanov, who was a member of the Military Council of the northwestern front, to provide intelligence staff corps warm uniforms and camouflage. In fact, he staked his career begun so successfully. But the request was immediately granted. Authority Ivashutina in housing has increased dramatically.
Equally strongly, Ivashutin operated during the great Patriotic war. The order of people's Commissar of defence of USSR Marshal Stalin dated April 29, 1943 N 4/SSH (top secret) Ivashutin was appointed head of Department of counterespionage "SMERSH" of the southwestern front. Military counterintelligence were engaged not only in search of enemy agents. "I could, if necessary, recalled General, is to send your scout to complete special missions to Berlin, to Paris, to any place behind the front line. Tactical intelligence was supposed to act only behind the front line, where was the enemy"11.
As head of the counterintelligence "SMERSH" of the 3rd Ukrainian front General Ivashutin in 1944 during the Jassy-Kishinev operation sent a scout in Bucharest and on its own initiative, started to negotiate with representatives of the Romanian Royal court about the withdrawal of this country from the war on the side of Nazi Germany. He again thought only about the interests of a common cause, not about their own career, wanting to save hundreds of thousands of soldiers ' lives, and not feared that his activities can prevent someone to hold another spectacular offensive and assault to capture the capital of Romania. Ivashutin not afraid to enter into conflict with itself Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, when he arrived in front of the headquarters of Marshal, a representative of the Stavka and Deputy Supreme commander, gave instructions to the commander of the front Marshal Fyodor Ivanovich Tolbukhin on the preparations for new offensive operations.
Ivashutin on the channels reported to the Supreme commander about the successful negotiations and the imminent withdrawal of Romania from the war. Stalin supported the initiative Ivashutina and ordered Zhukov to leave the headquarters of the front and arrive in Moscow. 31 August 1944 the Red army without a fight took Bucharest, and on 25 September the 35-year-old Ivashutin received the title of Lieutenant-General.
"Intelligence beat, when we lose, and rarely admit it when we're right"12, - once said Ivashutin. He wasn't afraid to lose. Therefore, always won.
May 12, 1992 order of the Minister of defence of the Russian Federation B. N. Yeltsin N 02 the army General Ivashutin was dismissed. The future President, apparently believed that the Russian state will be able to do without the Creator of "Empire of the GRU". History will put everything in its place.
1. Shmyrev PS Head teacher, comrade // the army General P. I. Ivashutin a quarter of a century at the head of the GRU / the Council of veterans of military intelligence; Fund "Loyalty to Fatherland". M. 2009. P. 69. The author in the years 1971-1987 - head of electronic intelligence, the GRU.
2. Lot V. I. Marshal military intelligence / army General Ivashutin P. I. a quarter of a century at the head of the GRU / the Council of veterans of military intelligence; Fund "Loyalty to Fatherland". M. 2009. P. 222.
3. Shmyrev P. S. Boss, teacher, friend. P. 65, 66.
4. Mikhailov G. A. Improving communications direction // General of the army P. I. Ivashutin a quarter of a century at the head of the GRU. P. 63. The author from 1979 to 1989 - head of Information Deputy head of the GRU.
5. Milyukov V. I. Remained in my memory... // General of the army P. I. Ivashutin a quarter of a century at the head of the GRU. S. 99. The author in 1982-1986 - head of the Command post of the GRU.
7. Pavlov A. G. Era Ivashutina // General of the army P. I. Ivashutin a quarter of a century at the head of the GRU. P. 40. The author in 1978-1989 he served as the first Deputy chief of GRU.
8. Shmyrev P. S. Boss, teacher, friend. P. 64.
9. Lot V. I. Marshal military intelligence. P. 208.
10. Konovalenko I. G. Wise military leader and a humble man // General of the army P. I. Ivashutin a quarter of a century at the head of the GRU. P. 179. The author 1986-1991 - head of intelligence gsvg.
11. Lot V. I. Marshal military intelligence. P. 215; He's // Red star. N160. 2 September 2009
12. Gullev L. A. Decisive, fair, noble man // General of the army P. I. Ivashutin a quarter of a century at the head of the GRU. P. 116. The author * 1976-1981 - chief of one of managements of the GRU.
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