Center for Strategic Assessment and forecasts

Autonomous non-profit organization

Home / Defence and security / The tragedy of Yugoslavia: Lessons and Conclusions / Articles
Montenegrins armed struggle against the Ottoman Empire in the late XVIII century
Material posted: Valetskiy OlegPublication date: 04-03-2018
The end of the 18th century in the history of the Balkan wars for national independence. In fact, the whole territory of the Ottoman Empire was a field it flared, then saruhashi conflicts.

Skadar Sandzak bordering the Venetian Republic (Albania Veneta), and it consisted of part of present-day Northern Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia and Montenegro. One of the most influential families was the family Bustle. One of its members, Mahmut Pasha Bushati, in the 90-ies of the 18th century was, according to Branko Pavicevic [7], polnovesnym by feudal lords and self-appointed governors in your region. In the early 90-ies of the 18th century the emergency of the Russian Empire Ambassador in Istanbul V. P. Kochubei wrote to one of the leading entities of the Russian diplomacy, Prince A. A. Bezborodko, that the power of the Pasha of Skadar is far superior to the power of the neighboring annenskogo Pasha. Mahmut Pasha Bushati to important positions appointed his relatives and he collected taxes, like the Christians and Muslims are not allowed to do it directly to the tax collectors of the Ports [7]. Thus the Mahmut Pasha Bushati gave large concessions to the Christians, and in his sorokiniana army were Orthodox "bargane"-Serbs, Catholic-Albanians and Albanian-Muslims from Malesia. Mahmut Pasha Bushati encouraged the national feelings of the Albanians that served him to fight against the troops of the Sultan, and for the same purpose gave concessions to the Christians. In Scadere then most of the population were Christians, mainly Roman Catholics [8].

In 1787 Mahmut Pasha Bushati broke sent against him the troops of the Sultan and decided to create their own power, which would have covered the area Bird and the whole of the Old Montenegro, "Mletacki Albania" and the southern part of Dalmatia down to Dubrovnik. In carrying out these plans, he decided to rely on the aid of France. In 1795, a squadron of the French fleet approached Kadru. She landed several French officers and engineers who were ordered to help Mahmut Pasha to create fortifications. In July 1796 from France seven galleys were taken Mahmut Pasha Bushati food and ammunition [12].

At the end of April the Sultan forgave Mahmut Pasha, and he was returned to the title of Pasha and the office of serasker Northern Albania and the Turkish commandant of Djakovica, Pristina and Kroi were ordered to submit to the Pasha of Skadar. In the spring of 1796 strained relations Mahmut Pasha Bushati with the Serbian tribes of Piperov and Belopavlovic, which sought to unite with Montenegro. Mahmut Pasha sent a letter to Vladyka Peter I Negosh that his enemies – the tribes and Belopavlovic Papery, not Montenegro. The Lord told him that "bargane" - his brothers and he will not leave them in trouble. At the end of June 1796, the army of Nuri Pasha, moved along the road to Podgorica, the representatives of the tribes Belopavlovic and Piper arrived to the Lord, asked for help from him. The Lord gathered the Sabor (Assembly) of the Montenegrin tribes in Cetinje on June 20 (July 1), on which the representatives of the tribes voted for the following decision: "we Want to join together against the common enemy of the Christian to follow the Orthodox faith and the law" and "our dear freedom and liberty", "dear Fatherland, for the churches and monasteries", "wives and our children to fight and work all strength, in order to avoid the yoke of harascho". All members of Parliament swore on the cross and the gospel, and for the first time in the history of Montenegro, according to Branko Pavicevic [7], the decision was made, obliging every Montenegrin with arms to defend Montenegro. Then the Russian Consul General in Dubrovnik Antoine Jik has been delivered reports that the vizier of Skadar collected 15 thousand Albanians, to punish "rebels against the Sultan" - the tribes Belopavlovic and Piperov [8].

Bishop Peter believed that Mahmut Pasha Bushati preparing a strike on Dubrovnik and therefore did not want to leave at the rear of the enemy. Having collected troops in Northern Albania, Mahmut Pasha with his main forces moved to Spueu. Here, in the mountains of Visocity, his troops took up positions, and on the other side were the forces of "bergan" and Montenegrins [1]. Lord Peter by that time, gathered at Cetinje troops and sent a letter to the tribe Garbled in which he wrote: "Brothers, you know, we do not collect any troops for Bird, not for us, and for more. Now, brothers, we are all going to shed our blood for the true faith of a Christian". Arriving in the district of Slatina, Vladika Peter I, according to the then chronicler deacon Alexy was under 9863 person. The data are the same for "the Turks" from the then chroniclers differ in quantity. Deacon Alex and another chronicler, the Archimandrite Vucetic, write about 34860 "Turks", and the Lord indicates about 27 thousand "Turks". The battle lasted six days with 2 (13) Jul 11 (22) July 1796, Bishop Peter and I, attired and armed as the Montenegrin warrior, fought at the head of an elite squad of 3,400 people. Mahmut Pasha was not a space to enter the battle of the great mass of their forces and took advantage of this after the battle of mount Visocica, Montenegrins routed the Turk. Bishop Peter writes that in the battle then were killed 473 Turk, deacon and Archimandrite Alexy Vuchetich misleading about 2500 killed and wounded [1]. The Turks fled across lake Skadar, crossed in boats, while the Montenegrins and the "bargane", losing 23 killed, captured great booty. This victory received a great response in Europe, Empress Catherine II instructed the Metropolitan to send congratulations on the victory over the Turks, which helped "shameless French" [4]. Russian Consul General in Dubrovnik Antoine JICA announced later in Petersburg that Mehmet Pasha Bushati is preparing a new campaign. Having learned from this, Bishop Peter has asked the Austrian Emperor to send a squadron to the waters of Albania [2].

After the battle of Martinovica among Montenegrins there was an increase in morale, and in the Wake of this growth Bishop Peter I established a people's Assembly -"Skupstinu" in Cetinje, which was the oath- "Stega". In it, calling on "the Lord Almighty to help", and vowing that we will not betray and will not deceive each other, the locals also swore that "the second one will help to give" and that "they will be for the pious Christian faith to fight and to shed blood" there, where "the enemy has attacked them or their brothers"bergan" [3]. He who would betray, had to be cursed and detached from society. According to the Venetian Vice-Consul in Skate Giacoma Som [7] in September 1796, troops Mahmut Pasha Bushati, the number of 20 thousand people, delivered through Podgorica to Cetinje. With 2 thousand of his soldiers, he sent against the tribes of Belopavlovic and Piperov. Himself the vizier Mahmut Pasha Bushati took up positions near the village of Krusi, where his strength, according to the chronicler, the Archimandrite Vuchetich, numbered 24 thousand foot and mounted soldiers, whereas the chronicler deacon Alexy reported 34860 [2,3]. At Vladika Peter I, wrote the deacon Alexy, under the command was 17460 Montenegrins and "bergan" so that at the beginning of the battle he was 6590. The battle began on 22 September (3 October) 1796 transition "Turk" across the river Sytnytsya. The main forces of the Mahmut Pasha was Albanian highlanders-"bargane" Northern Albania. After the initial success of the Turks against the troops of Leshan and Katunyan, the Montenegrins came a new force under the command of Vladika Peter I, and the Turks were driven back from the village of Krusi. Then, the bulk of the Turkish troops began the attack on the main positions of the Montenegrin forces on the heights above the Sytnytsya opponents met in the melee, which lasted for three hours. When the front ranks of the "Turks" began to waver, shifting panic at the others, Mahmut Pasha decided on a horse to lead the troops into battle and was struck by a bullet.

In the Turkish ranks began to panic and the Turks fled, leaving the battlefield 3400 dead according to one, and according to others – 2 thousand. This victory was marked by the solemn return of September 28 (October 9) in Cetinje. This victory received a great response in Europe. The French Ambassador in Venice described Lineman Montenegrins as a people ready to throw off the Turkish yoke and become free, whereas in Vienna acknowledged that this victory destroyed the last barrier for the formation of an independent Montenegro [12]. According to Pavicevic, and Spain did then the conclusion that the Ottoman Empire would not survive, not in their obedience unruly and independent leader, with whom no one could establish a good relationship [7]. However, the French magazine "Mоnteur" wrote in December 1796 that the Albanians have vowed to avenge the dead of the vizier [13]. However, the new Ibrahim Pasha, brother of the deceased vizier, avoiding confrontation with Montenegro, which, together with birdo, became a de facto independent state. Port, according to Pavicevic, then planned to share the Skadar Sanjak into two provinces with the pashas at the head of which would be governed by Belenergo or Macedonian or Bosnian vizier. However, the implementation of the plan of Ibrahim Pasha managed bribery and connections in Istanbul to prevent.

Russia and Austria in the second half of the 18th century were close sonicamy in the struggle against the Porte. Empress Catherine II had planned to completely destroy Turkey and divided it with Austria. These plans are consolidated by agreement between Catherine II and Austrian Emperor Joseph II in April-may 1781, Then was drafted for the division of Turkey. Writes Mihajlo Vojvodić in his work "the Eastern question in the eighteenth century", under this plan, Austria would have annexed the land of the Ottoman Empire to the West of the line Belgrade - the mouth of the river Drim [5]. After some further negotiations, the whole of Serbia was included in the Austrian sphere of influence, in order to recognize the interests of Russia in Montenegro. In the European territory of the Ottoman Empire at the time, apart from Montenegro, there are no independent political forces did not exist, and therefore completely natural that when planning the division of the lands of their common enemy, neither Russia nor Austria did not think about the interests of the local population, which the Turkish Sultan considered his slaves. These facts need to know because in the second half of the 20th century in Yugoslavia theories have emerged that supposedly Austria seized the Serbian lands, the Serbian people, following the idea of "Drang nach Osten".

The Serbian people were not a significant political factor that it was considered Petersburg and Vienna, the owner of the land on which they lived, the Serbs, were not they, and the Turkish Sultan. The Serbs, of course, joined the armed detachments of the Austrian troops, breaks deep into the possessions of the Ottoman Empire, but it was a form of struggle of the Serbs for their rights. Now absurd accusations of the Yugoslav and Serbian historians address Austria, accusing them of betraying the interests of the Serbian people. In the wars against the Turks all the right to command belonged to Austria, the Serbs also joined them, according to their own interests, because the rule of the Turks, the Serbs carried complete disappearance of them as Christian people. Austria had all the rights to wage war against the Porte, for the Turkish army came to Vienna, where they defeated Austrian and Polish troops. For the Austrian Emperor, the Serbs occupied an important place, for it gave support to the actions of its troops on the territory of the Ottoman Empire. But in this situation, not the Serbs, namely the Austrians were the ones who determined the course of warfare. They are the same as any other army, with danger of defeat had every right to retreat or make peace. Austria thus rightly played a key role in the war against the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans in the 16th and 17th centuries, for this role she provided own capabilities. In case, if plans from the Treaty of Catherine the great and Joseph II were implemented, Montenegro and Metohija, Zeta and Northern Albania, would be in the part of Austria.

The announcement by Russia in 1787 the war the Port, and then by Austria in 1788 meant that the two empires decided to divide up the Ottoman Empire. This caused irritation in Europe, primarily in France. However, after the French revolution in 1780, the interest of Austria and Russia to war against Turkey has dried up, for they were in great danger from revolutionary France. In 1791 Austria concluded peace with Turkey, and in 1792, this example was followed by Russia. The crisis of the Ottoman Empire caused the emergence of two movements in its European possessions. One of them led by Osman Pazvan-Oglu, Pasha of Vidin, who sought to establish its authority also in the areas of Niš and Belgrade. The second movement was led by Mahmut-Pasha Bushati, took the place of the Skadar Pasha in 1775 after the death of his father. Writes Mihajlo Vojvodić, while in the Balkans began to penetrate the idea of "national revival", the source of which was a Masonic Lodge established in the environment of the South Slavic peoples, who were under the power of Austria [5]. Thus, according to Vojvodić, with Masonic lodges was associated Pazvan-oglu and a number of leaders then the rebellion of the Janissaries[5]. The idea of national autonomy had been in a similar scenario and in the Serbian environment, and so in 1790 in Timisoara, the Serbs demanded territorial autonomy.

The same requirements put forth by the Greeks, and it would be strange if the idea of national self-determination has not penetrated into the Albanian environment, especially because the Albanians melancholy was closely connected with the Greeks. This circumstance also contributed to the fact that, according to Mihajlo Vojvodić, France since 1793 waged war against Austria and became an ally of Turkey [5]. Thus the Port had a limit in actions against Paswan Pasha and Mehmet Pasha Bushati, which has established close relations with France. In these conditions the Serbs, who were opponents Pasvan-oglu in Belgrade and opponents Mehmet Pasha Bushati in the areas of Montenegro and Byrde were natural allies of Austria.

According to the academician Bohumil Hrabak in "Mahmut Pasha Bushati in regards to Montenegro, birdo, Primorye and Eastern Herzegovina(1777-1796 gg)" Mahmut Pasha enjoyed great authority among the Catholic tribes of the "average" of Albania and some Orthodox tribes Byrd [9]. He was the sole owner of Northern Albania, but the Muslim and Serbian population of Plav, Gusinje giving birth, Bihor and White fields fully supported him. At the same time, Bustle at odds with the Bosnian Pasha from Podgorica. Here a conflict arose between the Bosnian "Turks" who are, basically, Serbs of the Muslim faith, and Skadar "Turks", the majority were Albanian Muslims. Montenegro then, according to Bohumil Hrabala, there was strife, who skilfully exploited Bustle [9]. The Governor of Montenegro Radonjic seriously thought to evict the Montenegrins in other countries and for this consultation we went to Vienna. In 1784, the Montenegrins agreed to pay kharach Mahmut Pasha, and not a "begluk", that is, the Port, and then the divan in Istanbul in 1784 Pasha declared an enemy of the state.

Mahmut Pasha was planning an attack on the Montenegrins, in Alliance with the Serbian tribes of the Eastern Herzegovina, headed by the Prince of Dobrecov of Stanisha. However, negotiations in respect of such a Union that he led from the tribes birdo, he failed, although these tribes had previously participated in the campaigns of Bustle. However, in the Albanian Mahmut Pasha was in conflict with Kurd Pasha who ruled in Central Albania, while Kurd Pasha feuded in the South of Albania against Ali Pasha Tepelena. In fact, the whole territory of the Ottoman Empire was a field it flared, then saruhashi conflicts, and because it is impossible to speak about a unified Turkish policy towards the Serbs and Kosovo. All was in hands of Pasha, which, depending on their interests, joined with the Serbian tribes or communities in the Union, fought against.

In the summer of 1788 Mahmut Pasha had gathered, according to the Venetian Vice-Consul, the army of 40 thousand people. In his army were Orthodox tribes birdo and other Christian tribes. Despite the resistance of the Montenegrins, on 23 June he occupied without a fight Cetinje and burned 150 houses and monasteries. The Montenegrins at that time there was no unity, moreover, that Lord Peter was in Russia, and why the particular resistance they had. As a reward for the conquest of Montenegro Mahmut Pasha from the Sultan received the rank of vizier. However, soon after, Mahmut Pasha began to quarrel with Macedonian Minister Abdi Pasha, as with Kurd Pasha. He scored 18 the mouth of the Montenegrins for war against the Pasha. In addition, Mahmut Pasha also captured a fortress in Podgorica and Spuž, thereby came into conflict with the Bosnian Pasha. Port, seeing that Mahmut Pasha hostile to all its neighbors, and does not report to her, eventually announced Mahmut Pasha an outlaw. However, the Port was unable to collect an army, at the request of the kapudan Pasha, the Sultan forgave Mahmut Pasha, that did not prevent the latter to enter into new conflicts and to send their urbancow to collect kharach into the territory of the Bosnian Pasha.

Mahmut Pasha, in 1787, went to the military campaign in Kosovo and his troops were soldiers from the tribes Vasojevici and a Lot. In Kosovo, his troops clashed with the troops of Veli-Pasha Tepelini, who commanded the forces of the Albanian-longing. First, Mahmut Pasha captured Ohrid, but soon Veli Pasha he repulsed him. But then still Mahmut Pasha defeated his enemy and took Pristina, and then Djakovica and PEC. In the battle of the river sitnica in Kosovo Mahmut Pasha defeated the troops sent by the Porte and the victorious returned to shkodër. However, the big reasons for the triumph he was not, as at the same time, Bosnian army occupied Spuž and Podgorica, from the South came rumelian troops of the Pasha and of the son Veli Pasha. However, when the United troops surrounded the Ports of Skadar, and the people in Skate had sworn allegiance to the Sultan, then population rebelled against the Macedonian troops of the Pasha. The result Pasha was forced to flee. Mahmut-Pasha, the Bosnian Pasha and I reconciled, and immediately was sent to the Ferman of the Sultan's forgiveness Mahmut Pasha.

When in 1790 the Arbanasi again attacked ravaged by war Montenegro, the Vladika Peter I has addressed for the help to the Austrian Emperor, that he sent him the powder and lead. The Emperor complied with the request and help arrived by sea to Budva. In 1792, the troops again laid siege to the Ports of Skadar. Mahmut Pasha, not paying attention to the discontent of the people in Skate, stood in the fortress siege, and in November, 1793, having made a sortie, defeated the troops of the Ports. Montenegro itself was divided in the beginning of XVI century on seven Nachi - tribal areas. During the reign of Vladika Peter I Njegos, it was divided into four nahii: Katun nahiya, Riecke nahia, Zernicka nahia and Lesinska nahia. Territory birdo included seven areas tribes Bjelopavlici, Piperi, Heap, Britanici, Roucy, Moraca and Vasojevici. On the territory of the Montenegrin Herzegovina lived tribes Niksic, Rigani, Grahovski, Banani, Pilani and Drobnjaci. The Primorye territory was divided between Venice, which belonged To, Herbal, Budva, the region of the tribe of Which, the Duke of Novi and Risan. The Ottoman Empire belonged to Ulcinj, Bar, and Herceg-Novi and Risan [7].

Although in the late XV – early XVI centuries, Montenegro, while Skander is running Crnoevicha, existed as a separate Sanjak, however, almost the whole of the sixteenth and the whole seventeenth century, it was under the authority of the Skadar Sanjak-beg. However, according to his pigeon radoje Pajovic, Montenegrins had autonomy, confirmed by the Sultan the Berat, and in the framework of this autonomy there was a "General Montenegrin Assembly" in which to participate had the right to any adult Montenegrin [10]. Here was "Glavaski collection", composed of the heads of the tribes. During the Austrian-Turkish war (1593-1606) started the uprising of the tribes Byrd and Eastern Herzegovina, which was supported by the Montenegrin tribes. In Kandy (1649-1669) and Morea (1683-1699) the wars of the Montenegrins in greater numbers participated in the fighting on the side of Venice against the Turks. The Venetians established in Montenegro the position gobernadora. Montenegrin rulers the Venetians were permitted to control the servants of Venice, the Orthodox Serbs of Primorye. In the end, one of the Montenegrin rulers, mardari, in 1640, took the Union with the Vatican.

The lords were the absolute rulers of Montenegro, and just rulers of the dynasty Petrovic made a contribution to that of Montenegro from the late seventeenth century became independent. Seventeen times the locals were defending their land from Turkish campaigns. In 1714 Bosnian vizier Numan-Pasha Caprylic captured Montenegro after the uprising, which raised the Montenegrins at the call of the Russian Emperor Peter I. Then, a few thousand Montenegrins, Turks, or rather, the Bosnian Serbs-Muslims, were captured and moved to Bosnia, in the area around Sarajevo and the massif Romania. After the abolition of the Patriarchate by the Turks in a Furnace in 1459, the Zeta metropolis was renamed from the end of XV century in the Montenegrin, and it was under the jurisdiction of the Greek Archbishopric of Ohrid.

Once again, in 1766, abolished the Patriarchate of PEC, and in 1767 and Ohrid Archdiocese, all of the Serbian Church, including the Montenegrin Metropolitanate was under the control of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. As phanariotes of this Patriarchate, ruled by the Serbian churches, Serbian churches were poor relations, the Montenegrin Metropolitanate ceased to obey her and went under the actual auspices of the Russian Orthodox Church [10]. This was a source of ideas about what Montenegro should become a center of the future liberation of the Serbs with the establishment in it of the Imperial power of Russia. However, this caused great problems in the relations with the Montenegrins. So, when at the initiative of the General count Mark Ivalice, Serb by nationality, the Holy Synod tried to change the ruler of Peter I, the Montenegrin priests, magistrates, serdary, princes and barjaktar in July, 1804, sent a letter to the Holy Synod, which rejected the demand to change the master, accused of deviation from the canons of the Church service. Montenegrins in the letter has told, that after the fall of the "Serbian Empire" they fled to the mountains, and there preserved "Serbian Orthodox-Greek faith, where there is no heresy," and they took this belief from the Greeks, not the Russians [6]. Montenegrins also sent a letter to Emperor Alexander I, which stated that they are only under his "moral protection", and the Synod of authority over them has not. The Emperor in this case, according to his pigeon radoje Pajovic, agreed with them and dismissed from the post Marco Ivalice [10].

Itself Autocephalous Montenegrin Orthodox Church was recognized by the Ecumenical Patriarchate, who have made it in 1855 in his "Syntagma". However, Church relations of Montenegro and Russia remained always friendly, and the Montenegrins considered as the patron of the "Russian Tsar". Such relations with Russia were, in fact, destabilizing factor in the Austrian sphere of influence. Austria was the guide of the plans of the Vatican, which has been ever since the wars fellow and gubbament sworn enemy of the German emperors, and therefore the main field directions of its foreign policy were the Balkans.

Thus, the policy of Austria was defined as the time the Vatican, and because so easy Venice fell under the rule of Vienna, which then took control of a part of Montenegrin coast, formerly belonging to Venice. Naturally, then, Austria began to look for further communication with the Albanian Catholics in Northern Albania and in Kosovo. Probably not be such a strong desire of Montenegrins for independence, Petersburg would agree with the fact that Montenegro is also included in the area of Austrian interests, because Russia had already agreed to this zone entered Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. In this case, Montenegro has largely complicated the plans of Austria, which was the Vatican, which had its own claim to these lands. In case, if the process of liberation of the Serbian lands, came from Montenegro, it bigger would ruin the plans of the Vatican and Vienna. Austria therefore, providing assistance as Albanian Catholics, and the Port put pressure on Montenegro. At the same time Vienna was in control of the Serbian liberation, which began in the region of Sumadija through Novi Sad, which was the main Serbian cultural centre in the first half of the 19th century.

Bishop Peter was not only Metropolitan, but a commander who participated in the fighting, and also did other Montenegrin priests, where the priest is not freed from duty in front of his tribe. The Bishop, as leaders of the people, was chosen to "Obscurorum the Sabor", and as the clergy – were appointed by the first Serbian Patriarch, and then this was confirmed by the Holy Synod. According to his pigeon radoje Pajovic, their ecclesiastical authority covered the territory of Montenegro, Bird, Skenderia (North Albania), Zeta and Montenegro coast. In 1820, the Turks made a trip to the area Moraca [10].

According to the Miomir of Delica, on the territory of Montenegro with population of about forty tribes, and the General population by the end of the XVIII century, according to Daseca, could not exceed 30 thousand people [11]. Next area birdo, Dasico, were more numerous, but had fewer tribes: Heap Piperi, Britanici, Vasojevici, Bjelopavlici, Rivets ' and Moraca. Their lands were ruled by Macedonian pashy in the composition of Skadar Sandzak, and the territory of rivets ' and Moraca was part of the Herzegovinian Sandzak in the Bosnian pashalik [11]. Montenegrin Vladika Peter I with hostility treated Mahmut Pasha Bushati considering it then the main danger for Montenegro. Mahmut Pasha thought the same, it has the full right to own Montenegro, as, according to legend, rod Bustle came from Stanisi of Chernoevich, son of Ivan Chernoevich, who had converted to Islam.

Mahmut Pasha, according to Miomir Dacic, planned the establishment of their own power, which would be the territory of today's Albania, and the Slavic lands - the whole of Macedonia with Thessaloniki, and Skopje Bicol as Kosovo and Metohija [11]. Also it would have included the rest of the Serbian lands to a Niche, the whole area of Raska, region birdo, Herzegovina and Bosnia. Mahmut Pasha wanted to defeat the Republic of Venice, capture she the Montenegro coast with the cities of Budva, Herceg Novi and Which. Expected defeat, and the Republic of Dubrovnik and to capture part of Dalmatia. The main force of Mahmut Pasha was represented by the Albanians of today's Northern Albania, and Mahmut Pasha Bushati laid the foundations of the Albanian national identity. Himself Mahmut Pasha was under the influence of the ideas of the French revolution, which came through Venice and Dubrovnik [11].

Bishop Peter believed that victory over the Ports Mahmut Pasha will help Montenegro to obtain greater autonomy, and in this case, the policy of the Montenegrins neochen differed from the policy of the Serbs Sumadija. In the same way as humidity that in the First Serbian uprising was fought against the Janissaries to revolt against the Sultan and the Montenegrins got its independence in the struggle against the Ports, and against their neighbors the Albanians, who became the enemies of the Sultan.

In 1779 in Vienna attended by representatives of the Montenegrin Vladika Peter I - Governador Jovan Radonjic and Serdar Jovan Petrovic, who gave the then Minister of internal Affairs of Austria, to Baron Binder, a petition to Empress Maria Theresa. The petition contained the unrealistic demands the extension of Montenegro, a region of the Zetas, joining the FORTS of Podgorica, Spuž and žabljak (lake Skadar), areas of Piperov, birdo and Herzegovina [11]. Under these conditions, Montenegro was ready to join the Alliance with Austria, however, the proposals of Austria were not involved. The Montenegrin Bishop Vasily Petrovich in the eighteenth century sent a petition to St. Petersburg with the project of reconstruction of the Serbian power on the basis of Montenegro. Lord Peter and I had planned for the expansion of the land in Montenegro due to the areas of Zeta, Herzegovina and birdo. In Russia, however, this idea found no support, because then the plans for the liberation of Constantinople, which was the priority in Russia's policy was based on the restoration of the Byzantine Empire under the rule of the Russian crown [11].

But it should be noted that such a project Montenegro did not require the direct involvement of Russian troops and would provide the opportunity to use a Serbian human resources. However, the expansion of Montenegro also had to Montenegrins and more practical significance [11]. Montenegro was not enough fertile land and fertile valley of the Zeta, was ruled by Belavia and Piperov, would give an opportunity to improve the supply of food.

At the time, Montenegrins, due to lack of food, the masses were moved to the fertile lands of Serbia and Bosnia who were under the power Ports, and were part of Belgrade and the Bosnian Bashlykov. From hunger Montenegro was partially rescued, and financial assistance to Russia. In addition, Montenegrins, along with neighbors Herzegovina and "birthname", hunted robbery and seized the cattle from the Muslim neighbors, constantly robbing them. Naturally, the Muslims complained to the Turkish authorities, who undertook armed expeditions against Montenegro, which in turn caused the conversion of Montenegrins to help Russia, Austria and Venice. For the last Port was a constant enemy as a source of constant unrest at the borders [14].

After defeating Martinique and Crusada, Peter openly called for the creation of the Slavonic-Serbian state, which would include Montenegro, Zeta (with the cities of Skadar, Podgorica, Spuž, žabljak), birdo, Herzegovina (with the towns of Kolasin, Niksic, Trebinje, Mostar and several other), Montenegrin littoral, Dubrovytska Republic, Old Raska (with the cities of Novi Pazar, PEC, Prizren and some other) and Moravian Serbia [4]. At the head of this power, at the suggestion of Peter I, would have stood the representative of the Romanov dynasty, the assistant to the Montenegrin Metropolitan. If the creation of such powers would be a priority in Russian policy, making the conclusion from today's perspective, it could deliver a powerful blow to the Ottoman Empire and put obstacle the attempts of Austria to take advantage of the victories of Russian arms over Porto in the 19th century. In the campaigns of Mahmut Pasha and other Turkish pashas and viziers participated and Christian population. So, Miomir Dacic says that in the combat units of the Turkish army against the Austrian army in 1789 there were many Christians from Skadar of pashalik [11]. The Turkish army was in command of the serasker (commander) Bosnian front Mahmut Pasha Bushati. So as part of his army often fought the tribes of birdo who fought not only against the Austrians but also against the Montenegrins, as well as against the armed forces Ports [15].

In General it is a mistake to think that Christians, who were under the power Ports were in a completely powerless position, for, on closer examination, it becomes apparent that part of the Ottoman troops, who made trips to Europe, there were many Christians subjects of the Ports. In addition, the internal relations between Christians and Muslims was far from the contrast of the picture, because they were bound by family ties, tribal and crony connections. Christians and Muslims reconciled and fought, in most cases, based on personal rather than religious interests [15]. If it were not for the Orthodox Church, the Serbs, because of such a situation, would dissolve in the environment and become obedient subjects of the Ports. According to Miomir Dacic, from the letter of Bishop Peter I, it follows that dubrovytska Senator Luke Puzicha managed in Slatina to collect 3,400 people, ie one third of their forces, while the troops of the Turks were 5 times more soldiers, than when among them there were a sufficient number of Montenegrins and "bergan" [11].

Among those killed in the battle of Crusada was four Frenchmen that were with Mahmut Pasha Bushati advisors [14]. In the battle of Crusada on the Turkish side participated berdskoe tribe of the Heap. Before the battle of Crusada, massif Shovel 685 rebels from the tribes Vasojevici, Moraca, Uskoci and Trebesine defeated three thousandth detachment of the Muslims from Gusinje, M, White field and kolašin, who went to the aid Mahmut Pasha Bushati. The Russian Consul in Dubrovnik was count Antoine Jika [15].

Mahmut Pasha Bushati at the head of 12-strong army defeated the Montenegrin forces under the command of Jovan Radonjic, and on 23 June 1785, entered in Cetinje.

France supported the plans for the creation of an independent state Mahmut Pasha Bushati. In his "Slobodian" Peter II Petrovich njegoš wrote about Asia – the mother of mankind and the current "slave turksta stupid" and "stupidity Gloomy Asian, spread to three parts of the world." At the battle of Tescopoly in 1604 12-thousand army of the Skadar Sanjak-Bey was stopped by nine hundred Montenegrins.

By assumption, the Michael Brayovich [3], in the battle of Martinique was attended by about 3 thousand Montenegrins (from nahi Katunskiy and Rakshi) and 5-6 thousand "bergan" (from the tribes Bjelopavlici, Piperi and probably Roucy and Moraca). Montenegrins "bargane" and Herzegovina, besides the fact that he fought against the Turks, or rather against the Serbs, who converted to Islam, and even attacked each other, and because in this environment, the vendetta was widespread. Because of the constant infighting and killing of these tribes were not capable of some great joint work [6].

The Turks and the Venetians skilfully incited them to mutual strife, and at the same time had never seriously considered them in his political plans. The territory of these tribes was field to determine the relationship between the Porte and the Vatican. Only with the emergence of Russia from the local tribes has the opportunity to become a serious political factor.


  1. The cue for crno mountain. Martinii – Krusi 1796-1996. Zbornik radova sa akade stingy. Istoriski Institute Republica Crne Mountain. "Kulturno-prosvetno zajednica Podgorica". Podgorica: 1997
  2. The cue ball on Crucial 1796 hour on predau. Dr. Luke Kochavi.
  3. The cue ball on Martinika and Belopolie. Mihalo, Bebo Brajović.
  4. Be on Martynicka 22 ula 1796 godim. Prof. Dr. Radovan Jovanović.
  5. The Eastern question in the late eighteenth century. Mihajlo Vojvodić
  6. A document from the archive of spanih poslova Rosie about Palomnik dogma have Crno Gori have Posada decenii the eighteenth century", Etc. Radoslav Raspopovic.
  7. Istoriski prekretnica. Branko Pavicevic.
  8. Collii. A. ICA. Dubrovnik 12/23 VII. 1795.
  9. Mahmud Pasha Busatlija prema Crno Gori, Brima, Primary and Istocno Herzegovina ( 1777-1796 ). Academician Bohumil Hrabak.
  10. One Cirque and drzave u doba Petra I., Etc. His Pigeon Radoje Pajovic.
  11. Tribes Byrd have vrijeme Boeva on Martynicka and Crucial 1776 godim. Academician Miomir Dashi.
  12. Spona policy of Peter I. D. Like
  13. Francuska stamp on Mahmut Pasha Busatlija. A. Lanovi.
  14. French policy Prem Gori Crna have vrijeme Boeva on Martynicka and Crucial. Prof. Dr. Tomislav Guci.
  15. Crnogorsko Costa and UNESCWA Khao power istorie. Dr. Smiena Djurovi.

The Oleg Valetsky, Lucic Hope

Tags: Balkans , Masons

RELATED MATERIALS: Defence and security