What conferred the German command in the first month of the great Patriotic war.
On the anniversary of the outbreak of war "Газета.Ru" for the first time published the transcript of a meeting of the German commanders, held in July 1941. The Germans wanted to do with Moscow and Leningrad, why not give up surrounded by Russian troops and what a disappointment felt by the Germans after a month after the outbreak of war, the science Department was out with a German historian.
"Газета.Ru" for the first time will publish a unique document — not previously publikovavshayasya meeting of the German group of armies "Center", held on 28 July 1941. A project to research, digitize and publish documents captured by the red army during the Second world war, together with the Russian partners are the German historical Institute in Moscow. The main points contained in the transcript and its translation, commented researcher, Institute of Dr. Matthias UHL.
— Matthias, tell us about the fate of this document and its translation, caught recently?
Now we systematically scan the whole archive of the German funds in the Central archive of the defense Ministry. Make annotations to the documents as they were 70 years old and often the inventory is not true. Who did the translation of the document, we do not know, and only by analyzing the different stamps, we can assume that the way the documents were the following. The documents fell into the hands of the red army in April-may 1945, probably in East Prussia, where he was captured by a large array of German Affairs from the archive of the Wehrmacht.
The Nazis were not fools, Berlin was frequently bombed, so the archives were evacuated.
In Moscow, these documents fell into the General staff, which were evaluated whether they represent value for the field. If Yes, in the military-historical Department made the translation. Probably, some documents were translated only in the late 1940s or early 1950s. And in the middle of 1960-ies the General staff decided all these documents to transfer to the archive, where they are to the present day.
— We have before us the transcript of the meeting in an army group "Center", how important was it?
— It is possible to assume that such meetings were every day, hear the report. The meeting took place at Hitler's headquarters in East Prussia "Wolf's lair". The meeting was attended by Colonel-General Franz Halder, chief of staff of the army, in 1941, he was responsible for the entire Eastern campaign until Hitler took the lead in the attack on Moscow. In addition, was the commander of army group "Center" Fedor von Bock, perhaps, was the General staff officers, operations chief, intelligence chief, just six to eight people. After such meetings, Halder went to Hitler, reported about the situation, after which the leadership of the Reich was deciding what to do next.
— The meeting was held in late July 1941. Which at the time held the front line?
— At the end of July 1941, the Wehrmacht occupied the Baltic States and continued the offensive towards Leningrad, in the center troops occupied Vitebsk and was advancing towards Smolensk, while in the South, although Lviv and Ternopil were busy, overall German offensive was significantly behind.
— What do you, as a military historian, was the most important in this document?
The most important was that the German high command already realized that the collapse of the red army will not. Still on 3 July Halder in his diary wrote that Russia is a colossus with feet of clay and that the war with Russia, "the victorious will end in two weeks.
Now he understands that there will be a long war and the German blitzkrieg tactics, proven in the West, with the Soviet Union is not valid. If the French, once in the environment, immediately surrendered, and the Germans believed that the law of war. But then they say that Russian are not professionals, so fighting to the end: the Red army and was surrounded, continued to fight.
Therefore, the Germans began to use the tactics of frontal attack, abandoning the large surgical movements. What's more surprising — the high military leadership of the red army. On the South was a big problem, there was Tymoshenko, and the Germans couldn't build big pots, it was very slow. "There's never managed to break any significant enemy forces", — was said at the meeting with Halder.
— For some reason, Russian translation is not always the same as the original? In it, for example, there is about the fact that "Russian specialists", but is about the fact that they do not lay down their arms in the environment.
— Most likely, because of the translators was a huge amount of work, and this is done unintentionally. Now we think it's important, and then you had to show only the General course of events, and it is lowered.
— If the theme of the meeting was the Eastern front, where there are submarines in Iceland and the situation in Indochina?
— Haider gives a description of the overall military situation in the world, to make it clear why it is so important to success in a separate direction on the background of the whole picture.
— The whole transcript is a word Halder or are there other voices?
— I understand, Yes, as usual in meetings with superiors: the chief speaks and the others listen. Interesting is that the generals do not know what to take first Leningrad or Moscow. First, if Hitler said that first you need to take Leningrad, army group "Center" they wanted to quickly get to Moscow. If the commander of army group "North" is almost near Leningrad, the Side is confident that the group of armies "Centre" should go to Moscow. But the Side receives a rejection Halder and Hitler, as the führer said, if we don't solve the problems in the South, then you won't be able to move, as the Northern flanks hangs in the air.
— The text provides and the dates of capture of certain areas?
Yes, we see that on August 25 the troops should be behind Moscow, then to take Kursk, to reach the Volga by October 1 and take Stalingrad. Political leadership still hatching grandiose plans, and the military understands that it is unlikely this can be achieved.
— The document refers to the first problem in the German war industry, about some 45 engines per month. What are we talking about?
— It's about the fact that the industry was working on a peace footing and were ready for a protracted war, they did not think to mobilize all resources. And Haider laments that the industry can give only 45 engines for damaged tanks. He says that there are large losses and the command necessary to disband the division in which there are few tanks. Because better one than two incomplete divisions, as the rear of any proceeds of the resources is not received.
— What tells Haider about aviation?
— There is a myth that the Germans have always dominated in the air. But a month later, Halder said that the Luftwaffe are large losses that some divisions remain at the 12-15 aircraft, which previously was 30-45 machines. Therefore, the aircraft cannot perform all the tasks and need to focus only on the most important areas. He said that 126 of the German fighters in the Central direction are 400 Russian, anti-German 240 350 bombers are Russian, just in front of a group of armies "Centre" from the Soviet Union exhibited more than a thousand aircraft.
Funny remark in Russian translation: "the Holiness of the reports / prokrashivania, false, delay. To bring about the counter" (the spelling of the translator is stored. — "Газета.Ru"). Please explain.
— Halder said that reports of the German commanders often dress it up: they say that at the front all is well or they're a fake or you come in late. What if there are lesions, they also need to report.
To tell you if some road or forest on the map, but in reality they are not. It is in all armies, in German too.— Even Halder says transport problems. Tell me, how in the years of the occupation the Germans used the Soviet Railways, given the difference in European and Russian track?
— In the first months of the war, they shipped by rail to the border, further to the front on the convoy. But it required a lot of time was high deterioration of equipment, there is a lack of resources. And starting in 1942, they began to remake the Russian railroads to European gauge, to use their engines, but only to Rostov-on-don, on — again trucks.
— What does the short phrase "the attached card is a dream"?
Apparently, Halder brought from the rate of the Fuhrer's map, where possible, were drawn German troops standing on 1 October at Stalingrad, and he said, "It is the dream of the führer".
— What are your plans for further digitization of documents?
— We have plans to digitize all 28 thousand cases, 2.5 million sheets, which lie in the Central archive of the Ministry of defence is a huge amount of work. This is a great partnership project, which is initiated from the German side is the German historical Institute. There are a lot of military maps, on almost every day of the war, you can find a separate map of the General staff or the army group "Center". I hope that the whole process will end in 2018.
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