For a long time the lost province
The three-day confrontation, most seriously influenced the future not only region, but also the whole world has occurred in the summer of 1990 in the Near East. In the centre of events there was Kuwait - small, but state extremely rich with oil on the bank of Persian gulf.
For control over Kuwait osmanli Turks, British, Germans struggled. Kuwait, at preservation of formal institutes of the local authorities, manoeuvred many decades between the various external forces, trying him to subordinate.
Emirat Kuwait has found official independence in 1961. And almost at once hardly it has not lost. Iraq adjoining to Kuwait had sights at history. The Iraq politicians believed that Kuwait - not that other as 19th province of Iraq, it is earlier illegal sawn-off from it.
Joining of Kuwait to Iraq has been prevented by Great Britain which has threatened to official Bagdad by armed intervention. The authorities of
Iraq of that time have preferred not to bring matters to war.
«Correct war» Saddam
In 1979 in Iran there was the Islamic revolution which has led to the power ajatollu Khomeini - the furious opponent of the United States and Soviet Union.
The USA extremely dissatisfied with such succession of events, weakening their influence in the Near East, began to search for force which it would be possible to direct against Iran.
Iraq led by vigorous leader Saddam Hussein became such force. Iran actively supported operating on territory of Iraq Shiit groupings, and Iraq showed territorial claims to Iran. On September, 22nd, 1980 the Iraq army has begun intrusion.
The United States have supported to Iraq, giving to Saddam Hussein the prospecting information, allocating credits, and also delivering arms and even materials for chemical weapon creation.
The Irano-Iraq war was stretched for long eight years, has turned back for both countries the big material losses, huge human victims and has come to the end with the world on conditions which existed and to its beginning.
Intrusion as means of repayment of a debt
War has caused the big damage to economy of Iraq and has turned back serious decrease in a standard of living of its citizens. Besides, on conducting war at other states were the big credits are taken. All it did position of a mode of Hussein unstable enough.
The leader of Iraq painfully searched for a way out of the crisis. At this time he has remembered old claims to Kuwait.
During the irano-Iraq war Kuwait which was frankly afraid of strengthening of Iran and expansion of its influence in region, has allocated to Iraq credits in total on 15 billion dollars. However after a relation end of the war between two countries began to spoil.
Iraq accused Kuwait of "larceny" of oil from frontier Iraq deposits. It was meant as use by Kuwait of technologies of inclined drilling which, by the way, have been received by Kuwaitis from the USA.
Saddam Hussein has demanded from Kuwait full write-off of the Iraq debt, and also payment of two and a half billions dollars of indemnification.
Burning oil wells during intrusion into Kuwait. A shot youtube.com
«This theme is not connected with America»
Kuwait had close connections with the United States about what the Iraq leader perfectly knew. The main point on which historians and politologists cannot find till now the answer, - why Saddam Hussein all the same has dared to attack Kuwait?
Exotic enough versions were at various times put forward - that told about Saddam's predilection for hashish approved as if the ambassador of Kuwait at negotiations has dared impudence to name the Iraq women prostitutes.
However serious analysts are inclined to believe that the head of Iraq has been convinced: any rigid answer from Washington will not follow.
Meeting of Ejpril Glespi and the president of Iraq Saddam Hussein on July, 25th, 1990. A photo: Commons.wikimedia.org
It could be written off on Saddam Hussein's self-confidence, if not foggy enough and indistinct position of Washington in a situation aggravation between Iraq and Kuwait. In spite of the fact that the Iraq leader it is transparent enough spoke about the intentions, the United States did not begin to straighten out it.
On July, 25th, 1990 Saddam Hussein has met the ambassador of the USA Ejpril Glespi. At negotiations it was discussed and «the Kuwaiti question». «I have a direct instruction of the president - to achieve an improvement of relations with Iraq. We do not have point of view on the Interarabian conflicts, such, as your border dispute with Kuwait... This theme is not connected with America», - has declared Glespi.
These words, according to experts, and a steel for the leader of Iraq a signal to active actions.
It is possible to tell that Hussein incorrectly interpreted words of the ambassador. But if Washington wanted to prevent intrusion into Kuwait why madam Glespi was not expressed more clearly?
Hussein's ambitions were rather convenient for Washington. Strengthening of military presence at region rich with oil, nearby to borders of Iran, military strategists of the USA considered necessary. However placing of the big military forces without the weighty reason could provoke indignation among the Arabian countries which and without that did not favour Americans.
Other business - military intervention for the purpose of restoration of justice and suppression of aggression of the big Iraq with powerful army against the small and defenceless neighbour.
The interesting moment: when subsequently the Iraq army in a course of an operation «the Storm in desert» nagolovu will be broken also the United States at the head of coalition forces can dictate to Iraq the will, they for any not clear reason will not demand Hussein's leaving and within 12 years will admit its finding on a post of the leader of the country. The impression is made that the Washington politicians skilfully used Saddam in the purposes, since the irano-Iraq war and up to his death.
Anyway, but after July, 25th, 1990 Saddam Hussein has been assured that now anybody and nothing will prevent it.
"Revolution" in Al Kuwait
In the end of July at intermediary of the president of Egypt Hosny Mubarak negotiations between Iraq and Kuwait have been organised. On August, 1st, 1990 they have been definitively broken. Iraq insisted on debt write-off, payment of indemnification and free aid rendering. The emir of Kuwait sheikh Dzhaber al-Ahmed al-Dzhaber the expert-sabah has declared that similar requirements are unacceptable.
To border of Kuwait during this moment the Iraq troops were actively put forward.
In the morning on August, 2nd, 1990 the television of Iraq declared that in Kuwait there was a revolution and «Provisional government of free Kuwait», consisting of 9 officers of the Kuwaiti army, has addressed to Iraq for the help in struggle against the monarchic mode which carrying out antinational policy and has wallowed in corruption. In reply to a call for help Saddam Hussein has given armies the order to enter on territory of Kuwait.
«The provisional government of free Kuwait» really existed, however it had no broad support. Power operation completely came true Iraqis.
Nearby 1:30 on August, 2nd the Iraq special troops have landed from helicopters around residence of the emir of Kuwait in the Dasmansky palace, intending to grasp the head of the state. However the engaged guards of the emir have beaten off this attack that has allowed the leader of Kuwait to run by the helicopter to Saudi Arabia.
At 2 o'clock in the morning full-scale intrusion of 120-thousand grouping of the Iraq troops has begun. The aircraft bombed Al Kuwait, at coast the marines have landed.
To 5 o'clock in the morning the basic forces of army of Iraq have approached to the Dasmansky palace. Battle for it lasted till the evening and has come to the end with defeat of the Kuwaiti forces. At a palace capture the brother of the emir of Kuwait by Fahad al-Ahmed al-Dzhaber has been killed.
Resistance of various subdivisions of army of Kuwait proceeded till August, 4th. 35th tank brigade of army of Kuwait around the western suburb of Kuwait Al-Dzhahry constrained more than two days advancement of large tank grouping of the opponent.
War in Kuwait, 1990. A shot youtube.com
Despite it, by the evening on August, 4th the Kuwaiti army has been completely broken, and the territory of the country has passed under control of the Iraq forces.
During military operation Iraqis have lost 295 persons killed and nearby 360 wounded men. Losses of army of Kuwait have appeared where big: 4200 persons have been killed, and about 12 thousand were taken prisoner. The avoided destructions and a captivity the Kuwaiti military men were harboured in territory of Saudi Arabia.
After some days «the Provisional government of free Kuwait» has addressed to Iraq with the request for joining. On August, 28th Kuwait has officially been declared by 19th province of Iraq.
Over Iraq clouds were already condensed. The UN Security Council has demanded an immediate withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Kuwait. Against Hussein's mode economic sanctions have been entered. Washington knocked together the international coalition and pulled together the perfect military units in region to punish an aggressor.
Saddam Hussein extremely happy with conducted blitzkrieg, continued to remain in belief that all is vanity - only visibility and a facade. After all madam Glespi has clearly told that «this theme is not connected with America». And unless the United States can lie?
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