Center for Strategic Assessment and forecasts

Autonomous non-profit organization

Home / Defence and security / Special Operations: Theory and capabilities / Analytics
Arzumanyan Rachya "The strategy of irregular war: Theory and Practice"
Material posted: Publication date: 20-01-2015

Consideration of experience of armed forces of the USA and of some the West European countries allows to estimate the basic problems which the military organisation of the state and system NB faces as a whole at carrying out of such military operations. They, in particular, appear are connected with necessity of reconsideration of a role of religious and military-political relations, and also theoretical and strategic problems концептуализации calls of national safety. Irreguljarnye military operations demonstrate importance of connection of military sphere with other elements of national power, оркестрирования all tools of national power for achievement of strategic targets of the nation. The book is addressed cadets and students, scientific and expert community, the civil servants, taking up the problems of war and national safety. In the monography the basic lines and characteristics иррегулярных military operations (иррегулярных wars) in the environment of safety of the XXI-st century, and also the theory and concepts иррегулярных military operations in the modern military doctrine of the USA are stated.

Development of geostrategic conditions last years, defined by such fundamental shifts as an exhaustion of effective stocks of minerals, global warming (and the processes of migration connected with it, desertification of the fertile earths, a lack of potable water, etc.), and also subjective problems of development of a civilisation (religious, ethnic, problems of a global financial system, great number occurrence over-state and not state subjects, etc.) have led to a sharp aggravation of an international tension. In such conditions even more often there is a question on necessity of application of strict measures of reaction to arising threats for the purpose of protection of the state interests. The traditional tool of the decision of rising problems is application of military force.

At the same time in the today's extremely globalized world even intention to apply military force conducts to growth of instability of many spheres of life (and even in that country which has planned force application, and not just in that against which force is applied).

On the other hand, the present condition both world, and natsional th economy, the general delay of rates of innovative activity any more does not allow to support growth of military expenses at former level. Yes in it also there is no sense, as application of the saved up arsenals without consequences including for the country, its applied, it is almost impossible. Moreover, today conflicts in which will be at war among themselves two and more hi-tech armies are improbable. Fundamental rupture, the contradiction of a modern epoch also consists in it: on the one hand, the deep system crisis of the modern civilisation which have captured many spheres of life, demands strict measures, up to application of military force (in other words - war for the permission of the collected contradictions), and with another - the saved up arsenals on types of arms is necessary and their fire power in most cases cannot be applied without serious consequences, including to the country, their applied.

On this background the accruing coil of global inflation, rise in price of all kinds of activity any more does not allow to contain armed forces and an oboronno-industrial complex exclusively on a case of large-scale military operations. Today at the state does not remain to possibility to contain army only on that small time interval when it can appear claimed.

Conflicts of last years on an example of Yugoslavia, Iraq, Libya and Syria show that the military potential saved in the years in that kind in which it was created, in most cases in the conditions of an aggravation of conditions or does not work in general, or its reorganisation and adaptation to conditions which, as a rule, cardinally differ from for what the army prepared operatively is required. As result - the lowest efficiency of fighting application of forces and means for the decision of standing problems.

On the other hand, state attempt to apply military force for the decision of problems of safety and putting in order (as it was in Russia during three Chechen campaigns, or in events in Ukraine and in Crimea), i.e. for the decision of those problems for which, including, and the military potential was created many years, in practice rests against extremely negative "public opinion" and the subsequent mezhduna-native sanctions.

Also it is necessary to consider that large-scale application of military force is preceded by a stage of escalating of forces, and with the application beginning it is necessary to care and of grouping maintenance (especially it is important if armies are involved for the decision of long-term problems in occupied territory). These steps are extremely expensive and can be justified only for very short period of time, or only in the conditions of conducting large-scale war and transfer of economy into the mobilisation plan.

The analysis shows that the West the first has realised occurring changes. Formation and maintenance of grouping of forces and means, for example, across the same Yugoslavia or across Iraq have managed to the American and European tax bearers in very considerable sum. Thus it is necessary to consider that from all power of the created groupings some percent (as a rule, it is aircraft and forces of a special purpose) were effectively applied.

The understanding of occurring changes was reflected in the strengthened development of not military means and struggle methods (including economic, an inform-tsionnye, etc.). Today the US State department takes of much more powerful position, than the Pentagon as co-ordinates in sphere of conducting an antagonism and integrates all elements of national power for the decision of standing problems.

The concept of "colour revolution» when the put political ends are reached at the expense of use of internal protest potential without large-scale application of military force became result of such work, for example.

Today the most perspective concept in the West is the concept of irregular military operations meaning wide application of guerrilla, diversionary and special forms and ways of struggle.

Already in the second Iraq campaign (and also in Afghanistan) collective forces of the USA and the NATO began to involve actively for the decision of standing problems such structures, as the private military companies. This mechanism allowed, using only a financial resource without an additional infrastructure, to involve great strengths of professionals for the decision of specific targets. Cилы ЧВК were applied to the decision of problems of a peace time (support of dangerous cargoes, protection of infrastructural objects, conducting of caravans, the help of local police, etc.), and if necessary the same forces solved also fighting problems. The high competition among ЧВК allowed to lead selection of the most suitable executors, and with narrow specialisation in conditions of performance of a problem (a climatic zone, level of military preparation, the prof. specialisation, etc.) . But that the most important thing, in case of any illegal actions by representatives ЧВК around their application never the shade laid down on the state. In case of event publicity existing norms and rules of legal responsibility which automatically deduced the state from under blow of negative public opinion always came into effect.

As to arms and military technology systems the Afghani campaign for the USA also became rather indicative in this question. So, the army of the USA has started to refuse systems of arms of superfluous fire power in favour of intellectual high-precision systems of arms. The decision was accepted that many problems in the conditions of the modern conflict should dare not systems залпового fire or powerful artillery systems, and the high-precision weapon.

It is important to notice that the majority of traditional means of arms for the application should be relocated on a battlefield, the system of their technical maintenance and service (and how many will be different ТВД, it is so much an infrastructure and it is necessary to create) should be adjusted. Besides, possibility of always remains that the resisting party will undertake actions for the purpose of deducing of the developed means of defeat out of operation or their capture (that is most critical for the party which have developed them).

Modern means of defeat, such, for example, as fighting pilotless flying machines, are based far from a place of their direct application. They not only are protected by it from possible di-versions, but also give the chance to apply the same means on different ТВД that attracts essential economy on an auxiliary and providing infrastructure. Besides, pilotless flying machines can be found long time in a zone of fighting application, solving in need of a problem on fire support of land forces.

All above-stated specifies that modern approaches to conducting military operations continue to change. Application of forces of a special purpose, active use of guerrilla war (i.e. everything that in the special literature has received the name of "irregular military operations») become one of the main forms of an antagonism. In these conditions it is important to know and understand theoretical bases and historical experience of origin and development of this kind of the armed struggle. The Soviet military school had a wide experience of the organisation and conducting guerrilla war; as to army Russian in it during the last years this experience has not been claimed. The current situation shows that time has come to meet this lack.

We hope that the presented monography will serve in quality of one of sources which will give the chance to estimate a current condition of development of the concept иррегулярной struggle at the western military school, to understand its merits and demerits and to take all the best for perfection and development of a domestic military science.


RELATED MATERIALS: Defence and security
Возрастное ограничение