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Operation Kavkaz: Israeli Phantoms against the Soviet air defense
Material posted: Publication date: 27-09-2018
In the 60-ies of the last century in the middle East faced the interests of the USSR and the USA, Moscow has supported the coalition of Arab States, and Washington is Israel. Smart tactics and high resistance to the Israeli soldiers allowed them to defeat the numerically superior forces of the Arabs.

Only during the "six day war" the coalition of Arab States lost 40,000 killed, wounded and prisoners. The Israelis destroyed or captured more than 900 tanks, 1000 artillery guns. By the way, most of the tanks were serviceable.

Israel inflicted a crushing defeat on Egypt, capturing the Sinai Peninsula, the Gaza strip, the Golan heights and the West Bank of the Jordan river, but the further advance of the Israelites was stopped by the Soviet Union.

Moscow protested against the actions of tel Aviv, reinforcing his statement by sending to the region of the ships of Northern and black sea fleets and the landing of troops in Port said. Additionally, Egypt had sent a squadron of strategic bombers Tu-16 with nuclear weapons on Board. This argument made Israel to cease hostilities on the same day.

Billions down the drain

Defeated the Egyptian army of the USSR restored completely. Military aid was provided on billions of dollars, although the Egyptians did not pay the half — Soviet equipment supplied under the two-percent loan at a price below half of its value.

Soviet military aid to Egypt over the period from 1965 to 1972 was 3.2 billion dollars. As a result, by 1968, Egypt had a new, technically well-equipped army, to pay for which is almost not necessary.


Captured T-55 tank after the modernization in Israel is called "Tiran-5". Captured tanks were so many that they were armed with an entire division — 440-I. Photo:

Lieutenant General Saad-ed-DIN Chadli recalled: "...We pay Egyptian pounds loan with two percent. Moreover, we have the ability to pay after a certain period of time after receipt of the weapons. I am sure that in the world there is no other country that would be able to give Egypt the weapons on such terms of payment as it makes the USSR..."

Having a good army prompted the leadership of Egypt in a new conflict with Israel. He received in history the name "war of attrition".

"Phantoms" over the pyramids

Thinking that small Israel will not survive in a long war, Egypt began a constant shelling of the Eastern shore of the Suez canal long-range artillery.

Egyptian aviation in mode, free hunt attacked the Israelis, groups of Egyptian commandos had caused damage to the rear enemy's infrastructure. The first artillery attack was made in September 1968, killed 10 Israeli soldiers, 18 were injured.

McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, tactical fighter, twin. Photo:

Despite the overwhelming superiority of Egypt, Israel had responded to every blow and did so very effectively, taking the practice to destroy targets with aircraft and raids on enemy territory. After each attack or shelling followed the air strike, so by the end of 1969 the Arab attacks became much less.

For example, on 10 September 1969 the Israelis raided Egyptian positions along the Suez canal with the use of captured armored vehicles of Soviet manufacture. The loss of the Egyptians consisted of 150 soldiers and one General, Israelis have only one soldier received a slight wound.

Gradually destroying the air defense of Egypt, Israel started the attacks not only on military targets, but also vital for Egypt's civil. By the time air force tel Aviv added the latest at the time the fighter "Phantom F-4E" (according to the Israeli classification "Kurnass").

The code name "Caucasus"

The interception of the initiative Israel has had a serious impact on the morale of the Egyptian population, which increasingly began to speak out for ending the war, change of political course and the country's leader. President Gamal Abdel Nasser did not want to lose his post, so I went again to ask for help from Moscow.

Position C-125. Photo:

Although the debts for the previously delivered equipment has not been paid, the Kremlin decided to re-help the Egyptian people. In order not to quarrel with the United States, Moscow secretly sends military equipment to Egypt, and gets the name "Caucasus". Its essence lies in the creation of the air defense system in Egypt on the basis of regular units of the Soviet army.

To help Nasser was sent to the 18th division: 24 anti-aircraft missile division 4 technical division, technical 2 batteries, 24 platoon, air defense, 3 full and 1 short branch maintenance, adjustment and repair work "Shylock".

To keep the withdrawal in secret, were involved in 16 merchant ships. The captains of the ships did not know the full route after the checkpoint has been opened the next package with instructions. Personnel and launchers with missiles were loaded in the holds, on top of on duty armed guard.

Soviet anti-aircraft gunners against "Phantoms"

The conditions of ordinary Soviet soldiers in Egypt were severe. Calculations have lived in the local mud huts — malihah. They were built in the following way: in the small hole put a frame of rebar, the walls of which were lined with sandbags. Danger Scorpions, phalanges, tarantulas, and parasites in local water bodies.

The wreckage of an Israeli F-4E shot down June 30, 1970, the Soviet s-125 under the command of captain Malayi. Israeli pilots Lieutenant Rami Harpaz and major Heal Ahikar was captured. Photo:

The first fight with the "Phantom" took place on 30 June 1970, then F-4E 201 squadron was shot down by a Soviet s-125 under the command of captain Malayi. A month later, the Israelis lost one F-4E.

Then Israel decided to destroy Soviet anti-aircraft gunners. 5 July 1970 on the position of the S-75M and s-125 struck by several waves of 24 aircraft. The first attack happened at three in the afternoon, 14 "Phantoms" of the 69th squadron was divided into two groups and attacked. Calculations of the s-125 shot down one fighter, the others came out of the defeat of the Soviet air defense system. The Egyptian calculations of the s-75 shot down another F-4E.

Then the Israelis decided to attack the position of C-75 by a group of ten aircraft. Two divisions met the group with fire in the forehead, enemy aircraft worked in the forehead not only rocket launchers and anti-aircraft artillery. The result attacker lost another "Phantom".

Last battle Lieutenant Sumin
This attack on the positions of Soviet anti-aircraft gunners, the Israeli military is carefully planned and implementation were involved in the aces of the air force major Samuel Arrow (commander of the 201st squadron) and Lieutenant Colonel Avihu Ben-nun (commander of the 69th squadron). Action attack aircraft covered aircraft, equipped with means of suppression of a radar early detection air defense.

In the painting "a Hot day in the land of the pyramids. July 18, 1970," depicted Lieutenant Sergei Sumin. Photo:

On July 18 at position C-125 on two sides by six groups collapsed 24 "Phantom." Especially got the division under the command of Colonel Basil Tolokonnikova, whose gunners were able to knock out aircraft Shmuel Haza — Israeli speakers have died trying to reach the airfield.

In addition, the gunners managed to detect the attack of Colonel Avihu Ben-Nun and made the third launch two missiles. "Phantom" made evasive maneuvers, but one of the released missiles exploded near him. Taking heavy damage, the fighter out of the fight.

The division is the last pair of missiles, and in accordance with the military Charter given the command to reload. At this point, the slave Ben-Nun, captain of aviam SELA, decided to attack the position Tolokonnikova at extremely low altitude. The gunners have not managed to make a start, and a volley of Nura and bombs covers launcher and transport-loading machine. Part of the crew died, but the C-125 was still in working condition, just out of power.

Lieutenant Sergei Sumin stood at the vizier in the court (the"basket") antenna post, lost power supply, but at this point the aircraft exploded bomb. The shards struck not only Sumin, but one of the missiles. In killing all eight people calculate.

It was not the last episode of the confrontation. Active combat operations of the missile conducted from 30 June to 3 August 1970. During this time, was shot down and nine damaged three Israeli fighter.

As a result of the actions of the Soviet anti-aircraft gunners, the Israeli air force had lost air superiority over the West Bank of the Suez canal on 7 August 1970 at the Egyptian front, the armistice was signed.

Denis Aldohin


Tags: armed forces

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