On the morning of 28 may 1987 a German Aviator-a lover Mathias rust flew the Cessna 172R monoplane from an airfield near Helsinki, where the day before that he came from Hamburg. In the flight documents the end point of the route was listed in Stockholm.
In 13.10, after receiving permission, rust lifted his car into the air and proceeded along the planned route. After 20 minutes of flight, he reported to the dispatcher that the Board had the right, and is traditionally said goodbye. After that, disabling onboard radio station, abruptly turned the plane in the direction of the Gulf of Finland and began the descent to a height of 80-100 m. This a planned maneuver was to provide a reliable output plane of the surveillance area of the control radar and to hide the true route of flight.
At this altitude, Mathias headed to the calculated point of the Gulf of Finland near the air route Helsinki — Moscow. Turning the plane toward the first landmark on the coast of the Soviet Union (shale plant in the town of Kohtla-järve with its fumes, which were visible for a hundred kilometers) and checking the indications of the radio compass with the rust formed on the "combat course".
The approximate route of the rust from Hamburg to Moscow. Wikipedia/Europe_laea_location_map.svg: Alexrk2/CC BY-SA 3.0
Seen on approaching the violator of the state border of the USSR was followed by the international air route. Information about it was issued on KP radio battalion in the Estonian town of Tapa, 4th brigade radio and Intelligence information center 14th division. In fact, the target information is already with the 14.31 was displayed on the screens of automated workplaces of duty combat crew KP division.
Operational duty MP brigade major Krinitsky did not immediately declare the target a violator of the state border and continued to clarify the characteristics of the object and its identity, while the rust is not out of the visibility area of the radar team. The Deputy on duty major in the Black, according to the report, knowing the real situation and what the objective is part of the Gulf of Finland to the coast line, "acted irresponsibly" and assigned her a room only 14.37.
The operations duty officer of the KP division Colonel Karpets has not required robust reports and clarify the type and nature of the target, "thereby violating the requirements on the immediate results targets on the alert", as well as the procedure for making decisions about the rise rescue crews for recognition purpose.
In fact, it was decided to determine the situation information "up" not to give. Over the territory of Estonia at the time was at least ten light aircraft very different departmental affiliation. None of them were equipped with IFF system.
In 14.28 finally found out that the civil small aircraft in the area no. 14.29 duty officer in the command post of the 14th division of PVO adopted the decision on the award of the infringer "combat rooms" 8255, to release information "top" and the announcement of readiness No. 1.
Only at 14.45 on the movement of rust reported on the upstream transmission 6-th separate air defense army.
"Thus, the fault of the CP of the 14th division of PVO was lost 16 minutes of time, and most importantly — gone is the perception of the air situation CP army, based on the fact that the goal came from the Finnish Bay and entered the borders of the Soviet Union", — stated in the message.
While on duty KP 656 th fighter aviation regiment in Tapa Lieutenant Filatov in 14.33 brought to readiness No. 1 duty fighter, repeatedly requesting permission to rise, however, the division gave the go-ahead only in 14.47.
Plane rust, meanwhile, was close to lake Peipsi. At 14.30 on the flight route of the Cessna 172R, the weather deteriorated. Rust decided to go with a decrease under the lower edge of the clouds and change course to the area of the reserve landmark: railway junction station Bottom.
May 28, 1987 at 18.15 civilian aircraft Cessna freely flew in from Germany on Red square in the heart of the Soviet Union. In the cockpit: Mathias rust from Hamburg. Picture Alliance
The goal is actually have already passed the zone of continuous duty radar field at low altitudes and lesions of duty anti-aircraft missile battalions. Precious was lost to intercept the time.
Later, the command regarded the delay calculations of the 14th division as "inexplicable, except complete irresponsibility bordering on crime."
Arrived at the CP 14.53 commander of the 14th division, it was reported that for specifying the type of target in the center of corridor # 1 of the route Helsinki — Moscow was raised a fighter. That goal was discovered near the border over the Gulf of Finland, the officer was silent.
Operational duty on KP 6-th army Colonel Voronkov, having received information about the purpose, after a couple of minutes to 14.46 — brought to readiness No. 1 duty forces of the 54th air defense corps and allowed finally hoist duty pair of fighters 656 th regiment in the air challenge one of them to block the border, to another, to identify the violator of the flight regime.
After another five minutes on the CP army arrived its commander was General Herman Kremin, who took over management of the duty forces. He brought to readiness No. 1, all connections and parts of the 54th air defense corps. The commanders of the three anti-aircraft missile battalions 204th guards brigade in Kerstovo who were on the flight route of the rust reported that the purpose of watching and ready to launch missiles.
Raised in the air MiG-23, senior Lieutenant puchnina to 15.00 waited until the shift supervisor of the Regional centre of the unified system of air traffic control areas of responsibility of the air force of the Leningrad military district Colonel Timoshin give permission for entrance in the district airspace.
Only 15.23 with the guidance point of the 54th air defense corps pilot were announced to the purpose for its recognition. "MiG" flew to the target at a height of 2 thousand m in a 10-point clouds with the lower edge of 500-600 and the top is 2.5–2.9 K M. rust was almost 1.5 km below, right under the clouds — at a height of 600 m.
When you first enter putnin the target is not found. When re-entering already at an altitude of 600 m, the pilot visually detected a target below 30-50 m and 15.28 transferred to the guidance point her description: "the plane white Yak-12".
On the type of target was reported to the command of the 6th army, but have not taken any decision approving the withdrawal of a fighter. However, the "MiG" was the fuel for another pass and more accurate identification of target and, most importantly, determine its nationality.
The passage between St. Basil's Cathedral and the Kremlin wall. Picture Alliance
"Signal "the Carpet" (requiring an immediate landing. — "Газета.Ru") have not been made", — is emphasized in official documents.
During the investigation, the Rust was a question about whether he had seen the fighter. The German confirmed and said that even welcomed the Soviet pilot, but no response signals are not received. The radio of the Cessna 172R was off.
The report of the pilot of the MiG-23 went unheeded, as the thought that discovered the plane belongs to one of the local flying clubs, which at that time was scheduled flights.
At this time, almost within two hours of the rescue continued the search of rust Finnish side. In connection with the sudden disappearance from the screen of a dispatching radar airport mark aircraft took off from the dispatcher tried to contact Matthias Rust. After several unsuccessful attempts the plane was declared in distress, and the alleged impact area sent rescuers.
The search lasted several hours. Later rust will collect around $100 million for "services rendered".
In 15.31 airfield Tapa was raised a second fighter. Repeated the previous procedure for guidance with the delay before the zone of responsibility of the air force of the Leningrad military district. Only 15.58 at a height of 1.5 thousand meters, the Soviet pilot was in the target area, but visually it was found and returned to the airfield without result. By the time the Soviet radar lost the weak signal from the low-flying single-engine aircraft rust and switched to support reminding his reflections from airborne moisture targets.
This requires a little explanation. In the mid-70s, when adopted RTV PVO began to receive powerful high-potential locators in the course of their field tests became detectable marker with motion parameters commensurate with the characteristics of light aircraft. They jokingly dubbed echo by the angels. This phenomenon has caused serious difficulties with regard to automatic processing of information. Even if the operator can not distinguish them, how to teach a "machine" to work without errors?
In the course of serious studies and mass experiments, it was found that the radar due to the high radiating capacity to observe the specific meteorological features. This phenomenon is typical for the spring period in the mid-latitudes and in the powerful movement of the warm front. In addition, a very similar effect is created by the seasonal migration of dense flocks of birds. The radar operators needed help in the recognition of objects of this class. For the administration of the air defense Forces were developed detailed methodologies and instructions.
Occurred at some point significant changes in the parameters of the target within only one minute not alerted calculation and is left without proper attention. Operators clearly did not have the skills. Furthermore, the loss of radar contact with the plane of the rust occurred at the junction of the boundaries of responsibility of the two formations of air defense, the 14th division and the 54th corps, where the coherence of the calculations command post plays an important, if not decisive, role.
Rising in the future and consistently 15.54 16.25 fighters from the airfield Lodeynoye pole in the Leningrad region came already on the wrong goal.
At this time, along the route of the rust warm front moved to the Southeast. Observed overcast, with occasional rain, the lower edge of the clouds — 200-400 m, the upper edge is 2.5–3 thousand m the Search was carried out for 30 minutes. To descend into the clouds fighters were banned, it was too dangerous.
Only at 16.30 the commander of the 6th army personally informed about the situation on duty on KP Moscow air defense district, having concluded that the purpose of the 8255 is a dense flock of birds. Thus, in current techniques and instructions contained the necessary information about what types of birds and what time of day can fly in the fog and the clouds, and the circumstances under which a dense swarm can change the direction of flight.
If you follow these recommendations, the plane of the rust was impossible to identify the bird flock.
After receiving information from the 6th army of the Moscow district air defense at 16.32 was included radar 2266-nd radio battalion in the town of Staraya Russa of the Novgorod region, and in readiness No. 1 transferred duty crew on Tverskoy airfields Andreapol ' and khotilovo. The rise of the two fighters from there to the target detection has not resulted: the pilots continued to direct Ghost meteorological formations.
In the court of Mathias rust had to answer for violating the Soviet state border, violation of international flight rules and serious offence. Picture Alliance
As it turned out later, lost the intruder in 16.16 was discovered duty radar 1074-th separate radar squadron of the 3rd radio-technical brigade of the 2nd corps of air defense in Tver region. These goals are to 16.47 automatically granted for CP upstream radio battalion.
The CP of the 2nd air defense corps at the special equipment of "proton-2" later found the posting data of the intruder with up to 16.18 16.28, however, due to the low preparedness of the relevant calculations, the information has not been used.
Mathias at this time was located 40 km West of the city of Torzhok, where the day before the crash occurred.
In the air encountered two aircraft — the Tu-22 and MiG-25. On a place of falling of fragments of the machines worked several groups of rescuers and experts for the investigation of the incident. To the place of disaster, people and goods were transported by helicopters aviation unit in the town of Torzhok. One of the helicopters was in the air in the role of liaison repeater. At 16.30 plane rust identified with the helicopter, so no worries it's on this portion of the flight, no one called.
Air situation in the detection area the following units, which included the aircraft of Mathias, was also tense. Here fought with the notorious long-lived meteorological objects. They were observed on the indicator screens of radar already for 40 minutes (and several simultaneously). All objects moved to the South-East. Here rust again got "Amnesty" was withdrawn from support as a weather object. It happened at the exit from the detection zone of the unit.
However, at the command post noticed the exchange rate difference with this track from the previously dropped from track air objects. 16.48 in the decision of the commander of the 2nd air defense corps was raised by two active-duty fighter from the airfield Rzhev with the goal of finding small aircraft or other aircraft to the South-East of the city of Staritsa. Search gave no results.
To 17.36 on KP Moscow air defense district has appeared the Deputy commander, air defense MO Lieutenant General hawk moths, which, considering the situation, within a few minutes, put the task of bringing to readiness No. 1 rescue forces anti-aircraft missile troops of 2nd air defense corps, and ordered to search the target by the radar target illumination systems s-200. This also produced no results because by this time the rust has passed the boundary of responsibility of the above-mentioned case. Tasks covering Moscow 1st army air defense special purpose it was not delivered.
At 17.40 the plane of Matthias were in the area of civilian radars of the Moscow air hub. In terms of the plane did not appear, was flying with violations of the rules, communication with the crew was not. This seriously threatened the safety of air traffic in the Moscow aviation area. To clarify the situation, the administration of the Sheremetyevo airport has stopped receiving and sending passenger liners.
With the concurrence of the joint action plan with the command of the Moscow air defense district, it was decided that civilians will understand the parole violator flights.
When it was discovered that the offending on urban development of Moscow, where flights are generally prohibited to do anything it was too late.
At 18.30 the aircraft rust appeared over the Khodynka field and continued flying to the city centre. Deciding that landing on the Ivanovo area of the Kremlin is not possible, Mathias has made three unsuccessful attempts to land on the red square. The size of the latter allowed to do it, but on the pavement there were a lot of people.
After that, the Germans decided to land on the Moskvoretsky bridge. Turning over the hotel, it began to decline over the Bolshaya Ordynka, turning on the landing lights. Sentry duty of traffic police to avoid the accident on the bridge turned on a red light.
Planting rust performed masterfully, considering that he had a sniper be in the area between the extensions of a contact trolleybus network.
This occurred in 18.55. Pakulev to the Pokrovsky Cathedral and engine off, Mathias got off the plane in new red overalls, put pads under the chassis and started giving autographs.
Cessna on the edge of red square. Picture Alliance
At the first stage began to show the consequences of the reform — the dismemberment of the unified system of command and control air defense of the country between the military districts in 1978.
Air defense troops of the USSR in the second half of the 70's have developed so rapidly that the West recognize their superiority over similar systems of other countries.
Completed re-equipment of the air defense Forces at the latest at the time weapons and military equipment. The air defense system of the country in this period was a single automated organizational and technical complex, which was in constant combat readiness and are continuously improved.
The air borders of the USSR during the cold war are constantly subjected to tests for strength. By the way, back in the mid 70's this beach of the air defense system of the USSR in the North-Western region was a violation of the state border by a light aircraft (such as Cessna, Beechcraft, Rrahi etc.) from Finland.
As a rule, the cause of such incidents was the loss of orientation pilots fans.
However, this case is not treated. April 20, 1978, in the Kola Peninsula crossed the state border passenger plane Boeing 707 South Korean airline KAL. After unsuccessful attempts to force the plane to land, the commander of the 10th army PVO decided to use the weapon. The defense fighter, the su-15 opened fire and damaged the left wing tip of the wing of the liner. He made a forced landing on the ice of lake Korpijarvi in the town of Kem. Killed two passengers, a few people were injured. The actions of the air defense command was later found to be correct, and all the participants of the intercept presented to the state awards.
By the time an influential group of senior officials of the Ministry of defence devised the reform of the Soviet air defense, which included the transfer of more, the best and most efficient part of air defense Troops in the composition of the frontier military districts. Strongly against it were the chief of air defense Forces of the country, Marshal Pavel Batitsky.
In the summer of 1978 adverse decision was made. Corps and division air defense was given to the disposal of the administrative and economic structures, which in practice was military districts. The reform passed in undue vanity. A few years later was made the decision to return troops to its original state, but the damage in AA I remember to this day.
Meanwhile, tensions in the sphere of protection of the state border is not abating. Only in the far East in the early ' 80s, radio operators accompanied the troops on the radar screens near the border more than three thousand objects air annually.
The tragic climax was shot down on 1 September 1983, after the penetration of Soviet airspace by the South Korean Boeing 747.
After that the Soviet Union was declared an "evil Empire", and at the extraordinary session of ICAO, was taken to the third article of the Chicago Convention of 1944 "On international civil aviation", which was forbidden to shoot down civilian aircraft, regardless of, over the territory of the state they were. The Soviet leadership adopted a political decision to limit the use of weapons of air defense Forces. Order of the Minister of defence ordered all forces and means to compel violators to the landing. This document situation is not simplified but rather complicated.
Mathias rust participates in talk shows, 2012. Picture Аlliance/Jazzarchiv
The air defense officers have become hostages of decisions of a political nature. And the procedure for forced landing of such offenders of the state border is not clearly defined so far.
During the approach of rust to the territory of the USSR were violated and "the Holy principle of borders" — the immediate delivery of information on the target to clarify the situation. However, instead of rational analysis of the incident of failure began the search for the perpetrators that surfaced almost immediately.
The country's leadership were removed from their posts three of Marshal of the Soviet Union and about three hundred officers and generals. Human pogrom army did not know literally since 1937.
In the end, the leadership of the Armed forces and of the armed forces came people, an order of magnitude (or even two) lower vocational business and moral character to be filmed marshals and generals.
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