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The Slavs against the Albanians: the war in Macedonia
Material posted: Valetskiy OlegPublication date: 05-06-2013

When Western media the reason for the Albanian rebellion in Kosovo and Metohija called the repression of the state security of Serbia, we pass by the same uprising of Albanians in Macedonia, where the clash of interests was even more complex than in Kosovo. Moreover, traditionally, Macedonians divided into supporters of independence and supporters of unification with Bulgaria.

Historical perspective

Of course, we cannot deny the ethnic and cultural features of Macedonia, however, this region also bore the name "Old Serbia" was inhabited by Serbs according to all historical documents. Though part of Macedonia to the 19th century was inhabited by the Bulgarians, and, without touching the question of to which Slavic nation the population belonged to the current Bulgaria until there Turkish tribes of the Bulgars, themselves Bulgarians populating the Eastern part of Macedonia are also Macedonians were not.

According to some Serbian historians, such as Milos Milojevic and Olga Lukovic-pjanovic obtained after the Second Balkan war Greece, the territory of Aegean Macedonia historically was not just Macedonia but was a part of Serbian lands.

The very essence of the existing decades-old conflict between Greeks and Macedonians, due to the fact that Greece has established its authority over the area of Northern Epirus where the Slavic autochannel was the population and although the Greek authorities and quite successfully "allinizio", the fact that the population of Aegean Macedonia is Slavic, hardly anyone will deny.

The Macedonian nation itself was created during the process of enforced "bulgarization" the Serbian population of Macedonia, held in the second half of the 19th - first half of the 20th centuries. Then the Macedonians Macedonia no were not, were either Bulgarians or Serbs.

The history of "bulgarization" Serbs of Macedonia can be traced through the history of the life and work of the Republika Srpska around the magistrates Michko of Karstic (1855-1908.) from the area of the Riverlands, which is located in the area of the current Macedonian Brod and Prilepa in Central Macedonia.

According to published in 1930 in Skopje the book "Governor Michko - life and work", written by his companion of Koga [1] after the Serbian-Turkish war (1876-77.), in which the Governor Michko, Karstic participated as a volunteer, Serb rebellions against Turks started in Macedonia and an important role was played by the Serbs that fought in the Serbian army against the Turks. During the Russo-Turkish war (1877-78) Serbian uprising, with the support of Serbia Kumanovo covered the whole area, and then in 1880 began and in the regions of Kicevo and Porec under the leadership of Ivan Delia, Michko krstić, Ricky of Kostadinovic and Angelko of Tanasevich.

After the suppression of the rebellion in poreč and in Kicevo in 1882 Turkey decided as a lesser evil to allow the expansion of Bulgarian schools from the areas of Bitola, Kostur and Lerina in the area of Kichevo, Prilepa, the Vales and Skopje. Emerged with the support of Sofia, the Bulgarian political movement had its own military wing - the fans who in addition to attacks on the Turks forcibly established its power on Serbian territories. After the defeat of the army of Serbia during the Serbian-Bulgarian war of 1885, the government of Bulgaria has managed to put under its influence a considerable part of the anti-Turkish movement in Macedonia. In Thessaloniki in 1894 was founded the Bulgarian Central revolutionary Committee, organized in 1895 with the support of the government of Bulgaria plaque four teams to the fans under the command of Bulgarian officers on the Turks in Macedonia.

Using Greco-Turkish war of 1897 Bulgarian Prince Ferdinand was able, according to the book "Governor Michko - life and work", to receive from the Sultan Abdul-Hamid to the jurisdiction of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church two Serbian eparchy in Macedonia - Strumica & debar.

After the suppression by the Turks of the Bulgarian uprising in Western Macedonia in 1903, the Bulgarian government launched a cultural-political company on the assimilation of Serbs and Greeks were under the Turkish authority in Macedonia, using its own "komitski" organizations of terror against all those Serbs and Greeks, who resisted assimilation. In response, the Serbia forces then created around the organization organized a Serb rebellion in the region of Prilepa, which in April 1904 rose was released from a Turkish prison Governor Michko Krstic. Latest in October of 1904 in the battle of Monette broke the Bulgarian fans Damian Gruev.

The Bulgarians however managed to re-organize, and in 1905 was created a political organization IMARO (Vytran Macedonian-odrinska revolutionary organization) had its military wing, while the Serbs in Macedonia its a single organization had.

After the revolution of "young Turks" in 1908, attacks on Turks by Serbian Chetniks and Bulgarian fans in Macedonia has practically ceased, however mutual Serb-Bulgarian hatred grew which led to the outbreak of the Second Balkan war of 1913, in which Bulgaria was defeated having lost all Macedonia.

However, the inclusion of all Macedonia, with its traditionally Bulgarian edges in the East part of Serbia did not lead to its pacification, and after the end of the First World war, Macedonia became a field of action established in 1919 in Sofia VMRO (Bytesdata of Makedonska revolutionary organization), raised in 1921 rebellion as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in Vardar Macedonia and the Kingdom of Greece in Aegean Macedonia.

In 1925, the new leadership of VMRO led by Ivan Mikhailov with the support of the Bulgarian army created around a force of fifteen thousand men and launched a guerrilla war in Macedonia as Serbian and Greek side.

VMRO conducted a full scale armed assaults on bodies of Royal authorities and Serb colonists in Macedonia, in what had the support of both the detachments of Albanian Kazakov (outlaws) and Yugoslav Communists.

The company armed struggle VMRO culminated in the murder of Serbian king Alexander perfect joint forces of VMRO and Croatian ustashe in Marseille, France in 1934.

Since the main enemy of the Communist party of Yugoslavia was proclaimed Serbian nationalism and Royal power, it is not surprising that with the establishment of the Communist authorities in Macedonia was held policy of forced assimilation of the Serb forces, party and state officials of the then Socialist Republic of Macedonia, with the connivance of the official Belgrade.

The socialist Macedonia from its inception was outside of the influence of Belgrade - according to the book "the Destruction of serbsca in the twentieth century - the ideological use of history" of academician Veselin Diuretic [2] - the so-called AUNOU (AVNO) - Antifascist Council of national liberation of Yugoslavia created the Communist party of Yugoslavia - the "people's Parliament", it was decided that the whole country around the town of debar be included in the composition of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia, although, as explained also by Diureticum data Debarsko-Valassko diocese [3], in 1908 this region was almost entirely Serbian and 24585 Serbs lived and there were 64 Orthodox churches and one monastery.

In the years of Yugoslavia, Serbian identity was quite successfully uprooted much of the former Serbs of Macedonia, which began to consider themselves as Macedonians and the part of the Macedonians, which is traditionally in Bulgaria was considered by the Bulgarians, but in terms of SUFU was identified by authorities as the Macedonians.


Albanians in Macedonia

However, in their fight against Serbian nationalism, the leadership of the then Macedonia has weakened the attention to the Albanians which in the SFRY years up to a quarter of the population of Macedonia, moreover, some Albanians during the census were declared as Turks and as Miroljub jevtic wrote in his book "Islam and Siptari" among residents of the then Republic of Macedonia who declared that their nationality was Turkish, 17,5% native language however turned out to be Albanian.

The counting of the number of Albanians was quite difficult due to the fact that the majority of their weight actually sabotaged the activities of state agencies. Last but not particularly insisted on carrying out of state laws in Albanian villages fearing accusations of "fascism", because in the SFRY the idea of "fascism" was an official ideological line, and any action at variance with the idea of "brotherhood and unity" of Yugoslav peoples, could be classified as fascism.

Meanwhile, unlike Serbs, Albanians in socialist Macedonia to the Macedonians adhered to rather rigid segregation. Indicative was the fact that in the towns and villages remained religious and ethnic segregation. Even in the capital Skopje on the left Bank of Vardar in the 80-ies, according to the book "Shiptari and Islam" Mirolyuba. Muslims dominated in the structure of the population, so the bulk of the Muslims of Macedonia, in addition to rather then loyal to the state ethnic Turks, Muslim Macedonians and Gypsies, were Albanian. Although neighboring Albania among the Albanians was a significant percentage of Orthodox and Catholics in Macedonia the overwhelming mass of Albanians were Muslims.

In addition, according to the book Mirolyuba. "Shiptari and Islam" after the victory of Communists in Albania, the dervish order Bektashi from Albania moved in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia where it happily continued its existence. Bektashi though it was quite a special course in Sunni Islam, often disagreed with traditional Islam, writes Miroljub jevtić in Albania has traditionally been a source of ideas about national unity of all Albanians. In terms of Macedonia, where the difference from Albania, practically all Albanians were Muslims, the ideas Bektashi, thus, began to feed the idea of exceptionalism of Albanians regarding both Serbs and Macedonians.

By the end of the 80's, the Albanians were the majority in Macedonian communities Tetovo, Gostivar, debar and Struga, whereas in Kichevo and Kumanovo they comprised one third of the population, and in Skopje the fifth part.

Began by force in neighboring Kosovo and Metohija companies of civil disobedience of Albanians, began with the organized riots by Albanian students at Pristina University in 1981 and involved assaults on Serbs, that scenario would have to anticipate and guide of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia. In practice this did not happen and as party and state organs here until the dissolution of the SFRY continued to assure the public of the permanence of the ideas of socialism and the "brotherhood and unity".

As Serb nationalism continued to remain the main adversary of Yugoslav Communists until the dissolution of the SFRY, it is only natural that there is no "Serbian aggression" in Macedonia never happened. After the last of the 8 September 1991 referendum on the independence of Macedonia, where the majority of population of Macedonia voted for independence, the Yugoslav people's Army left the Republic without a single shot, which in itself proves the absence of the then Yugoslav government plans of creating a "greater Serbia", the cards which were printed and Serbian opposition and Western media.

Due to this, in Macedonia, not a single influential Serbian political organization, despite the presence of a significant number of the Serbian population in the region of Kumanovo and Skopska Montenegro, where the biggest Serbian settlement was the village of Kuceviste.

Meanwhile, as with the rest of the SFRY first parties appeared in Macedonia in 1990. In these elections the nationalist Macedonian party, VMRO-DPMNE(Vnatresna of Makedonska of revolutionary organizacia - Demokratska Partia nacionalno for Macedonian unity) received 38 seats in Parliament, Albanian RAP 23 seats, while former Union of Communists later transformed into SDSM (Socialdemocratic South on Macedonia) won 32 seats, after suffering the defeat.

Policy created in the years of SFRY Macedonian nationalism led to the creation of the Macedonian Orthodox Church. This Church arose through the will of the Macedonian authorities and the decision on its establishment was made non-canonical, and how the Serbian Orthodox Church and all other Orthodox churches, did not recognize him.

In addition, their contribution to the Church split has made and the Vatican, which demanded that the unrecognized Macedonian Orthodox Church acceptance of Union with Roman Catholics.

However, the leveling of the Serbian influence and the victory of the Macedonian nationalists could not already be utilized by Bulgaria, embarked at that time on the path of "Euro-Atlantic integration" and thus the accession of Macedonia it could not be resolved. Because of the disinterest of the official Belgrade in the fate of Macedonia the impact of the official Sofia the fate of Macedonia increased significantly. However, the fate of Macedonia was affected and neighboring Greece, which belonged to Aegean Macedonia was contested by the newly independent Macedonia the right to its name, therefore, so far, officially in English the name sounds like Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Although it's not vospripyatstvovat the influx of Greek capital into the Macedonian economy.

A significant impact on Macedonia has also provided Turkey is trying to play on the Greek-Macedonian conflict. In addition to Turkey and other countries of the Islamic world has shown a certain interest in the events in the former Yugoslavia and thus in Macedonia. So still Lubomir Firkowski, former interior Minister in the government of former Communist leader of Macedonia Kira Gligorova, which became in 1992 by the President, reported activity in the Macedonian intelligence services of Saudi Arabia and Iran. Macedonia to various foreign intelligence services were much more easy prey than Serbia, and not casually exchanged in Macedonia in 2001, the fire of war from Kosovo.


The first clashes with the Albanians since independence

This fire is now contrary to learned opinion did not prevent the fact that Macedonia after independence in full swing moved toward membership in NATO and the EU. Thus, immediately after independence under the pretext of protecting the Serbian aggression in Macedonia appeared a thousand American and Scandinavian soldiers in the UN peacekeeping mission, who received for their military needs of the polygon YUNA - Krivolak and the airport Petrovac na Moru.

However, how when the Americans saw the future of Macedonia, it was clear in their plans for unification of Albania and Macedonia while the Macedonians did not know how to get rid of their own Albanians who here also, as in Kosovo formed their own illegal government.

On 11 January 1992, Albanians in the West of Macedonia held a referendum about the autonomy recognized by the Macedonian authorities is illegal and 31 March 1992 in Skopje, there were mass demonstrations of Albanians demanding autonomy. In the following riots held in Skopje on 6 November 1992 already blood was shed, and four Albanians were killed and 36 wounded.

Macedonia in the 90-ies, because of the increased weakening of the state apparatus, began to steadily move towards civil war and, in this case, the important role played by the fact that Albanian political parties, using the fear of Kira Gligorova to lose power, began to extract one concession after another, receiving the support of American diplomacy.

American support was due largely to the influence of Albanian lobby in the United States, which many political analysts were inclined to associate with the mafia. On the side of the lobby were recruited Senator Bob Dole and Congressman Ben Gilmore. Thanks to this lobby, when in Tetovo in Western Macedonia 15 February 1995 opened an Albanian University, without the permission of the Ministry of education of Macedonia, gathered there quite a large number of American guests, among whom were us senators, such as Joseph Diogardi, and U.S. Director of universities and chairmen of commissions of the Congress. As such the Macedonian authorities were unhappy, apprehended as an attempt to create in the center of Tetovo Albanian separatism, was involved and police of Macedonia started the riots, organized by the local Albanians, in which one Albanian was killed.

High American guests in this case made the suggestion to the President of Macedonia Gligorov, which is not surprising given that the Albanians and financed by some American company engaged in paid propaganda, and various "independent" newspaper, worked well on journalistic "objectivity".

Thanks to this diplomatic and propaganda campaign the Albanian mafia turned Macedonia into a kind of Balkan Colombia, where narcotics production has become almost the most important branch of production. The American government, sent troops to Panama, to combat drug cartels, but did not say a word, although the Albanian mafia drug produced not only for the European market, but also for American.

In such circumstances, the campaign of civil disobedience Albanians in neighboring Kosovo and Metohija, with the subsequent wave of terrorism could not influence events in Macedonia, where already in 1998 there was a noticeable increase in power and influence UCK Kosovo (Kosovo liberation army), whose fighters were to be found not only in Tetovo, but also in Skopje.

In regions bordering Kosovo, from Kumanovo to Tetovo, where Albanians were the majority, Macedonian authorities existed only relatively, because Albanian parties have managed to achieve separation of communities along ethnic lines between Macedonians and Albanians, than provided the legal basis for the Albanian autonomy.

The election of 1996 in the cities of Tetovo and Gostivar, the position of the governors was received by the candidates of the Albanian party DPA, respectively Alajdin Demiri and Rufi, Osmanli immediately gave instructions to hang the Albanian flag in front of the buildings of local self-government.

Prime Minister of Macedonia Branko Crvenkovski candidate of VMRO-DPMNE gave the order to launch a police operation in Gostivar and Tetovo. During the operation, on 9 July 1997, accompanied by mass riots, Demiri and Osmanli were arrested first and subsequently was sentenced to two years in prison and the second in 13 years, but after the new parliamentary elections both were granted Amnesty.


The beginning of the clashes

With the beginning of the 1998 war in Kosovo and Metohija, Macedonia turned into a rear base for Albanian UCK and soon began direct armed clashes between Macedonian border guards and police on one side and the Albanian fighters UCC. As in the ranks of UCK in Kosovo fought a considerable number of Albanian citizens of Macedonia, prior to the start of the civil war in Macedonia itself remained a little.

From March 1999 beginning of NATO against Yugoslavia and began large-scale offensives of the army of Yugoslavia and the police of Serbia in Kosovo and Metohija, in Macedonia itself with Kosovo ran two and a half thousand Albanians, many of whom were enlisted into the ranks of the Albanian UCK. Power UCC led from the territory of Macedonia of attacks on Serbian troops. In this case, and Serb troops often attacked UCK forces and NATO troops stationed in Macedonia, in one of such attacks, the Serbs were taken prisoner and three American soldiers.

The army of Macedonia with its three army corps (with headquarters in Kumanovo, Bitola and Skopje), legkotekuchie three of the reserve divisions, 22 brigades and eight regiments, numbered only 15 thousand people who have been mainly by conscription, and had four tanks T-34, three dozen T-55 tanks, fifty 120 mm mortars, 60-70 reactive systems of volley fire "flames" and "Ogan" the caliber of 128 millimeters and a Hail of caliber 122 mm, four Mi-17 helicopters, two attack aircraft J-21 "the Orao affair", two obsolete light attack aircraft J-22 "Astrub" and two legacy training and combat aircraft "Galeb" G - 2.

Later, however, before the war in Macedonia, Bulgaria Macedonia has set quite a large stockpile of weapons, including hundreds of howitzer M-30 122 millimeter caliber and five dozen tanks T-55 because five tens is committed to supply during the war. Seeing the inevitability of war, the Macedonian government bought back in 2001-2002 in Ukraine four Mi-8MT, Mi-17, eight Mi-24V, two Mi-24K, together with four su-25 (though the latter wrote on the lease), and the pilots throughout this technique were Ukrainian.

In this case, arming has contributed to Macedonia and that the Macedonian government sold the mobile network is Greece, having received from this transaction of considerable financial means.

In addition, in 1998-99 under the program of military aid to NATO of Macedonia, the army received from Germany up to two hundred types of armored personnel carrier BTR-70 and TAM-170,and from Italy APC M-113, and from the US four dozen of cars "hammer", while in Kazakhstan for the special operations forces were procured twelve BTR-80.

It is indicative that the then Yugoslavia was much less active than Bulgaria and Ukraine in Macedonia, and has supplied to Macedonia only a limited amount of ammunition and small arms and antitank weapons, particularly sniper rifles "Crna Strela" 12.7 and grenade launchers M-90 caliber 120 millimeters, and also sent only in late July-early August a couple of dozen instructors in the Ministry of interior of Macedonia.


The beginning of the war

The war in Macedonia started quite quickly when UCK, received during the war in Kosovo and Metohija (1998-99) combat experience and weapons, struck in the spring of 2001 from the territory of Kosovo, which was under the control of the international security forces NATO-KFOR a blow to Macedonia. In addition, in Macedonia the decision of the leadership of the former UCK, began to have forces from the region of Presevo and Bujanovac, who were on the territory of Serbia, with the mediation of international diplomats had signed a peace after armed conflict, 2000-2001.

March 15, 2001, a group of fifteen Albanian militants opened gun fire, attacked the forces of the Macedonian police in Kale district in Tetovo. The attack wounded 18 police officers and one Macedonian Albanian action. The group then went to the border with Kosovo. This was the beginning of the war, and soon the Albanians have moved into more large-scale offensive and had established their control over the Albanian village of Little Raspberry. The next day the Albanians from the neighboring villages and the rebels came from Kosovo, opened small arms and mortar fire just Tetovo, in the first quarter of Koltuk inhabited mostly by Macedonians, and on March 17, the Albanians attacked the police station in Kumanovo. Shelled and location of German units Chora located since 1999 in Tetovo, and then one German soldier was wounded.

Under Tetovo on 18 March in the battle to take the forces of a special purpose interior Ministry of Macedonia and the army of Macedonia, and on March 19 in Tetovo came in and the first four tanks of the army of Macedonia it received before the war from Bulgaria.

Despite this, on 20 March, and armed Albanians entered the city, and reached the quarters of Mala rechica and Teke. In response to Tetovo were perebrosali new forces of the Macedonian army, and commenced shelling the positions of Albanian artillery of the army of Macedonia.

Finally on 21 March, the Mi-24 helicopters attacked positions of the Albanians in Tetovo under, and the forces of special forces of the interior Ministry of Macedonia went on the offensive, throwing Albanians from Tetovo, and the battle occupied the Albanian village Gajre. The next day in the fighting and became part of the army of Macedonia, and near the village of Germa, where the logistics center of the Albanians, was landed the helicopter at fire support of Mi-24 helicopters.

As a result of General offensive of the Macedonian forces, the Albanians were driven from Tetovo, Macedonians and by 24 March had established control over the villages of Selce, in the Weitz, Laha and 27 March and over the villages hut, Drenoc and Teche, reaching to the border with Kosovo.

On 29 March, the special forces of the Ministry of internal Affairs of Macedonia "Tigri" and special forces of the army of Macedonia "Volti and Scorpion" took the fight with the village of Tanushevci, but under the pressure of international diplomacy offensive was halted and entered the village unit KFOR with Kosovo.

March 30, the attack of the Macedonian forces in Tetovo was over, but under the control of Albanians were left in the area is welcome dimension single village on the border with Kosovo, and Albanian detachments, though suffered serious losses, however, escaped destruction and came out of the blow of Macedonian troops.

Given that armed Albanians were mostly small arms and light anti-tank weapons, having also anti-tank mines, anti-aircraft installations of caliber of 20 millimeters, as well as the Macedonians captured several APCS and a limited number of MANPADS "Strela-2" was purchased by the Albanian mafia in the former Yugoslavia, for them it was a success.

In the other direction - under Kumanovo, the Albanian forces were more successful and they established control over the area of the village and lake Mataichi Lipkovo, so Albanian patrols employed by them from the monastery Matejce went to the spurs of the mountains were clearly visible Skopje. Thus, in the area of Albanians near the village of Brest was redeployed forces from Kosovo from the Gnjilane region where the US military base.

In early may Albanian forces near Kumanovo and lake Lipkovo reached four thousand people and they were already merged structure people's Liberation army - SHE formally strukturirovana armed forces of the Albanians on the territory of Macedonia. However, in practice, IT existed only on paper and in fact combat actions were conducted by formally dissolved UCK, whose commanders commanded created with the support of the international UN administration in Kosovo and KFOR forces "of the Kosovo security corps".

In addition, according to a White paper drawn up in the Ministry of internal Affairs of Serbia, member of the leadership UCC Daut Haradinaj, brother of Ramush Haradinaj, also organized on the front in Macedonia the movement of Mujahideen from Sudovskaya Arabia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Turkey, Afghanistan, Kosovo, than according to the White paper of the Ministry of internal Affairs of Serbia, played an important role in Kosovo international organization "Islamic Relief".

The total number of Mujahideen, according to the testimony of the arrested the Process muratie, militant brigade "Ismet Jashari", which operated in the area of Kumanovo and Lipkovo, reached one hundred and fifty fighters.

On 9 June, several hundreds of armed Albanians, among whom were Mujahideen under the command Cesaire Shaqiri, entered the village of Aracinovo, chiefly inhabited by Albanians, from which Skopje was only eight miles.

There was a threat that force will consist of Albanians in Skopje, where Albanians at that time amounted to a quarter of the population, and therefore June 22 forces of the army of Macedonia under the command of General Petrovsky Pandas started the operation to liberate this village. One of the major roles in the battles for Aracinovo was played by Ukrainian pilots of Mi-24 helicopters and su-25 who was able to inflict serious damage on the enemy positions.

However, a ground offensive on the village of the Macedonian forces, a key role in the combat formations which played a special unit of the Ministry of internal Affairs of Macedonia "Tigre" and the special forces of the army of Macedonia "Volti", despite the support of tanks and artillery went with great difficulty so that even then were applied and poisonous substances. Continued the Macedonian offensive three days, however, the success was only partial. After the arrival in Skopje, representative of the EU Javier Solana was achieved truce and Albanian fighters on the buses on June 26 was taken from the environment under protection of the American contingent KFOR.

At the same time was initiated the operation of the Macedonian troops in the area Lipkovo lake, but it was unsuccessful and although the special forces of the Ministry of internal Affairs of Macedonia "Tigre" and the special forces of the army of Macedonia "Policy", together with the forces of Macedonian brigade of guards, came to the direction of the Brest village, Albanians, however, are using anti-tank mines to stop him.

The failure of the Macedonian side has not only promoted international pressure on Skopje when Western diplomats demanded "to sit down at the negotiating table", but internal political instability in Macedonia.

While the army of Macedonia was under the control of the party SDSM, developed on the basis of the former Union of Communists of Yugoslavia, VMRO, which played the nationalist card, controlled the interior Ministry, and the Minister of internal Affairs Ljubomir Boskovski was one of the key functionaries of the VMRO.

The leadership of VMRO SDSM dissatisfied as well as by the President of Macedonia Boris Trajkovski, who was a formally independent candidate, organized in Skopje riots on June 26, 2001, when several thousands of Macedonians, mainly from the part of the reserve forces of the police, who were accepted in the first place the members of VMRO, broke into the Parliament after a stormy meeting, and in Prilep Macedonians protesters - supporters of the VMRO, burned the mosque of the XVI century.

SDSM was forced to give VMRO, but after the issues of domestic relations between the Macedonian parties have been resolved, the international community, under the leading role of British diplomacy, has managed to agree on measures to bring peace to Macedonia.

However, on 7 August during a police operation in Skopje were killed 5 Albanians, then the Albanians detonated anti-tank mines first BTR Macedonian military police, and later army truck with soldiers.

In response, the riot police led by Johan Tarčulovski and under the overall command of the Minister of interior Boskovski Lubomir held from 10 to 12 August sweep at the Macedonian-Albanian village Ljuboten, who was from the beginning of the war under the control of the army of Macedonia. After Macedonian police arrested several dozens of local Albanians, ten of them, she was shot by order Boskovski, who was arrested later together with Tarčulovski together and sent to the international Tribunal in the Hague, where Boskovski was acquitted and Tarčulovski received ten years in prison.

However, cases of war crimes of Albanians was not instituted, helped by the fact that the massive tomb of the Macedonians under Tetovo was displaced Albanians immediately after the signing of peace, and the attempt of the Macedonians to prevent this, ended up going to mass tombs of the Macedonian armored personnel carrier was hit by the Albanians from the grenade launcher.

As a result, after signed on 13 August 2001 the Ohrid agreement, former Albanian terrorists in Macedonia not only legalized, but also left under his power they captured two district - Tetovo and the Kumanovo-lypkivskyi, where control over them, according to the Ohrid agreement, was handed over to "multinational" police, consisting of yesterday's Albanian fighters and Macedonian police and NATO peacekeeping troops entered Macedonia during the operation, "Pearl Fox". The entry of NATO troops into Macedonia passed without any problems except the Macedonians organized a demonstration during which stones were thrown at British soldiers, one of them from being hit by a stone was killed.

Albanian herself SHE was transformed into a political party led by Ali Ahmeti, who took part in the parliamentary elections and has achieved carrying out in 2004 of a referendum on changes to the boundaries of communities, which was established Albanian political control over communities Tetovo, Gostivar, Struga and partial control over the community Cup.

In General, it was a typical Balkan war of the breakup of Yugoslavia, in which the item personal interests of officials and oligarchs dominated over the state, so that both sides in the war were controlled by the "international community".

Therefore, instead of a quick and decisive blow to the forces of UCK many times inferior to the armed forces of the army and police of Macedonia, the military and political leadership of Macedonia was wasting time in an endless showdown between him, and regular consultations with partners in the West with the victory of Macedonia over armed forces, in fact supervised by the UN mission in Kosovo, the armed forces of UCK, converted in power the "Kosovo security corps" that absolutely was not needed.

That is why it is so popular have been in this war, not those who would without question start to perform combat tasks, and those who saw the war as an opportunity for rapid personal enrichment by trivial either by theft, or by some more elaborate plans for restructuring and upgrading, and searches all the new weapons, though available was more than enough. In fact, in this war, as in other wars of this type, not enough, first of all, these military commanders and nothing more.


[1] Koa. Wood Michko - belly and glad. Scope. Stamperia and ciguena. Kranichbar.1930

[2] Veselin Ureti. Rasare srpstvo in the 20th century-ideology of upotreba istorije. Srpska academia science and umetnosti. Balkanoloski Institute. Beograd. 1992) at the second meeting (29 November 1943

[3] Archive and New, mid-PP,, Mili Petrova. Prosvetni prilike Velasco-debarsko eparhii coche mladoturki revolutie.


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