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Corkscrew, a RAM, and a machine gun on a plane: the best Russian pilots of the First world
Material posted: Publication date: 25-09-2016
Exactly 100 years ago, September 24, 1916, Russian pilot Konstantin Artseulov first intentionally performed a corkscrew and brought with him a plane. Future teacher of Valery Chkalov was one of the most famous pilots of the First world, but not the only.

A dangerous maneuver, which became the aerobatics

24 September 1916 at 11 o'clock in the morning "Nieuport-21" the chief of the fighter branch of the Kachin flying school has gained a height of 2 thousand meters, and by the will of the pilot after stalling on the wing went into a tailspin. Artseulov twice carried out a dangerous manoeuvre, making a total of eight turns.

After a few days, the corkscrew was included in the compulsory program of the Kachin flying school, becoming a figure of aerobatics.

Sergey lyushin, Sergei Korolev, and Konstantin Artseulov near the glider "Koktebel"

Hereditary sailor and the grandson of the famous marine painter Ivan Aivazovsky Artseulov met the beginning of world war cavalry. He fought bravely, but the sky was turned. Even in the peace period he became interested in flying and in 1911 became a certified pilot.

In 1915 he was she passed re-certification on a military pilot and has begun reconnaissance flights. In 1916 he was transferred to fighter aviation, where he successfully carried out 18 air battles. By the end of the war he was awarded five military orders.

Lethal ramming Nesterov

After the revolution, Artseulov joined the ranks of the red army, and after the civil war, became an instructor of the 1st Moscow high school red military pilots. One of his pupils was the future hero of the Soviet Union Valery Chkalov.

Even as a young pilot Artseulov with admiration watched air the achievements of other Russian pilot, Pyotr Nesterov. 7 Aug 1913 in Kiev Peter Nikolaevich first in the world performed on his plane "Nieuport-4" loop the loop, which later became known by his name.


Figure pilot Konstantin Artseulov, which shows the plane Peter Nesterov's that performs a "loop the loop"

Unfortunately, this famous pilot was killed in the First world, rammed on 8 September 1914, the Austrian "Albatross", which conducted reconnaissance of the Russian positions.

Hit the enemy and survived

To take this step 27-year-old Lieutenant-captain had due to the fact that in the beginning of the war pilots of all countries were armed with machine guns. It was thought that they are useless, because the main goals of the aircraft was considered as intelligence, adjustment of artillery fire, aerial photography and bombing, but not fights with each other.

For a long time one of my colleagues did not dare to repeat this hazardous manoeuvre. The first was Lieutenant Alexander Kazakov, who, on 31 March 1915 in a dogfight not only rammed a German biplane "Albatross", which was shot down, but more importantly, he landed safely.

During this battle he was later awarded the Golden St. George weapon. It was the first but not the last aerial victory Kazakova.

The best of the best

During the great war (as it was then called the First world) as it was considered that the pilot, who was shot down at least five enemy aircraft. On account of Alexander Kazakova there were 32.

The most productive Russian pilot started his military career in the cavalry. But then got the skills of a pilot in the Officers ' aeronautical school near Petrograd and the beginning of the war met in the Military aviation school.

In December 1914, the Cossacks were sent to the front as a Junior pilot. First performed reconnaissance flights and adjust artillery fire. But he was drawn to his aerial combat as a fighter.

To shoot at close range, for sure

Authorities estimated airmanship, courage and excellent organizational skills Kazakova and appointed him in August of 1915 the head of the 19th corps aviation detachment, making the rank of Lieutenant-captain. During the Brusilov breakthrough in the summer of 1916 Cossacks had four victories, becoming the first Russian AC.

By the time airplanes were massively installed air guns, which greatly increased their firepower. Over time, Kazakova developed his signature style of combat: he fearlessly rushed towards the enemy and opened fire with a little distance to hit the enemy for sure.

The October revolution, the Cossacks did not accept, during the civil war he fought on the side of the whites in Northern Russia. He served as commander of the 1st Slavo-British air detachment, was awarded the rank of major in the RAF.

When the British expeditionary units began to leave Murmansk and Arkhangelsk, 30-year-old Kazakov proposed to sail to London together. But he refused, and on 1 August 1919 died in a plane crash, which knew his officers called a suicide. During their battle, Lieutenant-Colonel of the Cossacks was awarded the 16th military orders.

From artillery to aviation

Another ACE, Lieutenant Yevgraf Kruten, went to the aircraft with artillery. He began flying with the illustrious Pyotr Nesterov before the war, in one crew with him taking part in maneuvers in the Kiev military district in 1913.

On the recommendation of the same Nesterova, he enrolled at the Gatchina military flying school and finished it just in time for the beginning of the war. The young pilot brilliantly coped with the departure on reconnaissance and bombing. In early 1915, the group organized a night sortie to the enemy base in the rear.

He, like many other young pilots thirsted for open battle with the enemy airplanes. In the spring of 1915, was awarded the George cross for bravery and promoted to the rank of captain, Cruceni demonstrative filed a petition for transfer back to the artillery. He was denied.

But the appropriate conclusions bosses made, having soon Crucena the commander of the 2nd army group. July 30, 1915, the pilot claimed his first aerial victory.

It Evgraf Kruten insisted from the leadership of the Russian air force the creation of a special fighter parts. In the end, in the spring of 1916 and he was assigned to lead the 2nd aviation detachment of fighters.

Military pilot, as the fighter aircraft of the First world war, Kruten Yevgraf Nikolaevich
Kroten loved to shoot down enemy planes, bending down under them and suddenly attacking from behind.

Despite his youth, the 26-year-old Evgraf Kruten managed to not only fight in the sky, but also to train young pilots. He owns nine works on the theory of air combat. In them he advocated that flight of fighters in pairs, and described more than twenty ways of air attacks.

He died on 19 June 1917, returning from a combat mission in which he was seriously wounded. His "Nieuport-17" when the landing was in a tailspin and crashed into the ground. On this day captain Yevgraf Kruten knocked Austrian "Fokker", their 17th and last victory.

In the fighting on the Western front

Another successful domestic pilot of the First world is considered to be ensign Vasily Yanchenko. With the outbreak of war he volunteered for the air force, then got a solid theoretical training courses first in Petrograd and then in the Sevastopol military school.

He completed training in the schools of aerobatics and aerial firing in France, where he was sent for training along with a group of Russian pilots in the autumn of 1916.

His martial skills Vasily Ivanovich demonstrated on the Western front, shooting down in air fights of 16 enemy aircraft. Was awarded many orders, in particular, St George's crosses of all four degrees.

Russian officer in the French company

In France, talent, and other ACE, Paul Ageeva, whose fate is reminiscent of the adventure novel. Before the war he served as a Lieutenant in an infantry regiment. Once refused to punish the soldiers, believing him innocent. For this he was sentenced to a month in the guardhouse, and then retired from the army and left Russia.

The war found him in France, where German troops were rapidly coming to Paris. Arge filed a petition for enrollment as a volunteer and in September 1914 with the rank of Lieutenant in a French army fought a fierce battle on the Marne, in which German troops were driven from the capital of the country.

Allied losses were very high. Arge repeatedly was the only officer in his company and by November 1914 was commissioned to captain. He fought bravely, not just leading the counterattack. By the spring of 1915 he was wounded several times and awarded the Military cross and the order of the "Legion of honor".

Since doctors found him unfit for service in the infantry, Paul Arge decided to continue service in aviation. And his request was granted, thinking that to be able to raise the car up in the sky lighter than the lead company in the attack. In the end, in the fall of 1915 the gallant captain received the diploma of the pilot and was accepted for service in the reconnaissance squadron.

But Arge longed for combat, and therefore returned to Russia, attaining the rank of captain. At home, his commitment was appreciated, pointing to the rows of fighter aircraft. He served in the 19th military aviation detachment under the command of Alexander Kazakova. After the latter was transferred to the South-Western front, March 1917 Arge headed the detachment.

In Russian-German front Pavel Vladimirovich achieved six aerial victories. The October revolution was not accepted and again went to France, where he continued to blaze to a world war. There he continued to shoot down German aircraft, scoring nine victories and therefore brought the list of his victories to 15 destroyed by enemy airplanes.

Sergey Varshavchik


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