In March 1938 the people's Commissariat of internal Affairs of the USSR was a new employee. Pavel Fotin, sent 800 number of fellow Communists to serve in these bodies in order to party mobilization. Ended with a black band in the history of the Foreign Department of the Cheka — OGPU – NKVD. Unleashed by Yagoda and Yezhov criminal repression in their own ranks has caused irreparable damage to Soviet foreign intelligence.
Of the 450 employees INO 275 were subjected to repression. If was possible for someone to survive, only thanks to the selfless efforts of the Centre where he realized that in order to grow and implement the overseas "illegal" requires at least ten years. And the following fact: in 1938, in the Kremlin there were 127 razvedany, from INO...none. And this on the eve of the approaching war.
...Pavel Fotin was born in the village of Ozhogino and Shatrovskoye district of Kurgan region in a poor peasant family. Graduated from all-Union agricultural Academy named after K. A. Timiryazev, the peace of the specialty — engineer of the electrification and mechanization of agriculture. Previous job: Deputy Director of the publishing house.
Was not a simple change KGB personnel, and upgrading their specialists with higher education, which until recently had no more than 5% of the employees of the Commissariat. The six-month study at the Central school of the NKVD and the Intern of the 5th Department of the Main Directorate of state security. In may of the next year at the initiative of the new people's Commissar of internal Affairs Beria Phytin was appointed head of foreign intelligence. He managed to return the previously fired experienced employees, illegal immigrants, strengthen her talented newcomers.
Flares up the fire of the Second world, has set new tasks before the intelligence service. After the crushing defeat of Poland, France and England on the European continent, the Soviet foreign intelligence had to give the country's leadership has a clear answer: "where and When exactly Germany attacked the Soviet Union?". In the first half of 1941 Phytin presented to the Kremlin more than 120 razvedennoy, which read: war is a matter of months.
In the night from 17 to 18 June Phytin reported to Stalin that Germany finished the final preparations. Impact on the Western borders should be expected from day to day (more information on this topic is illuminated by the author in the study "Victory: truth vs falsehood"). Together with the Wehrmacht on the offensive will go and the militants of the OUN.
From the first days of the war the difference between day and night lost for the 5th division of its value. First entered into an unequal battle with the scouts, acting under the guise of diplomats of the Soviet Embassy in Berlin. Deputy rezident Alexander Korotkov managed to overcome a dense ring of the SS guard, to supply the remaining agents required currency and the transmitter. No matter how crammed the Gestapo at the doors of the Embassy and trade missions to seize encryption of books and codes, they managed to destroy. German intelligence during the war and failed to get the keys to the encryption codes used by Soviet intelligence center, their residency in Western Europe.
People Fitina failed to promptly inform the Centre about the plans of the most important operations of Hitler's command on the Eastern front. Their wealth of steel information about the outbreak in Bern the negotiations between the US and Germany to conclude a separate peace. The main heroes of the cult Soviet movie "Seventeen moments of spring", appeared in the center of those events was a real person. It helped the Soviet leadership to disrupt the implementation of this cynical project of the Anglo-American allies, successfully complete the Second world war.
And now back ago. In early 1942 tech-Lieutenant Georgiy Flerov, who served in the evacuated to Yoshkar-Ola the air force Academy, appealed to Stalin with a letter which drew attention that in the Western open press disappeared publication on the uranium problem. Presumably, in his view, there are very close to creation of nuclear weapons.
Young physicist could not know, soon returned to the possession of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in autumn 1941 the London rezidentura informed the Phytin: "In England started the development of pools of the atomic bomb". Thus began a unique operation of the Soviet foreign intelligence "Enamores". Its purpose was to determine the circle of countries engaged in the creation of nuclear weapons, informing the Centre about the content of these works, with the help of foreign agents to acquire scientific and technical information, able to accelerate the creation of such weapons.
British physical science were the closest to solving this problem, studies have enabled her to translate them into practice. At a meeting held the next meeting of Churchill and Roosevelt the last had convinced his colleague to transfer all the achievements of the U.S. scientific staff of the British so as not to expose an experimental database of the danger of German air raids. They entered the so-called Manhattan project.
It was executed in secrecy. It's hard to say how to further develop the events, if not for the help of the Soviet intelligence talented German physicist-Communist Klaus Fuchs who received after fleeing from Germany British citizenship and brought to the creation of the first American bombs.
To establish a communication channel for Soviet residents it was a matter of technique. Nine years, note, — on a Pro Bono basis, continued cooperation of the Soviet foreign intelligence and Fuchs, other American scientists. Invaluable assistance was provided by the Center and the British diplomat Donald Maclean, who worked in the US and gave a lot of "nuclear materials".
It would seem that the Soviet Union was not to create weapons of great destructive power, when it came "to be or not to be" Soviet state", when on the Eastern front decided the fate of major battles, and the Kremlin still thinking what to do with the huge amount of intelligence information. It was created by "Physical laboratory №2 of the USSR" headed by a bright scientist Igor Kurchatov, in the early 30-ies dealing with the problems of nuclear fission.
Then the laboratory was transformed into the Institute of atomic energy, first head to the last days of his life, was a renowned academician. May 20, 1944 the State Defense Committee was approved by Council on uranium (Chairman Beria).
It would be fundamentally wrong to assume that Soviet scientists could only skillfully dispose of the extracted information, including drawings of the American atomic bomb. As what the message of Truman on the sidelines of the Potsdam conference on successful test of the first nuclear warhead Stalin, say, or do not give value or did not understand what I mean. And actually on the table to Joseph Stalin two weeks before this lay report of Phytin: the landfill in Alamogordo in new Mexico completed final preparations for the bomb test. Add Klaus Fuchs was also observed for these tests.
The establishment of the nuclear industry required huge financial and human cost of the Soviet country that had just emerged from a brutal war and lost a third of the domestic economy. Along with the construction of powerful plants and factories, nuclear reactors, experimental facilities in Gorky, Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk regions and other regions were required unprecedented amounts of uranium ore, the technologies of its enrichment, the necessary reserves which the USSR had, with the exception of Tajikistan. Soviet intelligence launched a massive search for uranium deposits in Germany, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, attracted to the research work of those German scholars, which did not manage to reach the "long arm" of us intelligence.
On 29 August 1949 at 7 a.m., an unprecedented outbreak of hundreds of miles around was illuminated feather-grass steppes of Kazakhstan. The test of the first Soviet atomic bomb, as it was called in documents and reports, the product is RDS-1, was successful. USA and smug, the British hoped that the Soviet Union closer to creating its own bomb by 1952 – 1956 years.
Assessing the battle of the Soviet foreign intelligence in the secret war for the possession of a very secretive projects and technologies of nuclear weapons, one of the organizers of the "cold"" and potential "hot war" against the Soviet Union, CIA Director Allen DULLES was very concise: "It is the ultimate dream of any intelligence in the world". But Soviet intelligence agents, their volunteers abroad are the least needed in such assessments of its main enemy, they were guided by their own beliefs, honor and duty to the Motherland, which should be protected from the inhumane weapons in the world.
...A Sunny October day in 2017. The press centre of the foreign intelligence Service of the Russian Federation returned to his eternal post, but only in bronze, Lieutenant-General Pavel Fotin, whose name remained unknown for decades.
In a solemn ceremony of opening the monument to the head of the Soviet foreign intelligence service were head of the foreign intelligence Service of Russia, his comrades, relatives and friends. To adequately honor the memory of his legendary countryman in his native village and the school, in the Sverdlovsk management of FSB.
How not to recall in this connection the words "the legend of Soviet intelligence," which he often used to say to his grandson, captain second rank Andrei Phytin: "anyway, the truth will find its way".
Lieutenant-General P. M. PHYTIN with a smile on her charming Russian face; peaceful endeavor as Director of photocomment all-Union Society for cultural relations with foreign countries.
нетбез-Ж+ответада (05-03-2018 17:03:08)
«Все равно правда пробьет себе дорогу» Так будет и в современном информационном противостоянии США.
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