So it was that the fighting on the Tajik-Afghan border was in the shadow of modern Russian history. The reason, no matter how cynical it sounds, is a strong competition among wars in the late twentieth century, especially for one sixth of the land.
Immediately after the collapse of the Soviet Union on the fringes of the Empire broke numerous fires. Tajikistan was only one of the "hot spots". And without him then the country was a shortage of hot news. And then began the first Chechen war, and ordinary Russians were no longer in the Tajikistan. Citizens were taught according to the "News" completely new geography: Grozny, the Shatoi, Vedeno. So, naturally, today often remembered Chechnya than Tajikistan.
In memory of friend who'll bring a cargo 200 from the border. Friend Sergei, who came back after serving in Khorog Pogo. A sign of respect for the hundreds and thousands of other Russian boys who were on the nesamerigo war. My peers, who had to rush to the hot spots of the broken country. Transcaucasia and Central Asia, Transnistria and the Ossetian-Ingush conflict, Abkhazia and Georgia – all this, unfortunately, was gone into the shadows of our memory of the Chechen war. But there shot not toy bullets. And there, and there was a war.
A short introduction
A little about the history of the Outpost. First, with the 40-ies, Saryarka direction was only border post. And there was an unwritten rule after the guard 100 times was here on patrol, he had the right to carve his name on a huge flat rock that was in the post area. It will be called the Honor Board.
The Hall Of Fame. The dog dick, who first discovered the militants 13 July 1993. After the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, due to the increased importance of this field, it was decided to establish a new Outpost. She got the number 12 and the name "Sari Mountains". 12 post on Yale was 13. The first commander of the Outpost was Oparenko, political officer – Y. Bolmatov. Outpost covered the valley between the ridges, behind her is a road Shuroabad-Kulyab-Dushanbe. At the same time from Afghanistan in the Tajik SSR brought the 201st Gatchina Twice red banner motor rifle division. There she was to wait for the contractions, so soldiers in the division virtually no. But the growth of nationalist sentiment in Central Asia was forced to postpone the reduction. To the division after the riots in Dushanbe in February 1990, when 25 people were killed and 565 wounded (Then the riots turned into pogroms of the streets and quarters of the city, accompanied by massive violence and killings of Russian-speaking population (Russians, Germans, Tatars, Jews, Koreans), once again began to arrive soldiers. The division was again deployed in combat States.
BMP on the Lenin prospect in Dushanbe, 14 February 1990, Also this time in the Uzbek SSR brought 15 Det (separate brigade of special purpose), which will also have an important role to play in the events.
Once in Moscow the actions of the coup in August ' 91 failed, in Tajikistan anti-Communist opposition (motion "Rastokhez"; the democratic party of Tajikistan and the Islamic Renaissance party is the last stage in the organizational design) had received a formal opportunity to speak out against the ruling regime. After enough mass anti-government demonstrations in Dushanbe K. Mahkamov was deposed and returned to power R. Nabiev, K. Mahkamova former first Secretary of the Communist party. At the end of 1991 the first presidential election declared a sovereign Tajikistan he won as a candidate of the Communists, i.e. the ruling groups and de facto "leninabadis". The first few months of his reign, acted with the opposition signed an agreement under which major opposition figures in exchange for their commitment to act in a purely political methods guarantee the inviolability. The political situation in the country became extremely confusing. However, according to historians, were not more profound political contradictions, ethnic and economic — relatively speaking, the conflict between the industrialized North and the backward South (Kurgan-Tyube and Kulyab region). This conflict has gradually come to the fore. The fact of history – in December 1991 in Dushanbe came Anatoly Sobchak. Thanks to his recommendations in Tajikistan was officially registered Islamic Renaissance party of Tajikistan, the only legitimate Islamic party in Central Asia. Karategini (garmy) — the inhabitants of the valleys of rivers. And the Kizilsu surkhab, and Obihingou valley of (valley of Vahie) from Afghanistan in the West to the village of Peldon in the East and pass Khaburabad in the South. In the 1940s-1960s a significant part of Cartegena was resettled to the Vakhsh valley for agricultural development. Karategini make up 25% of the total Tajik population. Culebra (kulobi)- residents of the Eastern and Central parts of Khatlon (25 %). Leninabadi (cogently, Khujandi) — residents of Sogd (former Leninabad region). The total number is 25 %. Pamiris (badakhshanis) — residents of Gorno-Badakhshan AO. Unlike the rest of Tajikistan's population (Sunnis), the Pamiris are Ismaili. The number is 10 % . Gissara — residents of Hissar valley from Pakhtaabad in the West to Faizabad in the East. The number is 10 %.
In this time of shortage of troops on the border was not yet. The Outpost was regularly resupplied. In addition to the November 12 post was 2 future Hero of Russia Igor Filkin Sergey Borin.
Standing left to right: Renat Changerai, Igor Filkin (Hero of Russia, posthumously), Sergey Borin (Hero of Russia,posthumously), Rustam Kurbonov, sitting in the middle row Azamat Zainulin, sitting in the bottom row Sasha Elovikov, S. Kolotygin(the order "For personal Courage",posthumously) appeal the November 1991.Service on the border with Afghanistan has never been easy.
I often hear: why do the bandits invade the territory of Tajikistan, if the borders are guarded by Russian border guards? Let him spit he who has seen these boundaries. Here mountains. Here moonscape. Naked rocks and precipices, and occasionally interspersed patches of herbs and shrubs. Goat trails, and crumbled since then, died here last goat. Lifeless dust hills at the bottom, lifeless stones at the top. Mountain creeping over the mountain and the mountain is covered. The height to the height sometimes of several hundred meters, but between them an impassable chasm, allowing you to fire with impunity from one height to another, without fear of assault.
First thing in combat (and hunting too) in the mountains to reach the enemy. Not to die on countless descents and climbs, not to break the Bank, belly-crawl over rocks over the abyss without any insurance. The only insurance: watch where you put the leg and what is going before you, and not where rolled the stone into the abyss. The only hope is that they will have time to keep coming back. To know, there is no going back, only forward. And if you go back the same trail, wild boar certainly will not find, but find left especially for you ambush. Uphill is slower, but easier, but to go down faster. About ease going to be silent. Down the right side towards the mountain slope, the automatic in his left hand, the other free — to have time to catch during the fall for the rare bristle-bleached grass. Legs without any effort running down a broken path. Occasionally feel a burning desire to sit down and slide down on my ass. Stops just before the bottom will get only the bones.
In the mountains, where distances are deceptive, the air is transparent, can be seen for many miles, and crouched man at first glance indistinguishable from the Bush, a keen observation can save a life. Especially here, on an animal trail of the Tajik-Afghan border, where you can meet not only the action. Boars don't shoot. Rules as old as the hills: you want to kill him, he doesn't want that. If you missed a boar at close range, risking getting fangs in the side. From such wounds likely to survive no more than from gunfire. But here you came and saw the goal. Not so fast: pick a better position — suddenly instead of a couple sticking in the mind of fighters will see something a little stronger than that at the right moment will pop out and make your shot. Perhaps you will not hear... comes To mind a fragment from read once a novel about the struggle of the border guards of the thirties against gangs and smugglers in the mountains of Turkmenistan: "You are the enemy, not just shoot — should be considered. Four will kill, and the fifth Bach from behind a rock! And havent you. Say, "Why not me thought, I was here too!" So die I. Tochten 8 may 1990, the border guard Outpost 12. He went first in RPG (reconnaissance group, descending from the cliff and not being able to wait for the rest — will go to the arrest of two offenders at the ruins of the village Sufficing. And then — unnoticed third shot from behind the bushes.
So, on 2 December 1991, taking the presidential oath, Mr. R. Nabiev has sworn allegiance to the people. The first months, the winter came on, were rather quiet. A new round of confrontation began after the arrest of a prominent opposition leader Maqsood Ikramova 6 March. 11 March Dushanbe city court sentenced one of the leaders "Rastokhez" Mirbobo Mirrahimov — one of the members of the so-called people's Committee of November 1990 to two years ' imprisonment for "slandering the President of the Supreme Council of Tajikistan Safarali Kenjaev". After a series of press conferences organized by the leadership of the opposition in relation to these events, 22 of March in Dushanbe was held a rally in protest against the judicial persecution of the leaders of the Democratic party of Tajikistan. The situation is increasingly tense. The last straw was broadcast live on March 25 for the national television meeting of the Presidium of Tajikistan, on which S. Kenjaev accused the Minister of internal Affairs of Mamagesa Navjuvanov, Pamiri origin, the abuse of power. The charges were made in a very insulting manner. M. Navjuvanov, in turn, accused S. Kenjaev in discrimination against the highlanders. On the morning of 26 March on the square Shahidon (ex. Lenin) in front of the residence of R. Nabiev gathered about 500 people, mostly people from the Pamir. In the next few days their number is continuously growing, the ranks of protesters joined groups from other regions of Tajikistan, mainly garmab and Pamiris who had been there for two months. Began the nomination of political demands, among which the most important were: the resignation of speaker of Parliament S. Kenjaev, and then the entire Parliament, the adoption of a new Constitution, elections to the Supreme Council on the basis of a multiparty system, the termination of the persecution of the opposition.
Supporters of the ruling groups, formally under the auspices of the "Public Committee for the protection of the constitutional system", organized a counter-rally in the square Озоди800 anniversary of Moscow. However, on 4 April, the Ramadan ended and the crowd on Shahidan significantly enriched with peasants, mobilized with active participation of Islamic clerics, traditionally strong in applying the redistribution of power regions. Precatalyst between the authorities and the opposition ended in Dushanbe riots. R. Nabiev, was not expecting this magnitude of anti-government protests and were unable to suppress them by force (the police took a neutral position), and led a policy of maneuvering. On the one hand, he promised the opposition some concessions in the form of certain political reforms in the future, and do everything to save S. Kenjaev and the Parliament, as support for his rule. He put forward as mandatory conditions for the termination of the rally. Chairman of the Democratic party of Tajikistan (RTA) Shodmon Yusuf April 7, gave a provocative statement after which departure from Tajikistan Russian-speaking population took an unprecedented dimension: only until the end of may 1992 from Tajikistan, fearing for his life, fled 20 thousand Russian-speaking residents. Particularly acute events acquired in the last decade of April.
Beginning April 20, XIII session of the Supreme Soviet of Tajikistan R. Nabiev gave the authority the Supreme Commander and awarded him the rank of Colonel. He made threats against protesters. In response, the opposition was given an ultimatum on the resignation of S. Kenjaev, the deadline for which expired at 14.00 on April 21. However, the deputies continued to defend its speaker. The rally responded with a demarche, forming groups of "guards" and sending it to the capture of the Parliament. He was nominated a final ultimatum on the resignation of S. Kenjaev until 12.00 on April 22. To 23.00 on 21 April, the opposition took hostage about 20 people, including 16 members of the armed forces and 2 Deputy Prime Minister. The session was forced to vote for the introduction into the composition of the Supreme Council of the former presidential candidate Saifiddin Turaev, head of the Muslim Qazi-Kalon A. turajonzodah and Vice-chair of the PTA Asliddin Sohibnazarov.
But this decision is overdue. It merely testified to the impotence of Parliament and the President and strengthening the positions of anti-government forces. Things started faster out of control government. Instead Kenjaev was elected speaker of the Pamiri A. Iskandarov. The composition of the Presidium entered kosikalan A. Turgon-zod and other opposition figures. The whole of the Republic on TV saw how happy kosikalan, indicating the former speaker, said Iskandarov: "don't get in this vile Communist a chair. It ruined your predecessors. We will make you a different chair". He, in the manner of their Moscow adherents, held up two fingers ("We won!"). This gesture acted on kalabaw like a red rag to a bull. They could not put up with such blatant bragging of "skydance" and on the night of April 23, arrived in Dushanbe and occupied an area of Ozodi. Culebra, and among them the leader of the party "Oshkoro" Sangak Safarov, supported the President Nabiev and legitimate structures of power. Under their pressure at the FOURTEENTH session of the sun Kenjaev reinstate the speaker. On the same street Rudaki (former Lenin Avenue), five hundred meters from each other, stirred up two opposing rally. April 29 to two rallies on the square and Shahidan Ozodi, has added a third to the square of Sadriddin Aini.
It was organized by the so-called Dushanbe youth, which was a youth thirteen members of mafia groups. So mafias are almost openly entered the political arena. The rally participants adopted a demand, addressed to R. the President, from whom she expected the adoption of measures aimed at resolving the conflict. The President has attempted to suppress opposition by force. May 1, he announced call the "national guard", issued the order on formation of a separate battalion in brigade of special forces and ordered to distribute to participants in Pro-government rally of about 2 thousand machines. May 5, a presidential decree declared a state of emergency, which included the ban of all political parties and rallies, and imposed a curfew in the capital. At the same time on television transmitted the speech of the opposition leaders, who declared that it was in favour of scrapping the current Pro mode, which aims to revive the totalitarian system. Television announcer turned to the Russian-speaking population with assurances that the events in the Republic are not a surge of nationalism, or the result of ethnic conflict and therefore no repression of Russian speaking population will not. On this day, the presidential guard was made an armed attempt to disperse the pickets from local residents that prevented travel to the city of reinforcements to the government supporters from Kulob, resulting in there were dead and wounded. In response, the opposition captured the airport, railway station and the presidential Palace; the trophies were taken: 200 machine guns and 3 armored personnel carrier (according to others towards the opposition moved the General — the chief of the presidential guard — passing opposition about two hundred rifles and four Armored personnel carriers). On national television were made by the opposition leaders calling for Russian-speaking population to remain neutral, and President R. Nabiev, in turn, called on citizens to support the regime of law and order.
Continued secret negotiations of the President with the opposition, accepted the agreement and signed the joint documents, but both parties did not comply with any obligation or conditions. There came a paralysis of power. In residential neighborhoods began forming self-defense groups. During 6-7 may, continued fighting between the presidential guard and the forces of the opposition for possession of the strategically important town facilities. He conducted negotiations between opposition leaders and the government, the opposition and the President. The opposition has put forward the demands: the formation of a coalition government, the resignation of S. Kenjaev, Vice President N. Dustova, attorney-General N. Huvaidulloev, Chairman of teleradiocommittee O. Sayfullaeva, Chairman of the defence Committee F. Niyazov.
At 3 a.m. may 7, R. Nabiev signed a Protocol to meet the demands of the opposition. By 15 o'clock the President's supporters from Kulob began to collect the tents, put them on cars and leave the area of Ozodi. A convoy of trucks began to depart in the direction of Kulyab. They left with fights, breaking through the ring of the enemy on the outskirts of Dushanbe and in several times. The government actually betrayed them. Once Culebra left the city, angry mob "skydance" broke into the building of the Supreme Council and the Council of Ministers, and built there a pogrom. They did not spare the residence of the President, which he narrowly escaped. Appeared casualties. Began a civil war.
All this time the border guards and 201 of the DPA, formally included in the joint armed forces of the CIS (Tajikistan did not want or could not take them under its jurisdiction) was born. In winter and early spring border guards had closed the border completely, but the middle of spring outflow went soldiers from the former Soviet republics, who were returning to their homeland. From April ' 92 outposts, manned just by 40-60%, began to resemble weapons bristling hedgehogs. At this time the main duty steel RPG on clothes at the border, had neither the strength nor the means, therefore, through gaps in the boundary has started to get weapons to the opposition. Supply of 12 outposts at this time was poor throughout ' 92 at the gate arrived only 2 hams, print on their skin made the guards smile, because the animals were older. Helped residents of the nearby village Sarigan, Yes hunt waged by the border guards themselves together with guides from local residents. As 201 division, the guards in the inner Tajik disassembly does not get involved. Rescued the situation with replenishment that neighboring Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, which didn't want to get side loaded with a barrel of gunpowder in the form of Tajikistan, and began to transfer the Russian border guards on their borders (replacing them arrived compatriots from the Soviet army). But this was not enough, and finding the officers ' meeting decided to appeal to Russian President Yeltsin to transfer of border units and 201 of the DPA under the jurisdiction of Russia. At the same time, in neighbouring Uzbekistan Chirchik worried special forces team. Most hotheads urged to get equipment and crews to go to Russia. Saved the situation that the brigade commander Vladimir Kvachkov and the heads of the defense Ministry of Uzbekistan were able to agree and promise that all who want to continue their service in Russia will be able to transfer, but not immediately. And the leaders of Uzbekistan its promise to keep.
Vladimir Vasilievich Kvachkov.
Wojcicki and arcici. May-September 1992. The period of greatest successes of the Islamic opposition.
Khatlon region originated in the merger of Kurgan-Tyube and Kulyab regions. May 7, protesters on the square Shohidon the opposition in winning the heat broke in the building of the Supreme Council and the Council of Ministers, and built there a pogrom. They did not spare the residence of the President, which he narrowly escaped. In different parts of Dushanbe was shooting, there were casualties.
On may 10 the officers of the KNB (national security Committee of Tajikistan) addressed to officers of the Ministry of interior, Dushanbe garrison (201-I of the DPA) and the guards (all three departments are next door) with a call to support each other if someone will be attacked or will start riots in homes where military families live. All declared their neutrality, only the meeting of the officers of the military garrison, underlining its commitment to neutrality, has said it is ready to protect the families of officers of any of these agencies. This time the crowd from the square, moved to the KNB building, deciding what's hiding the President and demanding that he comes out to meet people. Were tight, fat column, some had machine guns, among people moving out of the APC with loopholes trunks. But when people came to the building of CSS and began to dismantle the barbed wire, security forces had opened fire. About 8 people were killed and about 10 wounded. According to other sources close to CBN shots rang out, shooting began. Who started it is unknown. And then Colonel V. Zabolotnyy, commander of the 201st mechanized infantry division, in accordance with the decision of meeting of officers, and despite the Russian government, ordered the armed group from five tanks, three APCS and one armored personnel carrier to cover the approaches to the CBN building and the house in which live the families of employees of national security Committee, and to block the street. The battle was ordered not to enter. After the release of armored vehicles out of the gate the firing stopped, drove the car "ambulance", began to evacuate the dead and wounded. According to other sources, the firing stopped after the armor still fired some shots. (later, the opposition leaders have recognized the actions of V. Zabolotnyi and give him my apologies)
The crowd returned to the square Shohidon, where the rally resumed with renewed vigor. Now condemned killers from the KGB and the occupants of the CIS, interfered in the internal Affairs of a sovereign state. Tonight on television the Chairman of the PTA (democratic party of Tajikistan), Shodmon Yusuf in the abrupt manner stated, that in the event of further intervention forces of the CIS in the case of the Republic, it reserves the right to seek the help of Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan. At the same time he warned that because of the intervention of the military "the Russian-speaking population in Tajikistan becomes a hostage." Press conference "Democrat" was shown on TV three times — "hostages" in a panic, began hastily to pack. Official Moscow, knowing that in Tajikistan is home to about half a million Russian-speaking, such an attack but did not respond. "Human rights activist" E. Bonner, taldice on safeguards for human rights, at the same time wrote that Tajik to get involved in the events of "no Russian business".
Already on 11 may, on the negotiations between the government and the opposition demanded the President's resignation, the abolition of the armed forces (Supreme Council) and the creation of a National Council (Majlis). At the same time sh. Yusuf and D. Usmon stated that the property of a military garrison should be nationalized and continued presence of CIS troops in Tajikistan is impractical. During this day there was concluded an agreement on the formation of a government of national reconciliation, in which 11 out of 24 of the Cabinet posts were given to "hamcam" ("karacehennem") and "Pamiri people" that formed the basis of the so-called "Islamic-democratic" opposition got it and half of the seats in the Majlis. Akbar Turgon-zod turned to the protesters with words of reconciliation. He said that everything should be done according to the law, and Nabieva — so as not to cause a fratricidal war — to keep the President up to new elections. As a result, not having a major impact on the situation in the Republic, Rakhmon Nabiyev retained his post.
Akbar (Hojiakbar) Turgon-zod on may 14 protesters in the square Shohidon dispersed. Not versed in the politics of simple farmers, who performed the role of extras in the dirty game of foreign and Moscow-based professionals who returned to their villages. In Dushanbe grew quieter, although at night in different parts of the city heard the shots. Earned public transportation. But in Tajikistan, the conflict ceased. The conflict has spread in the villages and cities of Kulyab and Kurgan-Tyube regions. The center of gravity of the opposition moved to the countryside and acquired a purely military character. With spring in all parts of the Republic was created ethnically and politically clean area, villages were burned to the ground the loser. The situation was complicated by the fact that a large role in the Pro-presidential faction was "Culebra", they always depended on food imports, and and it is one of those districts that were "Islamists", so for them the victory was a matter of survival.
The outbreak of fratricidal war in the summer and fall of 1992 brought countless disasters to the deaths of many innocent people. The Central government was virtually non-existent, and the power structures in the face of the Ministry of internal Affairs and national security Committee of the Republic declared its neutrality. At the end of may from Kulyab and Kurgan-Tyube began to receive reports of destabilization, and the placement of armed groups Pro-government forces and the opposition in different localities. This will continue to be given the balance of forces, although, strictly speaking, by this time, the content of the notions "opposition" and "power of government" has changed radically: the former opposition became supporters of the government, and Culebra supporting R. Nabiev, became the opposition. In early June, sharply increased the percentage of travel outside of the Kulyab region supporters of the PTA and ipvt (Islamic Renaissance party of Tajikistan), as well as "Rastokhez", fearing persecution by the mullahs H. Sharifov and Sangak Safarov, who stood at the head of the Kulyab forces. In view of this situation session of the Leninabad oblast Council adopted a decision on the transition of all enterprises in the region under its jurisdiction. President R. Nabiev told the correspondent of "Nezavisimaya Gazeta" and "Fifth wheel" that he had received an invitation to become President of Leninabad. In fact, Leninabad guide is not recognized by the Central government. Established a new balance of power between North and South (regional kind of dual power).
Detailed map of Tajikistan.
From 28 June, fighting broke out between troops and Islamist forces kalabaw, becoming more systematic, violent and criminal nature. 1 July due to the deterioration of the situation in the South, the government adopted a decree on protection of particularly important objects in the Republic. This decision was agreed with the Russian defence Ministry. Parts of the 201st mechanized infantry division was responsible for guarding the Nurek, Yavan electro-mechanical plant, Vakhsh nitric-fertilizer plant, a number of military facilities, as well as several sections of roads on mountain passes along the border of the Kulyab and Kurgan-Tyube regions.
South of the border began a regular and increasingly large-scale attempts of crossing the Tajik-Afghan border to purchase weapons. Back to back Tajiks and Afghan instructors. The scope of this activity is evidenced by the fact that during the period from may 1992 until early 1993, border guards detained more than 1,000 offenders, including Afghans, who had seized about 500 small arms. Only one represented, the driver of a mosque, with the assistance of a functionary of ipvt A. Jalolov of the collective farm. Gorky Ahtarskogo district, ferried to Tajikistan 14 Afghans who fought then in the area of the collective farm. V. Kuibyshev. According to conservative estimates, at the territory of the Republic in summer and autumn 1992, acted 500-600 Afghan Mujahideen. The government delegation of Tajikistan headed by the Minister of foreign Affairs H. Kholiknazarov agreed during negotiations with the leaders of Afghanistan B. Rabbani, and A. Shah Massoud, on the stabilization of the Afghan-Tajik border, however, this did not affect the border situation.
26-27 July in the city of Khorugh, the administrative center of GBAO, there was a meeting of representatives of the official authorities, political parties, political movements. It was attended by representatives of Kulyab, Kurgan-Tyube regions, Garm region, as well as Iput, DPT (sh), movement "Rastokhez" (Abdujabbor). From the leadership of the Republic took part the acting Chairman of the Supreme Council A. Iskandarov. The meeting developed the terms of the armistice between the warring parties. According to them, July 28 from 10 o'clock declared a ceasefire throughout the territory of Tajikistan. Provided for the release of hostages, withdrawal of armed checkpoints with highways and the liberation of occupied buildings and objects, the disbanding of armed groups surrender weapons, etc. the Agreement entered into force on the 27th, but it was immediately called into serious question. Immediately after the signing of the military leader of kalabaw S. Safarov stated that before the illegal, in his opinion, the government would resign, his men of arms do not pass. Similarly entered and S. Yusuf, reported that all foreign armed groups, including border troops, must immediately leave the territory of the Republic. On the same day — 27th July at the farm-College. Kuibyshev Kurgan-tube between the two sides there was a fierce clash. Killed more than 30 people. Thanks only 191 military regiment of the 201st Russian motorized rifle division, performed the role of the separation of forces, managed to prevent further bloodshed. Despite the fact that the military had adhered to a neutral position, the regiment commander E. Merkulova the opposition has accused of meddling in the internal Affairs of the Republic and raised the question of the withdrawal of CIS troops from Tajikistan.
According to the Kulob regional Executive Committee, the number of refugees as a result of clashes in June and July amounted to 132 thousand people. Despite the government's assertions about the return of the Uzbek population in residence, the flow of cars with refugees from the southern regions of Tajikistan do not dry out. This is admitted even by the opposition press that reported in those days: "a large group of people left their homes in Kolkhozobad, Khorramshahr, Bohtar, Vakhsh, Cobadian, TUS. Among them Tajiks, Tatars, locity, katagans, kangurti, Russians, Uzbeks and others". During 9-11 August, the Presidium of Tajikistan tried to collect parliamentarians to the session of the th, where, among other things, was supposed to enact legislation limiting the power of the President R. Nabiev. The session was managed to open only in the afternoon of August 11, and the 12th member of Gustav proposed to eliminate the presidential institution in the Republic. On 24 August, the Islamic militants was killed, the Prosecutor General of Tajikistan N. Huvaidulloev. The murder has caused a public reaction. In the village of Pangas Asht, Leninabad region, the home of the deceased Prosecutor in Kulob, there were mass meetings at which sharply condemned the government of national reconciliation. In Pangasa were closed almost all the mosques, burned the property of the mosques and discontinued operations the clergy.
From the diary who was then living in Tajikistan Marat janowicz of Hakala: "24.08.92. Today, in 8 hours 15 minutes in three hundred meters from our house in front of Missionery killed a public Prosecutor N. Huvaidulloev. He drove his wife to work, Here it caught, and after my wife entered the building, the Prosecutor brought out and shot out of the machine. Killed the driver. Then the killer move in office "Volga" and disappeared. The entire country is shocked. Entered a phase of terrorism. In Ahtarskom district Kurgan-Tyube region clashes continue. Kill people, burn houses. There were refugees. Already killed about 1000 people. Who is fighting whom is not too clear. According to one version it Culebra with germamy, on the other — some third force. On the border with Afghanistan breakouts on the side with the weapon. Reported that in the hands of warring factions in Tajikistan have between 13 to 15 thousand barrels.
The criminalization of the situation was growing, and in Dushanbe. When the opposition felt that in four months the Board, she created a "coalition government", nothing good happened, she returned to protest the elements. August 31, 1992 in Dushanbe passed mass demonstrations of the "Islamists". Groups of Islamists had blocked the presidential Palace. Nabiev, NSC warned, took refuge in the arrangement of the 201st division. Not finding the Palace of the President, the Islamists began to take hostages. There were demands to inform the people about the resignation of the President. After that Nabiyev finally lost control of the situation. By the evening of September 1 at the residence there were 32 hostage — natives of Leninabad and Kulyab regions, one of which was brutally murdered. Condition for their release, the refugees have put the immediate resignation of the President and for a persuasiveness dense forest from the window of the building was visible grenade launcher. In a telephone conversation with speaker of the Supreme Council Iskanderova A., Nabiyev said that he's not going to retire, and "let them shoot the hostages, if you want". The hostages were released. In connection with these events in Leninabad province announced the establishment of the "National guard" in number of 2 thousand people. 2 September all members of the Cabinet of Ministers signed a statement demanding the resignation of the President. From the Leninabad region was delivered a letter from the provincial deputies with the consent to join those who expressed confidence in the President. These events marked the beginning of the agony of power R. Nabiev, who lost the support of the Leninabad clan in order to preserve their positions were ready to change political figures. By 20 o'clock the members of the Cabinet signed a joint statement of no confidence in the President. It was decided on 4 September at 14 o'clock open session Wed, but she was not held for lack of quorum. The office of the President through the permanent mission of Tajikistan in Moscow has extended the statement in which has accused the Islamists in the aggravation of the situation and the attempted dismemberment of the Republic.
Sangak Safarov (foreground) In Kurgan-Tyube, a little more than a week were in the hands of kalabaw, began a new round of war. September 4 in front of the regional Executive Committee gathered supporters of the President. During his speech S. Safarov armed units of the PTA ipwt and took protesters into the ring and opened fire. At the same time with the support of armored vehicles they managed to capture key locations in the city, snipers took up positions on the roofs of high buildings. In the city of the massacre, including the village of Urgut (marginal urban quarter), inhabited by Uzbeks come from under the Samarkand. Thousands of people flocked for protection under the 191-th SMEs in the adjacent village. University, when crossing the bridge in a crossfire, killing many civilians.
On the territory of the military town was saved and the other refugees: Russians, Tatars and Tajiks loyal to constitutional authority. There were also military families. The opposition is savage, in the city everywhere lay dead. It was hot, the bodies decomposed. To remove them had a military Colonel Merkulov. Often buried in the yards of houses. The DPT leader Yusuf S. for the first time distanced themselves from the actions of Islamists. By 7 September, the refugees from the village of Lomonosov on the machines were transported to Kulyab. At the same time in Qurghonteppa, the Islamists have announced a call in "the regiment of national self-defense". From that day in the Vakhsh valley bloody battle has not stopped. Tajiks kill their Tajiks. Was the height of the civil war. Warring factions divided into "lovchikov" and "yurchikov". Where did these names it is difficult to establish, but they are widespread.
"Voicecam" were supporters of Wahhabism. In their ranks fought mostly garmezy, karategini and Pamiris. Their ideological inspiration was the Islamic Renaissance party. However, some religious leaders carried the people not only the word of God — the Mullah Abdugaffor during the Kurgan-Tyube events always went with the pistol in his belt. Religious fanaticism Tajik Wahhabis surprised and shocked the whole world. They not only kill their enemies, but also mocked his victims, used by medieval torture. After clashes in separate districts of the Vakhsh valley, on television showed burnt houses, and piles of corpses who had cut off the noses, ears and genitals. And at the same time, some Russian media reported that Tajikistan came to power a young and fragile democracy that should be supported.
Opponents of "lovchikov" were "urcite", which included mostly Culebra, as well as representatives of Khujand and all "netjini": Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Turkmens, Tatars, and even Russians. "Urcite" supported constitutional government, were for the friendship of peoples, for a secular state without pressure on the part of Islam (they also say that this name is connected with the name of Andropov). "Urcite" fought with "vovchikus" according to the same laws of war, often by the rules of revenge, but they never called for the mass shedding of blood. They killed the opponents without using violent manner. So to speak — they "fought more fairly." And, perhaps that is why the common people of the Vakhsh valley, escaping from the terror of militant fundamentalists who ran it in Kulob under the protection of Sangak Safarov and mollah Haydar.
September 7, at 14.00 President R. Nabiev secretly went to the airport to take a flight to Khujand. But there he was identified and blocked the crowd, which consisted mainly of criminal elements. After a while arrived to the airport 4 tanks, 1 BTR and 1 BMP 201st mechanized infantry division, and 4 Armored personnel carriers of the Ministry of interior of Tajikistan, surrounded the airport. Their goal was to prevent physical violence against the President. Approximately at 16.30, after a meeting with members of the Supreme Council of Tajikistan, the President signed the resignation. This event ended the period of greatest political achievements of the so-called opposition (ipvt, PTA and "Rastokhez"). However, by this time, due to the extremist position of the PTA it has lost most of its followers in the South, it is significantly distanced northerners, "Rastokhez" has almost disappeared; the main force was ipvt.
In the following days, the fighting continued and the cases of crossing the border with weapons. By 15 September in the village. Lomonosov on the outskirts of Kurgan-Tyube, prikryvayas 191st SMEs, newly accumulated up to 16 thousand refugees. It was noted that the fighting gradually became more and more unpolitically character. There were cases of blood revenge. Both sides in the fighting was attended by the mercenaries, as well as a significant number of criminal elements released from prisons Kulyab and Kurgan-Tyube. For the last ten days of September the fighting was steadily shifted to the area of the Nurek hydroelectric power station, protected by units of the 201st mechanized infantry division, where Culebra, breaking through the pass Chormagzak on the right Bank of the Vakhsh river on the highway Kulyab-Dushanbe, tried to develop the offensive on the capital.
Conducted these actions S. Safarov. In Kurgan-Tyube, Kulyab, at the head of the troops stood L. Langariev. It was reported almost complete destruction of infrastructure in the Vakhsh valley, the lack of power, the hundreds of corpses on the roads, the unprecedented cruelty shown by both sides. In the fighting in the ranks of the Islamists participated mercenaries: as from other CIS republics (Russia, the Baltic States, the Caucasus), and units of Afghans, as well as instructors-the Arabs. The approval of the official Dushanbe that Russian do not touch, absolutely not true. The nature of the action these days testified that military operations on the part of kalabaw who were trying to block supply routes of reinforcements and ammunition to the Islamists, was designed by military experts. Turned anti-Russian campaign, during which all of the victims of both warring parties began to be attributed to the Russian-speaking population. Open spread fake, including videos. Head of General M. Ashurov — the new commander of the 201st mechanized infantry division — was declared a reward of 5 million rubles.
Opposition in the military-political attitude began to depend on Garm Islamists that pushed from her the residents of Dushanbe, Kurgan-tumentsev and badakhshani. Increased support Kulyab supporters of the Popular front. Uzbekistan started to supply them with weapons. On the territory of Uzbekistan were formed, armed and trained troops of Uzbeks from Tajikistan. Among them stood a former officer of the Soviet Army, the participant of the Afghan war Mahmud Khudoiberdyev. In early September, these groups seized the Gissar valley, where there was a new grouping of "yurchikov" — Hissar-Tursunzadevski.
Mahmud Khudoiberdyev (foreground) on 21 September at a closed meeting of the Supreme Council and Cabinet of Ministers were announced the new requirements of kalabaw, including: the convening of the regular session of Parliament in Khujand aimed to evaluate the circumstances of the resignation of Nabiev R., restore it in post; the establishment of the arbitral Tribunal to clarify the relationship between Kulyab and Kurgan-Tyube regions; inclusion of representatives of all regions of Tajikistan in the composition of the Republican delegation to the meeting of CIS heads of governments in Bishkek; the removal from their posts in the Government of national reconciliation of individuals, launched by the opposition (Deputy Prime Minister D. Usmon, Chairman of the radio and television Mirrahimov M., Deputy Chairman of the KNB D. Aminova, head of Muslims A. Turajonzoda). Among the requirements of kalabaw was that to stop the radio and s and n and (call to prayer).
Session Leninabad oblast Council condemned were in Khujand R. Nabieva, who is in the relationship with Russia continued to behave as President. It was a peculiar step for the rapprochement of positions of the official authorities (government and Parliament) and led to an attempt to negotiate Khujand with Dushanbe, but also opened the path of promotion to high positions of hogettes. A decree was issued by the acting head of state, the Chairman of the Supreme Council A. Iskandarov on the appointment of acting Prime Minister Abdumalik abdullajanov, who headed the state concern "Non" (ex. The Ministry of bread products).
From the diary who was then living in Tajikistan Marat janowicz of Hakala: "25.09.92. This week is the confrontation between collabname and the other party. Culebra blocked Nurek, were clashes with casualties on the pass the ball-the Ball. Now the border runs along the pass Chormagzak. Kafirnihon (former ordzhonikidzeabad) create self-defense units. In Dushanbe increased crime situation. No one is disarming. Acting President Iskandarov issued a decree on the establishment of the officers of the KNB Mudi groups to restore order in the city. Kurgan-Tyube region all continuing armed clashes. There are a lot of refugees. Rahmon Nabiyev is located in Khujand..."
On 25 September there was an attack by Islamists on the village. Lomonosov, among the large group of refugees. The Islamists penetrated into the village and, pushing officers 191-th SME, massacred. September 27, Kulob was captured by armed detachments of Langari Langariev, supporting popular Front that also had much more civilian casualties. Were destroyed administrative buildings and residential quarters. The number of the killed and wounded amounted to several hundred people. Were killed 13 workers the Department of internal Affairs of the region, including its head A. Dodihudoev. The wheels of the war reversed, the popular Front of Tajikistan began to push the opposition...
The popular front of Tajikistan, and "bats"
In previous articles, I though, and called the troops "yurchikov" people's Front of Tajikistan, but he did it only to make it easier to understand who and what fought.
Since the summer of 1992, concerned the governments of the neighbouring countries (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Russia and Kyrgyzstan), which does not relish the prospect of an Islamic state next, begin to conduct negotiations and consultations. The thing is that in Northern Tajikistan are rich deposits of uranium ore. Even the United States, and a recognized advocate for democracy, imagine what will happen if these deposits will fall into the hands of radical Islamic militants (and then the Tajik Islamists won and in neighboring Afghanistan, P. Rabbani became President), tacitly accepted Russia's actions.
The above-mentioned countries, in addition to humanitarian aid deliveries, it was decided to support the troops, at that time scattered, who fought with the Islamic opposition. 1 September 15 Det (separate brigade of special purpose GRU, which were subordinated to the Republic of Uzbekistan) in Uzbekistan conducted a combat operation, which was released Uzbek island, captured by the Afghans. But after a day the brigade guarding a caravan of relief goods coming in Kurgan-Tyube. Next, from the officers of the brigade formed the recon team special forces (commander was Vladimir Kvachkov), about a hundred people who were sent advisers to commanders of the largest groups of "yurchikov". It is they, the officers of the middle command, after study and analysis of the political situation in the Kurgan-Tyube region belonged to the initiative of uniting disparate forces opposing the establishment in Tajikistan the Islamic state in the popular front of Tajikistan. The basis NFT amounted to disparate armed groups "yurchikov". The name of the movement was invented in one night and then developed a common programme of action. Head NPT was unequivocally assigned Sangak of Safarov. Here is described Sangaku one of the officers:
Two decades he spent in prison, he for 50 years, a native Malabar, an ardent supporter of socialism, the enemy of fundamentalism, he, with the developed skill of survival, hard, strongly marked leader, cunning and wise. Broad swarthy face gave a certain severity in the scar on the upper lip. It's very stilted and flowery, simple and clear. I saw spellbound listening to his speeches by local residents. He was really "little Lenin" in the Vakhsh valley. Sangak talks about the problems of the city, the Vakhsh valley, on enemies and friends. The latter include Russia, which he was raised, brought up, gave the bread, wife, children, grandchildren, friends. About jail word. Wanted in old age to devote himself to the education of grandchildren, but "Vovchik" prevented.
Recognition for the officers-members of spetsnaz came quickly. Operational officers, having no practical experience in guerilla warfare, but learned well the lessons taught by the Afghan Mujahideen during the execution of military duty in Afghanistan enthusiastically took up a new business. Behind them was the recent war in Afghanistan. Professionals, look indifferently at how the first time fighting, it was impossible. To the question — "Who taught you that? the answer was daunting — "Watching action movies on video...". Had to break movie stereotypes, a lot of things, without which a normal combat operation fail. Later, when the authority of the advisors will be untouchable to them, even the elders will be treated with the respectful prefix to a name "aka". But even their officers, had seen much in life, sometimes shook:
What's going on!.. Pass the ball-the Ball we counted thirty-victims of bandits Mullah Adjika. In one house I saw the corpse of a raped twelve year old girls. Her cheeks and neck were bite marks, stomach ripped... Next to her in the corner lay another dead ball of her six-year-old brother. In the ravine lay the corpse of their mother with his trousers... don't forget the gravel pit a few miles South of Kurgan-tube, filled with dead bodies kalabaw, partly gnawed by dogs. There counted more than three hundred and fifty corpses. Cut all in a row, not looking at gender and age, whole families and villages.
Were among the commanders NFT and colorful personality. Action faisaly Saidov, who played an important role in the defeat of the armed opposition groups in the Kurgan-Tyube region deserve mixed reviews. Commandos jokingly called faisaly "Batko Makhno", for his anarchism and other "virtues" inherent in the Nestor. Even the tactics of the RAID action bacoi (guys the Taj.) Faisaly was akin to the tactics of raids, Makhno carts. RAID brigade "mechanized brigade name faisaly" on several armored personnel carriers, a dozen trucks and cars (including a homemade armored Trucks and ambulances), with the support of one or two tanks were immediately hit by the combat Outpost of the enemy (post cover) and broke into controlled "vovchikus" town. As you clean bacoi faisaly captured equipment, weapons and prisoners.
The last was delivered personally to the commander. The time and place of the next RAID "mechanized brigade" the enemy always remained unknown. In their plans Saidov did not devote even the immediate environment. But if people faisaly came to the village of the opposition (the "Makhno" participation in hostilities did not accept, citing the refusal of direct participation in hostilities wound of a foot) he left some embers. The order to destroy homes of opposition supporters of bachai faisaly performed unconditionally. For the slightest disobedience "father" and could be shot. Your order to burn down the house Saidov explained the lack of motivation of the enemy to contracturally action — "if the house of lovchikov fire destroyed — they have nothing to win". Without krysi head over all population of Kurgan-tube, supporting supporters to overthrow the government, in the person of castolon Turajonzoda, the Tajik and the leader of Wahabi Mullah, Abdullo, by the end of 1992 was in Afghanistan.
This scheme is the situation at the beginning of November 1992. Source book, S. Kozlov, etc. authors (last of the GRU special forces) "special Forces of the GRU. Fifty years of history, twenty years of war," the 1st volume.
September 28 get the order 16 Det GRU of Russia. In the form part of the participation of special forces in the war will be reflected, briefly and succinctly: 28.09. on 30.11.1992 G. 370-669 th and th of ospn (K-ry — Chekunov and breslavsky) in the amount of 402 people carried out tasks for strengthening of protection and defense of military and government facilities in the Republic of Tajikistan. 29 – raise the alarm 3 Det GRU, September 30, from a military airfield Kinel, will be 5 on the sides of the Il-76 was sent to the Republic of Tajikistan, to restore constitutional order. The team carried out the tasks on protection of strategic objects of the Republic's leadership and representatives of the Government of the Russian Federation. Form parts: From September 1992 to March 1993, the brigade participated in the fighting in Tajikistan. Dushanbe, Kulyab. The forces of "Pyanj", "Moscow", the area Dusti and partially kalaikhum. CM, together with RP FPS in the interests of the group, the protection of the Ambassador and family, activities Vovchikus and most radical Urcecam.
In late September, the border troops and the 201st mechanized infantry division were placed under the jurisdiction of Russia. From Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan starts to become addicted, which came in handy, because by the time the outposts were manned by 30-50%, better than the picture and was in the division, most of the soldiers which, as the Tajiks, simply fled. At the Outpost will become addicted, which soldiers jokingly call the Germans. Because most of the guys will be part of the Western Group of Armies deduced from Germany. One of the guys and my friend from school Alex. Unfortunately and weapons, and arming the border guards and 201 division at that time was still bad.
October 92. The situation at the Nurek, Kurgan-Tyube, Hissar and Dushanbe are very complex. In Nurek going positional battles using military equipment, ignited the house, the city was paralyzed. The Kurgan-Tyube region is cut off from the Republic, in Kolhozabad, Growth, Kuibyshevsky district are fights, there are numerous victims.
Taken from the book Sucholeski A. V. "15 SWAT team"
From the diary who was then living in Tajikistan Marat janowicz of Hakala: "17.10.92. The day before yesterday there was an attempted hostage-taking in Dushanbe's school # 8. The Islamic party demanded that the military unit of the Russian Federation destroyed military equipment belonging to Culebra. In the Vakhsh valley fighting continues in Kolkhozabad and Walah. Many refugees in Dushanbe. There was hope for the peacekeeping part of Kyrgyzstan, but the armed forces of Kyrgyzstan decided not to send. Now Karimov D. asks CIS to help in this direction. Bad bread is a large queue. In Kulob just give 100 grams per person. In Dushanbe, stealing cars, robbing garages and Parking lots. Extortion, and murder. In the Vakhsh Nurek through the blown up bridges. HPP guarded by the military of the 201st division of the Russian Federation."
On the night of 24 on 25 October 1992 the popular front made the first, but unsuccessful attempt to storm Dushanbe. The invasion of the city began at 5 o'clock in the morning, from the West invaded, the militias headed by the former Chairman of the Supreme Council of Tajikistan S. Kenjaev and one of the leaders of the popular front R. Abdurahimova. First, an armed group took control of the office of the President, the second — the building of the Supreme Council. The third group, headed by Kenjaev and Abdurakhimov, went to the House radio and then television. To run the television due to the lack of specialists are unable, at this time Rustam Abdurahimov on the radio announced Kenjaev by the President. However, the basic units NFT from the South and entered the city, although the battle one of the commanders of detachments NFT L. Langariev that night received a severe wound, from which later died. As a result, "Wojcicki" were able to seize the initiative and re-occupy key positions in the city.
An interesting detail – in the city all this time drove a car with a loudspeaker 201 of division and offered to take refuge in a military town. At first this was used by "Vovchik", and after his defeat – "urcite". At night, undercover forces of the division they are being evacuated. But in the clashes at the pass, perish R. Abdurahimov will be wounded C. Kenjaev.
In the afternoon of October 26, Sangak Safarov in the presence of Y. Salimova, F. Saidov, as well as heads of law enforcement bodies of Kulyab region shifted D. Rizaeva. The new Chairman was Emomali Rahmonov, formerly simple former Chairman of the kolkhoz. Noticed, nominated and supported Rakhmonov Safarov will make a brilliant career, becomes President of Tajikistan. Sangak from the post refused, prompted that wants nothing more than to spend my old age.
In the beginning of November in Tajikistan will make visit the Minister of foreign Affairs of Russia A. Kozyrev, where in Qurghonteppa will meet with the leadership NFT. November 11 "Vovchik" capture the pass the ball-the Ball, as it turned out later, the protection of the pass by about 10 policemen and fighters of the Popular front – after celebration of Day of the Soviet militia was caught off guard and captured without resistance pulled up on two Trucks "vovchikus", but Rakhmonov will be able to get through to advisers and as a result quick and decisive action SWAT the pass will again be in the hands of PT.
From the diary who was then living in Tajikistan Marat janowicz of Hakala: "08.11.92. Yesterday started the trains running. Three days the movement was interrupted due to the fact that in the area of Khanaka was blown way. The city is guarded by troops of the 201st division of the Russian Federation. On the recommendation of the CIS (Russia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan) established the state Council of the Republic. Now here the representatives of these countries as observers. The Chairman of the state Council appointed acting President Iskandarov, but Culebra it does not recognize it. Until the 20th of November will hold a session of the Supreme Soviet. In the city of bad products — Dushanbe practically blocked. Go Russians, Uzbeks, Pamiris and leninabadi. In the period 24-25 November left the country the American Embassy. They say that castolon A. turajonzodah appointed Ambassador of the Republic of Tatarstan to Saudi Arabia, and Chairman PTA sh — Ambassador to Russia, but his credentials had not accepted. Offset Prime teleradiocommittee. Came Russian foreign Minister Kozyrev, who was acquainted with the Affairs in the Republic and, in particular, with the position of the Russian-speaking population. ".
On 16 November at the Palace of culture kolkhoz Urunhodzhaev in the village Arbob under Khujand was held the official opening of the 16th session of the Supreme Soviet of Tajikistan. The beginning of the opening session was attended by 197 people's deputies. The meeting was opened by the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic A. Iskandarov. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet in full force resigned, the Deputy Turaev was invited to lead a session from one of the deputies. The majority of MPs voted for the election of presiding at session of one of the oldest deputies H. Tabarov. On November 19, MP from Hissar constituency A. Mirzoev has put forward on a post of the Chairman of the Supreme Council "of Culebra" Emomali Rakhmonov, Deputy H. Gafurov has nominated I. Jeeva, former Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Tajik SSR, who immediately recused himself. In the end, by an absolute majority of parliamentary votes Emomali Rakhmonov was elected Chairman (voted by 186 deputies, against 11). The Prime Minister was elected Abdulajanov. It was also an appeal to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Russia with an appeal to enter in the Tajikistan peacekeeping force. Ten days later on November 26 commanders of the "people's democratic army" and Kulyab armed groups signed in Khujand peace agreement.
At this time SWAT officers abusively newly created part of the interior Ministry and the KNB. Preparations for a new assault on Dushanbe. At the urgent request of military advisers NFT familiar with "Makhnovism" individual field commanders of the Front, to the capture of key facilities in Dushanbe were involved only newly formed units of the interior Ministry and KNB Tajikistan. It is the lawlessness of warlords in the capital, special forces feared most, charging the seizure of several hundred hastily-trained government troops. Armed detachments NFT in the operation to capture the capital was given its own task — distraction on the main forces of the two factions of the armed opposition. Military experts had to work hard to keep F. Abdullaev, from the capture of the capital and to convince him of the need to conduct a diversionary RAID. RAID team completed the task, coming through several times to the Eastern outskirts of the capital. On the way back, the squad was ambushed, when the conditional to the front line has remained little more than ten kilometers. The situation was so complicated that I had to resort to using helicopters of army aviation, located at the airport of Kokoity in neighbouring Uzbekistan.
Although the squad suffered losses, the plan for the operation was a success, the enemy moved to the East from the West and South of Dushanbe significant forces. Worked and misinformation about the intention of Faisali whose name the opposition was caused by fear and hatred, repeated "attack on capital". "Disinformation" was launched in the course of communication fighters of the brigade with the residents of the Eastern outskirts of Dushanbe — "we wait in a few days will be back...". For the first time in the whole war brigade faisaly returned to the base under Kurgan-tube, and remained in front-line village that finally convinced the enemy in the intention to repeat the attempt to "capture the capital". By this time the troops NFT Gusarskogo district of the Republic, also headed by officers of the riot, cleared the "lovchikov" Gissarsky valley and came to the capital from the West and South. On the morning of 5 December 1992 division 1 separate motorized rifle brigade of special purpose and the 1st battalion of special purpose MIA of the Republic of Tajikistan virtually without a fight, immediately took all the key facilities in the capital Dushanbe, as you enter it from the West. Tangible losses were suffered by only 1 osbron, mortar company which lost in the narrow streets of the old town out on the Eastern outskirts of the capital. December 10, Dushanbe was completely in the hands NFT. The capital once again, a wave of pogroms, this time the victims were living in Dushanbe natives of Badakhshan and Garm. Dramatically increased the number of robberies and murders. The war brought power to the "warlords" with criminal records.
Taken from the book Sucholeski A. V. "15 SWAT team"
Armed groups of ipvt, dislodged from the capital, retreated to the East. After the capture of Dushanbe, the Popular front forces launched an offensive on the kofarnikhon, a stronghold of the opposition and the node highways to the East of Dushanbe, although the "Islamists" would receive help from Afghanistan. Pushing back the armed opposition groups from the capital, 1омсброн advanced units of the MIA and troops NFT in early January 1993, came to a settlement, Chuyangaron located at the entrance to Romit gorge. Attempt units of the brigade immediately to capture the gorge has led to tragic consequences. During the battle for the town in an unequal battle killed the commander and several servicemen of the brigade. In Romit gorge of armed formations ipvt have equipped a fortified area, which let bypass government troops deeply echeloned enemy defence created the armed opposition along the Garm valley (Kafarniganskaya valley) 40 km to the East of the capital. Control the opposition Romit gorge, provided her quick exit of armed groups to the state capital from the East. The command team was received by the Deputy brigade commander major General Gafur Mirzoyev, later commander of the Presidential guard.
Before the new commander of the 1 osbron the MIA was tasked to liberate from armed opposition groups Romit gorge. Repeated attempts to capture Romit gorge to success has not led. The reasons are many, but the main of them is the underestimation of the enemy and of the combat capabilities of the brigade units, the lack of personnel in the skills of warfare in the mountains and weak firepower. At the request of the newly appointed Minister of the MIA Y. Salimova officers of the army special forces, who were advisors to the leader NFT S. Safarov received at his disposal. Business cooperation of special forces and the new interior Minister, helped to solve many of the issues of combating illegal armed groups, to establish military training and improve the logistics of military formations of the Ministry of interior.
Upon arrival at the location 1 osbron the MIA operational group of the 15th separate brigade of special purpose of Ministry of defense of the Republic of Uzbekistan headed by the brigade commander Colonel Vladimir Kvachkova allowed using already working in the team of advisors in a short time to prepare a tactical brigade group to capture Romit fortified. Through the Minister of defense of Tajikistan A. Shishljannikova and his Deputy A. Chubarova (former Deputy commander, Det 15) was able to partially solve the issues of firing the support of actions of crew of the MIA by artillery fire and tanks 201 MSD the armed forces of Russia and tactical aviation of the Uzbek defense Ministry, was lost 2 aircraft. Romit area of defence was captured on 22-23 February 1993, the joint actions of tactical airborne troops and tactical group 1 osbron the Ministry of internal Affairs RT.
At the end of February the Ministry of defence of the Republic of Uzbekistan and Republic of Tajikistan was prepared and carried out large-scale operation of the armed forces of Tajikistan on capture and release from the armed opposition Karategin valley, the population which fully supported the militants of ipwt. Joint work has led to the development of unusual way of defeating the enemy, the descriptions of which no one in the field manual. The gist of it was that at the depth of 140 km consistently planted tactical air landing a total of more than 2000 people. But... desantiruemye units formed of reservists, was armed with only small arms and grenade launchers. Assault groups of 40-60 people boarding parachuted from helicopters near the settlements occupied by the enemy. Virtually all of these units were operational group 15 separate brigade of the special FORCES (2-3 people), which carried out the General coordination of the visits and interaction with helicopters.
Once in the snowy highlands one-on-one with the enemy, the tactical air force was forced sooner or later to descend from the mountains to dislodge the enemy from warm houses. If the enemy resisted, these targets were destroyed by direct fire commandos, helicopters, and the number of troops increased. Taken under the supervision of settlements, connected only by a road along which the troops were joined with neighbors, thereby establishing control over the entire road and the valley in General. No matter how "crazy" didn't look the idea of this surgery, but it worked, thanks to the courage of the helicopter pilots, special forces and hundreds of unknowns, the Tajik militia. Don't be "Garm troops" by the summer of 1993, more than two thousand Tajik grouping of illegal armed groups with the help of Afghan Mujahideen would turn areas under their control in an impregnable fortress, which has become a stronghold of international terrorism. No matter how this turned out, for Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and the region in General, in conditions where neighboring Afghanistan gradually passed under the control of the Taliban, we can only guess.
After establishing control of government forces over much of the territory of the Republic, the necessity for the existence of the Popular front fell off. S. Safarov announced the removal from office of the head of the armed forces NFT, detachments of which were transformed into the Ministry of defence and the Ministry of internal Affairs of the Republic. But the quiet old age to Sangaku was not meant to be. In the night of 29 to 30 March, he and Saidov faisaly will die.
Alex (deceased) and Sergey is dedicated.
Used materials from the website "Soldiers of Russia" and of the books: Sucholeski A. V. "15 SWAT team" and S. Kozlov "Spetsnaz GRU: Fifty years of history, twenty years of war". I recommend these books I have in paper version specially ordered. To be continued... Border fights of 93-94 years. But it will be not before spring. Need advice of Sergey, and he now, unfortunately, is very sore Mama. Though agreed about a meeting — but they are constantly thwarted.
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