Center for Strategic Assessment and forecasts

Autonomous non-profit organization

Home / Defence and security / The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation: yesterday, today and tomorrow / Articles
Night terror, the U.S. Navy: the Russian "Yasen" is able to sink three carrier one gulp
Material posted: Publication date: 01-09-2016
Latent conflict between steel giants - nuclear submarines with the end of the cold war has not stopped. In contrast, in the United States and the Russian Federation began to appreciate the capabilities of the submarine fleet. This is especially true of multi-purpose submarines, equipped with cruise missiles. Such submarines in Russia are pinning their particular hopes along with rocket underwater cruisers of strategic purpose, multipurpose submarines have to complete a very difficult task to curb even the most serious aggression of the sea and, if necessary, to retaliate against surface and underwater targets, and destroy enemy targets on land.

Threat assessment

No matter how many experts did not discuss the protection of aircraft carriers and did not consider escorts from the composition of carrier strike groups, invariably, any dispute in the professional community comes to the question of how these forces if necessary, can be neutralized. Whether a joke - the ship, 70 aircraft missiles and a dozen support vessels, including escort with missile weapons is a serious power that the fear will not take.

Attention to the missile weapons, which Russian design bureaus and defense from year to year is paid during the construction and design of submarines, has long been noted by foreign colleagues. Aware that recently adopted in the system, armed with cruise missiles, and unique torpedoes, the submarine can turn a huge ship full of holes, Americans started to worry. For nearly 30 years the command of the US Navy, did not make harsh statements about the dangers of Russian submarines.

However, many years of silence was broken by Harry Harris, commander of the Pacific command. Harris said that the program of modernization and construction of new submarines poses a serious threat to the Pacific region and signals the seriousness with which Moscow views the region". Experts note that "the recognition of" success in re-equipment and modernization of the Russian Navy suggests that each streamline and the more new submarine the Navy considers dangerous, and submarines of the third generation pale into insignificance at the mere mention of a Russian nuclear submarine of the fourth project.

Four yards

In fairness it should be noted that the formation and maintenance of its own submarine fleet the Americans came up thoroughly. In addition to missile submarine cruisers of strategic appointment of type "Ohio" built and put into operation the multipurpose nuclear submarine type "Virginia". However, to build a new multi-purpose submarines, the Americans decided not just. At some stage a naval confrontation, after weighing all the "pros" and "cons", and simultaneously assessing data about Soviet nuclear submarines of project 971, the us military has issued a technical reference for the development of multi-purpose submarines.

The experts of the company Electric Boat and dozens of specialized companies developed a draft multi-purpose nuclear submarine with advanced equipment and weapons, named "Seawolf". Seawolf "sea wolf"). All in the design of the "Seawolf" was subordinated to one purpose: to detect the enemy and not be detected, and even more destroyed. In order to ensure secrecy of the submarine during the movement of the developers has gone to such unconventional decisions as a rejection of traditional propellers. Instead he had used a water-jet propulsion system originally developed for the British submarine "Trafalgar", and the case was made using a special absorbent coating.

Sonar system, monitoring tools, and the total complement of torpedoes and missiles of 50 units was to turn the "Seawolf" in true Lord of the depths, but the true dream of military engineers was not meant to be. The culprit, as usual, were money. Research work, study of materials, development of electronics and other systems cost the American military Department has exactly one billion dollars. Nearly four and a half billion (a 4.3 to be exact) we had to pay for every built submarine. Counting costs of construction, maintenance, repair and modernization of us military decided to have just three submarines and that the issue with production of the "Seawolf" was closed.

"Virginia" against "Ash"

The amount spent on construction and maintenance money, adopting instead the "Seawolf" submarine type "Virginia" was significantly cheaper, but relatively inexpensive ship that the submarine was not possible. The recently launched USS Illinois cost the us Navy almost three billion dollars (2.7 to be exact). Similarly, submarines of the previous generation, multi-purpose submarines of "Virginia" included all the same events - the fight against enemy submarines, the implementation of offshore operations (this refers to the destruction of objects on land) and, if necessary, the landing of amphibious units. One of the important aspects of the study of multi-purpose submarines (and submarines in General) is adopted. And right here comes the most interesting part the comparison of the features of the American "Virginia" and the Russian "Ash" as the main competitors. Armed with the first versions of the "Virginia" (a series of Block I and Block II) are 12 cruise missiles "Tomahawk", and the recent Block III begins equipping submarines triggering device "revolving" type, for 6 cruise missiles each.


Despite the fact that the main competitor of "Virginia" - Russian multipurpose nuclear submarine of project 885 "Ash" in strength to all known political and economic reasons came into operation much later, the level of decisions on the part of powerplant, armament, avionics Suite and controls that are probably in the headquarters of the U.S. Navy after studying some of the parameters will be added to the gray generals. To begin with, it should be the main armament of the "Ash" consists mostly of cruise missiles, of which the hull of the submarine can accommodate as many as thirty-two. In order to understand a lot or a little should turn to the practical side of the question - the military (albeit hypothetical) shooting.

"If you take into account the number of rockets and compare this figure with the number of ships in the carrier strike group, it is possible by calculation to determine that one SSGN of the "Yasen" a volley of 32 RCC can hit Aug from the three carriers. However, a volley yet to be worked out to test it in practice," - said in an interview with TV channel "Zvezda" military expert Alexei Leonov.

Certainly, on Aug always (if necessary) working group and solitary work of the submarine by ten ships is unlikely, but as experts explain, the technical possibility to implement such "events". Many of those who watched the world-famous video of the firing of the Caspian flotilla missile "Calibre" on a thousand miles are not even aware that similar missile weapons can be used by a Russian submarine. "Ash" can be started anti-submarine missile-torpedoes 91РЭ1 "Caliber", which is able to destroy submarines of all sizes.

Experts immediately point out that such weapons have the American "Virginia", omitting in this case one important circumstance - speed characteristics of the "Tomahawk" fired from torpedo tubes and anti-submarine "Caliber" differ significantly. "The first stage of the torpedo 91РЭ1 provides its movement under the water then exits the water and climb at speed 2-2. 5 M by the operation of the second stage. The missile flies along a controlled trajectory to a detected target. The defeat targets at a range of 40-50 km is almost instantaneous," - says Alexey Leonov. But that's not all. Launcher "Ash" can be equipped with cruise missiles X-101 with a range of more than five thousand kilometers.

Given that tests of these missiles from an aircraft was a success, it can be concluded that the obstacles to equip such armament of the submarine is almost gone. The number of launchers, as well as characteristics of the missile also suggests that the issue of destruction of anyone, even a well-protected enemy can be solved "from the neighboring sea," without showing on the horizon. Besides, as the developers say, the design of the silos of the submarines of project 885 "Yasen" is that they can upload any of the armament of the Navy's cruise missiles of sea basing.

Boats of the transition period or hunters technology

Wins "Ash", "Virginia" and according to another important indicator : the maximum immersion depth of 488 meters against 600 American Russian submarines. Although key characteristics of the American and Russian submarines such as the speed of movement, the exact number of the crew, forces and means of detection and other data for a long time (and likely ever) will not be available to the public, it should be understood that "Ash" and "Virginia" are not at the top of technical progress. The thing is that the moment when began the active construction of submarines and their application, simultaneously started work and studies aimed at detection of submarines.

Experts point out that this is why such a thing as "acceptable noise level" for modern submarines simply ceased to exist - each next generation of nuclear submarines, whether "strategic" nuclear missiles "behind" or marine fighters like "Ash" should be inaudible for the underwater acoustics of the enemy. To reduce the noise of the submarine have written hundreds of dissertations and specialized research institutes certainly is not the first year struggling with the layout of the inside of the hull. A breakthrough solution, according to experts, may be the failure from the use of submarine turbines and exclude them as a source of noise on Board with a fair transition to electric engines. "Electric" scheme, as explained by the experts, will allow to solve several problems at once.

First, it will be possible to reduce the noise level and actually make a huge submarine inaudible to modern sonar. Second, you can "play" with the space inside the submarine and place in the void that other mechanisms and devices. In this direction is already actively working Americans - in particular, the version of Block V submarines of the "Virginia" is considering it is electric main shaft, without the use of turbines and compressors. However, as experts note, in this programme there are certain difficulties to overcome that American engineers can't yet.

And "Ash" and "VA" in this sense are the laboratories for running-in of new technologies, and quite rightly would think refusal to build the "Ash" and focus on more technologically advanced nuclear submarines. But then, as they say, is a feature.

"The average new project requires at least 7-8 years to develop. And to put something into service it is necessary now," - said in an interview with TV channel "Zvezda" military expert Viktor murakhovski. Then there is pure mathematics. More precisely, Economics.

Considering opinion of experts, that the cost of manufacturing the head submarine of the project 885 "Ash" at least half the American multipurpose submarines, and the production cost of all subsequent submarines of project 885M with improved performance will drop by a third, it can be concluded that the Russian Navy will receive not only a modern multi-purpose nuclear submarines, but also spend much less money than American "colleagues". A huge help in this case will be the list of technical solutions that are already implemented in the "Ash" and is scheduled for use in the construction of the multipurpose nuclear submarines of the fifth generation.

According to General Director Saint-Petersburg Maritime Bureau of machine building "malachite" Vladimir Dorofeev, the work on the project 885 "Ash" largely determined the appearance of submarines of the fifth generation, the production of which is planned after 2020. Despite the fact that at the disposal of the Russian Navy is only one submarine of the project 885, can be clearly seen nervosa the American military. Task, you have to deal with the American military after the whole a series of project 885 submarines come into operation, will be formulated along the following lines: "Calculate how many ships can destroy one submarine of the project 885 if in a planned series of six (and according to others, eight) submarines, each carries 32 missiles". Judging by the level of attention given to the newest submarines, if we compare the nomenclature used in the submarines of project 885 of weapons and to add to this level is completely lost several decades ago and restored cooperation, "Ash" is not only a component of non-nuclear deterrence potential enemy, but also demonstrates the willingness of industry to create not just a test of the court, and to build warships, which immediately after the test is ready to perform tasks.

It seems no accident that the us experts have dubbed the submarine project 885 "nightmare of the American Navy".

Dmitry Yurov

Source: http://tvzvezda.ru/news/opk/content/201608310842-f87s.htm

Tags: Russia , AME


RELATED MATERIALS: Defence and security