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Some conceptual approaches in the United States and NATO to conduct special operations
Material posted: -Publication date: 21-09-2011

To better understand the nature of the operations against Libya and the role of the MTR, it is necessary to refer to the primary sources of U.S. forces and other NATO countries, which, unlike "credible" to the media, officially regulate the powers of the military authorities of all levels, as well as the responsibilities of those or other officials in the preparation and conduct of operations, the use of the allocated forces and means.

In particular, in the U.S. armed forces officially defined the main and additional tasks special operations forces in modern conditions:

1. The fight against terrorism. Military-political leadership considers U.S. special operations Forces as an effective tool, organized, trained and equipped to conduct counter-terrorism operations in any country of the world. Mtrs are fighting terrorism offensive, for the purpose of identification, prevention, deterrence, containment and the elimination of the full range of threats from terrorists. This activity is carried out in two directions: first, through anti-terrorism measures to reduce vulnerability from acts of terrorism, the second is through counter-terrorism measures aimed at the cessation of terrorist acts, wherever they occurred.

The forms these actions can be:

  • intelligence operations;
  • attacks against terrorist networks and their infrastructure;
  • the release of the hostages;
  • information-analytical activities against terrorist organizations.
  • shares of different nature, aimed at destroying the ideological and motivational base for terrorism.

2. Countering the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The fight against the proliferation of nuclear, biological, chemical weapons aims to protect American territory and interests, as well as U.S. citizens abroad. The main purpose of these actions is to prevent or limit the spread of weapons of mass destruction, their means of delivery, and related technologies of their production. This has a number of active actions such as:

  • the collection and analysis of intelligence on the accumulation of certain materials, their processing, development and research of samples (components) of the MTO;
  • support diplomatic efforts on non-proliferation of WMD;
  • the control of certain weapons WMD;
  • export controls.

These activities are carried out with the involvement of the SDF in close collaboration with other U.S. government organizations.

3. Special exploration. The Sof may be involved in the conduct of special intelligence in any region of the world, for the purpose of collecting or verifying the intelligence of strategic or operational levels.

Special reconnaissance are to:

  • receive, extension or validation of the volume of information concerning capabilities, intentions and activities of actual or potential enemy to provide effective assistance to the troops of General purpose in favour of strategic (operational) issues;
  • collect meteorological, hydrographic, geographic, demographic and other information;
  • determine the coordinate location purposes;
  • assess the impact of the strikes.

4. Directed actions. Provides for the holding of units of the SDF of short-term and limited special operations in any country of the world for the purpose of capturing, mastering, capture, disabling or complete destruction (liquidation) of the purposes (objects) in the interests of conducting an operational task or support actions of the combined arms forces in the interests of achieving strategic objectives.

Varieties of "directed actions":

  • raids;
  • the ambushes;
  • direct the assault of the objects;
  • the laying of mines;
  • drawing fire air strikes on ground-based or sea-based, located outside the zone of immediate contact with the enemy;
  • designations or "illumination" of targets for precision-guided weapons;
  • support for General purpose forces;
  • committing sabotage and acts of sabotage on enemy territory;
  • the capture or destruction of enemy command personnel.

5. "Unconventional war". The concept of "unconventional war" the Pentagon is investing a broad range of military "paramilitary" operations (usually for a long period of time) on the territories controlled by the enemy, as well as areas that are important to US. This war is attracting loyal to the United States local populations, irregular forces, on the basis of which representatives of the MTR organized the insurgency. Special attention is paid to management, training, arming, equipping, support. Forms of unconventional war could be a long battle using tactics of guerrilla war, and acts of sabotage, Subversion, intelligence.

6. Information operations. Information operations - a kind of special operations that are relatively new focus of the American SSO, aimed at the achievement of excellence through dissemination of information, influence on consciousness, information systems of the enemy and the processes of decision-making, protect their information and information systems. As noted by the commander of the SDF of the U.S. armed forces (1997-2000), General shoemaker: "special operations Forces must master the art of conducting information operations on a daily basis, in real time, trading, or advertising of hippos".

7. A psychological operation ("PSYOP"). Psychological operations - planned complex of measures directed on transfer of specially selected information to a specific audience for the purpose of influencing her emotional state, motivation, mind, and thereby on the behavior of foreign governments, various organizations, social groups, separate individuals. Their final aim is to create favourable conditions for other tasks of the Armed forces of the United States.

8. Assistance to foreign States in homeland security. In the framework of the American government to the provision of foreign assistance to States to strengthen their law and order and internal security, the SDF can be involved in organizing, training, Advisory activities and assistance to the governments of these States in creating military and paramilitary forces, for the implementation of programs to protect society from the overthrow of the government, and other subversive insurgency, lawlessness, riots etc. the MTR also provide intermediary services for the promotion and stimulation of development of economic, social, political and military sectors of the state.

9. Operations of the civil administration. These operations of the MTR carried out in war-torn or a local conflict areas (countries). They provide for the establishment of temporary administrations for the solution of certain problems of the local population, local authorities and management. Special attention is paid to the protection of the local population and minimizing exposure to military operations.

Among additional tasks of the MTR include:

1. Coalition support. Special operations forces perform missions as part of coalition forces in multinational military operations. Teach coalition partners the tactics and methods of interaction. Use your expertise to develop relationships with the local population.

2. The fight against drugs and drug trafficking. Special operations forces directly involved in counter-narcotics, train foreign special units on fight against drugs to conduct operations to identify, ban the cultivation, production and sale of illegal drugs, and participate in these events.

3. Search and rescue operations. They are carried out to identify and return to its territory of U.S. troops and other citizens trapped in enemy territory or in zones of local conflicts.

4. Humanitarian assistance. SSO help the civilian population in localization and liquidation of consequences of military actions, extreme situations of natural-biological and technological characters.

5. Special measures. Special measures to plan and carry out overseas to implement foreign policy objectives. Special events the role of the U.S. government is not apparent or acknowledged publicly.

The above tasks are special operations Forces of the U.S. armed forces for the period of peacetime and wartime is detailed, concretized with regard to their specificity for each type of special operations forces and assets that participate in them.

Along with, the most important component of the national security strategy of the United States became "hidden action" (many sources also translated as "covert action" or "covert operations"), which have pronounced signs of special operations, therefore, can and should be read in conjunction with them. By definition, an expert in the field of military intelligence Roy Godson, "hidden shares - this is the government's attempt to affect another state or any territory without indicating his own involvement".

Frank Barnett, President of the Information center of the national strategy (USA), believes that "hidden shares" in the American political lexicon is one kind of special operations in the implementation of the "transnational politics." As an example, can be called the tactics of "non-military destruction of the Soviet Empire", which for many years included "the erosion of confidence in the CPSU from the population and promoting contradictions among the various categories of Soviet societies".

Also to understand that they were supposed to do by definition of the MTR aircraft of NATO countries in the operation against Libya, let us consider some definitions joint doctrine NATO's"Allied Joint Doctrine - AJP-01" (STANAG 2437).

In particular, Chapter 8 provides a definition: "...Special operations are military activities conducted by specially designated, organized, trained and equipped forces, using forms and ways of fighting, unusual for conventional forces. Such events are held in all types of operations (including peacekeeping, crisis management or conflict) and at all levels, independently or in coordination with the actions of conventional forces to achieve political, military, psychological and economic objectives. Political and military expediency may require the use of hidden, secret or covert means and allows some degree of physical or political riskthat is not associated with normal operations...".

The tasks of Special operations Forces.

In the context of joint operations, NATO special operations forces are involved in carrying out three specific tasks: special reconnaissance and surveillance, directed actions and military assistance.

Special reconnaissance and surveillance include:

  • the appraisal district operations in the interests of the joint staff;
  • special intelligence operations in the interest of the use of the armed forces;
  • a particularly important exploration targets;
  • the collection, processing and storage of critical intelligence information.
  • exploration of key elements of infrastructure in enemy territory or to another territory;
  • meteorological, geographical, hydrographic reconnaissance and exploration impact in the interests of specific land, air or sea operations.

Targeted actions include:

  • the destruction of critical objectives or implementation of the relevant measures of impact on material assets and personnel;
  • the destruction of critical lines of communication;
  • positioning and capture (freed) important material resources or personnel;
  • the capture, destruction or neutralization of critical elements of infrastructure, armament and military equipment;
  • the release of the hostages;
  • providing aviation support and conducting search and rescue operations in enemy territory or hostile territory;
  • support of actions against the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction;
  • conducting special operations against "informational" purposes of the enemy, including systems of control of troops (forces), computer networks, information centres, etc.;
  • the anti-terrorist operation.

Military assistance includes:

  • training, equipping and, if necessary, assistance in subversive or guerrilla movements;
  • training and training, equipping the armed forces and paramilitary forces of the host country, with the aim of raising their performance to a level that allows confident control of the political situation;
  • support of peacekeeping operations by:
  • direct action organizing, intelligence, medical, engineering, event security in humanitarian crises, etc.;
  • responsibilities of contact persons (mediators) to negotiate in multinational and multicultural environment to resolve conflict situations, assistance in rebuilding infrastructure during manmade and natural disasters, etc.

Thus, the above-mentioned document and numerous other guidance documents of the U.S. and NATO allow us to conclude: with regard to Libya, officials of bodies of military management of the USA and other NATO countriesresponsible for the preparation and conduct of the operation, do not follow the "fashion on the MTR", and at all levels were required to prepare and conduct special operations to achieve the overall objectives of the operation. It is also necessary to mention that on the website of the African Command of the U.S. armed forces (USAFRICOM) shows its structure (as control). Its analysis allows to draw attention to the presence of a number of structural units, to the needs, powers and competences of which include special operations.

Tags: war , USA , NATO , Libya , Special Forces

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