The end of the twentieth century was marked by the U.S. return to more aggressive practice of using armed forces abroad. A key role was played by special forces.
The first American "special forces" in the modern sense are considered as units "Rangers" and according to the book "Spetsnaz Russia" Vladimir Kvachkova in 1756 during Anglo-French wars the British army created the first squad of rangelov (old English-raunger-huntsman), under the command of major Rogers. Gained in this and other similar teams of volunteers from among the British colonists as well as among the Indians, and they acted like a typical partisan units, having a high degree of independence both in command and in behavior.
These forces also played an important role in the American war for independence in the actions of the American army against the British,when they methods of guerrilla warfare were able to partly compensate the weakness of the American army, inferior in the preparation of regular British troops.
Later during the Civil war in the USA (1861-85 year), according to V. Kvachkova and the "southerners" and "northerners" used in their actions division "rangelov".
During the Second World war "rangery" vossozdany were in separate battalions for action in the European and Pacific fronts,and after the war of reformirovania.
In 1950, with the outbreak of war in Korea division "rangelow" again were vossozdany in separate mouth and after the war again reformirovan. With the progress of the Vietnam war in 1969 was again vossozdany a separate part "of rangelov" - 75th regiment, again in 1972, disbanded. In 1974, again were vossozdany separate battalions "rangelow" and now since 1986 in the U.S. army there is however, already as a classic reconnaissance and sabotage part — regiment "rangelov", but subordinated to the army headquarters.
In practice, however, the role of the former "rangelov", in the second half of the twentieth century were play of forces "green berets".
Forces "green berets" were established in 1952 in Fort Bragg (USA) in the form of separate X group of special purpose.
This group was commanded by Colonel Aaron Bank, a veteran of American intelligence operations of the OSS in support of the "resistance Movement" in France and Philippine partisans during World war II and a member of CIA operations in the rear of North Korean forces during the Korean war (1950-53).
When completing the new part have been taken and candidates are foreigners,primarily from Eastern Europe,since the group was created for action in the European theater of operations.
In 1953 was created the 77-th group,and later, in 1960, disbanded like the X-St was supposed to fight in Eastern Europe.
Although these groups and fulfill certain missions in the interests of the CIA in Europe, but they had to fight in Vietnam, first as advisors, then as units representing a kind of been the core of the Vietnamese, first of all national minorities, "guerrilla" and "protivoprotosana" forces.
President John F. Kennedy was created in 1961 (although their formation began in 1960,before Kennedy taking the oath) seven special operations group first, 7-th, whose main area of responsibility was Latin America, 1st deployed in Okinawa and the 5th for which the main theatre of hostilities was South Vietnam.
Were created 11-th,12-th,19-th and 20-th groups also participated in the Vietnam war. In 1963 was established as 3-rd, 6-th and 8-th special operations group also took part in the operations in Vietnam,but then the 6th and 8th groups were disbanded in 1972.
By the early 90s, according to the book “special Forces” Colonel Stojan Jovic special forces of the U.S. army were subordinated through the joint special operations command USSOCOM directly to the chiefs of staff of the United States.
Command of special operations in the army (land forces) of the USA was entrusted to the 1st team SOCOM whereas the planning of operations was conducted by the Directorate of special operations SOD, having in its composition units are responsible for planning and conducting operations, and conducting intelligence and counter-intelligence work.
In their competence there was a psychological war, using disinformation, and similar related tasks.
According to Stojan Jovic for the period 1st SOCOM command was subordinated to five groups of special forces (green berets), responsible for a certain part of the globe, and four groups (two of the United States army reserve and two national guard) were in reserve,while the 11-th and 12-th special operations group in 1992 were disbanded.
Each special forces group was divided into three battalions of three companies. Acted "green beret" as a rule, in groups (team "A"), consisting of twelve commandos (professional soldiers, selected by competition from volunteers of the American army; or highly skilled professionals from the civil sector and of intelligence). Commando also acted as instructors and advisers to local groups (One group "And" supervised the preparation and local actions 500-600 fighters) or independently conducted military operations.
Roth's "the green berets" respectively unfolded in team "B" (in Vietnam he worked in the area of the hull), composed in turn of the six groups "A".
One team "B" could teach a military unit of three to four thousand local "allies" acting in the area of responsibility of the army corps.
As almost all of the commandos had ten years of service in the armed forces, and often in combat, and among them were many immigrants from those Nations, among whom must act this group "green berets", they could establish control at a given, providing the American army.
Finally, there was SOCOM forces and psychological warfare - four groups (one - acting, three - in reserve) and strength to administer the occupied territories (including police work), and also existed and helicopter brigade of special purpose.
In command of SOCOM, there was then the reconnaissance group of the ISA, consisting of special agents, providing the action of forces and subordinate to INSCOM (the intelligence service of the special forces) than was provided and the efficiency of work on the ground and so from security personnel and soldiers "green berets" to perform tasks in Central America in the ' 80s, they developed the operational group "Yellow Fruit" .
An important role in the actions of the special operations command, the US has played and the Delta force.
This group was created by Colonel Charles Beckwith on the model of British forces special forces "SAS" and was intended to fight terrorism around the world, with the support of all branches of the armed forces of the United States.
However in Iran they first applied in 1980 was unsuccessful,because during the operation Eagle Claw themselves pilots of helicopters and airplanes landing them in place of the intended start of the operation were unprepared and after an event of crashes, and not joining the battle, but losing the dead and wounded, the detachment was evacuated.
In the future, the squad took part in several more operations, and one of the most of them was the operation in Somalia conducted by task delivered to U.S. Central command as part of operation "Continue hope" ("Extension of hope") involving the supply and provision of peacekeeping forces of the UN mission UNASOM-2.
For US then the main obstacle was at the time the largest armed group of Somali militia of General Mohammed Farah Aideed, had been resting on his powerful clan swag-Gidir. General Aideed had secured the support of the Islamic world, including some leaders of the Islamic fundamentalist organizations, primarily Osama Bin Laden, some of the militants who appeared to be in Somalia, including Mohamed Atef, later killed in Afghanistan.
General Aideed was only formally signed a truce, but did not respect him and furthermore, he moved to attacks on UN peacekeepers.
On 5 June his militia attacked Pakistani peacekeepers, killing twenty-four of them and their bodies dragged through the streets of Mogadishu, and with the other of them was rubbed raw. The UN Security Council the next day adopted Resolution 837, demanding the arrest and trial of those responsible for the violence against UN peacekeepers.
July 12 American attack helicopters AH-1 "Cobra" struck at the home, where the intelligence was to be a meeting of General Aideed with the representatives of his clan swag-Gidir. The attack claimed the lives of 73 members of the clan. Trapped in this place five Western journalists were linevery, and only one managed to escape.
After that, American special forces conducted five raids for the search and arrest of members of the militia of General Aideed. Their operations, the Americans were on the request of the representative of the UN Secretary General in Somalia American Jonathan Hove, who succeeded in March 1993, Iraqi, Ismat Kitani and former supporter of tough love and, therefore, wanted the arrest of General Aideed.
3 and 4 of October was the sixth RAID by American troops after General Aideed, dubbed "the First battle for Mogadishu". This RAID was attended by a contingent of the special forces of the U.S. under the command of major-General William Harrison. In the group included soldiers of the 1st operative unit of the special forces ("Delta"), 2nd company of the 3rd battalion 75 th Ranger regiment U.S. army, 160th aviation regiment special purpose (19 transport helicopter MH-60 "Black Hawk" helicopters MH-6 "Little bird"), "6th team" special forces of the U.S. Navy (US Navy SEALs), as well as groups of aviarabotnikov the U.S. air force. The aim of the operation was the capture of the headquarters of General Aidid in the centre of Mogadishu, with the fact that the Americans went into surgery without armor and in the daytime.
Air reconnaissance was also conducted aircraft aviation U.S. Navy P-3A and reconnaissance helicopters, HE-58. The assault detachment of 160 soldiers and officers in helicopters, MH-60 Black Hawk during air support, landed at the district headquarters of Aidid in Mogadishu, arrested two of his aides of Omar salad and Mohamed Hassan Oval. However, during the operation two helicopters "Black Hawk" were shot down by rocket-propelled grenades, and one pilot Michael Durant was captured, and three helicopter received heavy damage. Promoting ground groups on the Hummer was complicated as the resistance of Aidid's militia and the local population, who built on the path of movement of a group of barricades of stones and burning tires, and one truck was hit.
Paratroopers from both downed helicopters, among whom were wounded, were cut off. When one group made another terrestrial group, and it was cut off in the area, and at nightfall took up defensive positions in nearby buildings, taking hostages of the local Somalis. Due to poor coordination inexperienced Rangers fired at their colleagues from the group "Delta".
Somali militants under the command of Colonel Sharif Hassan Giumale began to fire mortars at the Americans. Another group of paratroopers, including two snipers of the squad, took up positions on the roofs of the building, was discovered by Aidid's militia and destroyed. The next morning, a mechanized group of peacekeeping forces UNASOM-2, which included units of the U.S. 10th mountain division (2nd battalion of the 14th regiment and the 1st platoon of the 1st battalion, 87 regiment), units of the Pakistan (the 15th battalion of the border regiment and the 10th battalion of the regiment "Beams") and Malaysian (19th battalion of the Royal Malay regiment) contingent, made their way to the besieged Americans. Armor was represented only Pakistani tanks M-48 and Malaysian Condor armored personnel carriers. Group lost killed two Americans and one Malaysian and evacuated the Americans to the base of the Pakistani peacekeepers. Two days later the Americans were on the base, the Somali Aidid's militia struck with mortars, killing one and injuring 12 people.
Just the operations on 3-4 October 1993, the Americans lost 18 dead and 73 wounded, one prisoner (later exchanged). Malaysian soldier was also killed, and 7 Malaysians and Pakistanis were wounded. The militia of General Aideed's lost about five hundred killed,but some of them were civilians who lived in these neighborhoods.
As a result, U.S. President bill Clinton gave the order to the then Chairman of the joint chiefs of staff David Jeremiah, to stop all operations. Then Clinton declared that American troops not later than 31 March 1994 leave Somalia. The U.S. Secretary of defense Aspin Woods December 15, resigned. In Somalia there are only about a thousand people from the American military and civilian personnel under the protection of UN peacekeeping forces, only the air forces and the U.S. Navy continued to support the peacekeepers. To ensure full evacuation of Americans in Mogadishu was sent a battalion of the 24th infantry division of the U.S. army and by March 1994, the Americans from Somalia completely evacuated.
During the war in former Yugoslavia soldiers "green berets" participated in 1994-95 in the preparation of the army of Croatia under the guise of a Private military company IPRM.
So the attacks on the Serbs in Republika Srpska Krajina in Croatia,was developed directly by American military advisers the U.S. private military company MPRI ( "Military Professional Resources Inc.").
The last in September 1994,article "Privatizing Combat, the New World Order" published on the website "The Center for Public Integrity" organization "The International Consortium of Investigative Journalists", thanks to the support of U.S. Secretary of defense William Perry,was awarded a contract by the U.S. government to train an army of Croatia and at the same time the same contract with the U.S. government received in the preparation of the army of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
During the fighting in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1994-95 MPRI performed the task in the interests Pravitelstva USA and through General John Savala, military adviser to the U.S. Secretary of state Warren Christopher, she received direct instructions from President Bill Clinton.
Developed by the General staff of the Croatian army's "Center of command, control and coordination" and "processing Center intelligence" was involved in both the operational and intelligence work of the Croatian General staff,and ensured close cooperation of the Croatian and American intelligence services, including in the field listening to the conversations between the Yugoslav and Russian sides, and supplied the Croatian headquarters data on Serbian troops.
Company MPRI provided the Croatian and getting the staff data from American military satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles of the U.S. army,established on the island of brac
While MPRI sent the training team-MTT (Mobil Traning Team - mobile training group), in operating units of the Croatian army, primarily in the composition of the special forces and the guards units of the Croatian army and among these instructors a significant part was military personnel of forces "green berets".
The special forces of the USA in the fighting in Bosnia was not involved,because the United States refused to send troops to the NATO ground forces participating in operations against Serbian troops in August-September 1995.
The only case of combat use of American units during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina was a rescue operation pilot of the American fighter F-16C "Fighting Falcon" 512 th fighter squadron of the U.S. air force shot down a Serbian self-propelled SAM "Cube" over Markanich-hail 2 June 1995.
The pilot of the plane Cattle O'grady, descending by parachute, was seen by the Serbs, but before they reported to the headquarters, the pilot managed to escape and June 8, was successfully evacuated a group of search and rescue Corps, U.S. marine corps TRAP (TRAP - Tactical Recovery of Aircraft and Personel Team) took off from an aircraft carrier in the Adriatic.
After the peace agreement in November 1995 at the airbase "Dayton" in the U.S. special forces USA, were active in propaganda activities against "enemies of the Dayton agreement". According to the book “Bosansko front of darkness(America in the Balkans)” author Dragan Jamica especially active was the U.S. command, used for counter-propaganda forces of the 4th psychological operations group of special purpose, as well as 193 squadron special purpose of the U.S. air force. From the latter,according to Jameco to support operations of American troops in Bosnia and Herzegovina after the war were allocated three aircraft EC-130 F "Command Solo". These aircraft are established on the basis of military transport aircraft C-130, were tested by the American army in Panama, Haiti and in the Persian Gulf and were used for psychological manipulation of a population.
As for participation in peacekeeping operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina as part of the American contingent of the international security forces command IFOR, the U.S. used the Delta force.
In Bosnia and Herzegovina detachment was used to arrest suspected war prestupleniyah the requests from the International Tribunal in the Hague.
Though those arrests they conducted among local suspected of having committed war crimes could conduct a regular division of the Italian carabinieri, the last successfully did.
The search and arrest of persons accused by the International Tribunal in the Hague, were not "militants" in the Hollywood style, but rather "drama" in the spirit of the "Latin series". Certain forces in the West used the Tribunal for their own purposes,including the establishment of a unified Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Received under the international pressure and the threat of economic znaczy documents from the International Tribunal in the Hague was handed down in the Supreme court of Bosnia and Herzegovina for war crimes and the war crimes Prosecutor's office of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Thus was obtained an effective lever for managing society in the interests of "international" community.
Properly this it is no wonder that Americans ran their own game and so according to published in the 2008 document "Yugoslav controversies" five years prepared by a team of international experts,the U.S. command in Bosnia and Herzegovina for years has hindered the work of the International Tribunal in the Hague in Bosnia and Herzegovina.In the Serbian newspaper "the Press" were privedenny examples from the report of the cases where American military command deliberately avoided making arrests of suspects.
Played an important role in the activities of U.S. special forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the challenges in the fight against Iranian influence on the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which began to escape from under the control of the United States.
In 1993 was started to send employees on Bosnian intelligence training in Iran in the "center" of COGSA unit of the Iranian Revolutionary guard.
According to the documents announced in the program "60 minutes", dated 14 December 2009, the state television company FGTS itself, the training went from late 1993 to early 1995 thirteen people.
It is obvious that the establishment of the Iranians influential network agents in Bosnia and Herzegovina is clearly beyond the agreement between Iran and the U.S. and because of this the RAID of the international security force IFOR in February 1996 in the special training camp of the Iranian revolutionary guards "Pogorelica" under the fojnica upon additional cost, with the arrest of several Iranian instructors.
The creation of this special training camp was supervised by then Minister of internal Affairs of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bakir, Alispahic, the chief of military security of the army of Bosnia and Herzegovina Enver Mujezinovic and the head of HADES (Muslim Agency, later disbanded) Kemal Ademović. It was suggested that the failure(or change) the camp Pogorelica paid on 28 September 1996 the life Nejad Plan, the then Deputy chief of HADES, who was suspected of too close ties with the CIA murdered under mysterious circumstances.
An important role was played in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the special forces unit of the British SAS.
British special forces - SAS have been created by a Scottish officer David Stirling in 1941 in North Africa and were quickly subordinated to the British Agency MI6 (or SIS) .
Under her leadership, the SAS forces organized guerrilla units and conducted reconnaissance and sabotage actions in occupied by Germans territories of Libya and Egypt, then in Italy and France and participated in some sabotage operations on other parts of the front, in particular in Norway.
At the end of the Second World war they participated in the suppression of the Communist partisans in Greece, and after the Second World war, the British used them to suppress the guerrillas in Malaya and in Borneo and then in Ulster and in other areas of British interest.
By the beginning of the Yugoslav war special forces army (SAS command), consisted of three regiments: the 22nd current, and 21 and 23 – backup.
In addition, there were special forces of the Navy (command of the SBS) from the same squadron.
The SAS regiment consisted of four squadrons and support units and a squadron of four platoons (each with four groups of four) assault, mountain, parachute and sea. The SAS and SBS commandos were selected from volunteers and, as a rule, from the parachute regiment (the perform reconnaissance and sabotage tasks) and the marine corps. They were also foreigners.
These forces later took an active part in the Yugoslav war as in the "peacekeeping" troops,and as part of rapid reaction forces NATO established in 1995 for attacks on Serbs.
So in particular they induced controlled bombs with laser guidance on the position of Serb forces at Gorazde in April 1994, losing one killed and several wounded from small arms fire Serbs.
The British SAS played a key role in the operations of UN peacekeeping forces and because these forces commander, British General Michael rose was the former commander of 22nd regiment.
We can assume,given the fact that this regiment played a key role in an "external" operations of British intelligence MI-5, that this circumstance has predetermined the appointment of Michael rose for the position, what additional evidence the role played by the veterans of this regiment in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina, and throughout the former Yugoslavia, controlling a wide range of political and economic projects from the oil and gas sector to mine clearance and recruitment at private military companies in Iraq and Afghanistan.
After the war, as part of the international security forces IFOR the British special forces participated in the search and arrest of persons indicted for war crimes by the International Tribunal in the Hague and, in particular, in July 1998, a year was arrested in Predore Dr. Milan Kovacevic and when resistance killed the former chief of center of internal Affairs Predore Simo Gerlach,who managed to hurt one of them.
With the outbreak of war in Kosovo in 1998, 10th group special purpose Command of the U.S. special operations - USSOCOM was carried out according to the Serbian intelligence training Albanian fighters in Albania.
With the beginning of air strikes on Yugoslavia, the group took part in the fighting,exchanging on
the territory of Kosovo and Metohija forces 325-th air group.
325-th air group AFSOC using as a base in Albania and Brindisi air base and Vicenza in Italy provided the movement on the internal front in Kosovo as fighters UCC and employees of Western intelligence agencies and special forces groups of the US and the UK, responsible for the collection of information,command actions group UCC, coordination of WCC with NATO aircraft and targeting for the NATO air ground targets.
The command of the special forces of the U.S. air force to participate in the operation threw the aircraft AC-130H which according to the book "the Aggression of NATO air force and air defense forces in the defense of the Fatherland" of the former commander of the air force of Yugoslavia, General Spasoje Smiljanic was used in the parts of Kosovo and Metohija where the air defense was suppressed or absent.
For the transportation of personnel and cargo into the territory of Kosovo and Metohija was used a number of special types of aircraft and helicopters for night flying low at low own noise level - the MC – 130, MH-53, MH-47, MH – 60 K.
The U.S. special forces in conjunction with the special forces unit in the UK was mainly used for use direct from the ground, laser business.
This gave the opportunity to render direct fire support to the forces of the Albanian UCK in the operations of the Yugoslav army.
Destroying a single target in the form of tanks,armoured personnel carriers and trucks forces soldiers of the special forces of the US and the UK that offset the superiority of the army of Yugoslavia over UCC.
Thus the task of the commandos was not in ambushes and the capture of "languages" as imagined in the movies of Hollywood, which, after the end of the war and the overthrow of Milosevic eventually began to prevail over the psychology of both military and civil officials of security agencies of Serbia, and in bringing guided air bombs (laser GOS) with laser target designators, installation of radar beacons and operation of various systems of electronic reconnaissance.
In these circumstances, to engage in direct fire contact with the British special forces and American troops and made no sense, and this contact occurred only in the case if the units of the army of Yugoslavia was able to find a base where in addition to units based UCC and units of U.S. special forces or SWAT UK.
It was very rare and known only about two cases of such conflicts on the territory of Kosovo and Metohija,while the case of the capture of three American soldiers occurred on the territory of neighbouring Macedonia that relate to the field of special operations of the Serbian side.
After the withdrawal of the Yugoslav army from the territory of Kosovo and Metohija and its occupation the international security force KFOR special forces the US has maintained its important role in leading the so-called civil-military operations "Civil-Military Operations" when according to which the U.S. armed forces together with civilian organizations conduct "peacekeeping" activities in the framework of cooperation between the U.S. army, NATO, and the UN – the so-called CIMIC (civil-military cooperation).
The headquarters of KFOR in the framework of these operations was ensured by synchronization of the actions of civil society organisations and multinational teams,according to the plan NATO OPLAN 31402.
The plan according to Larry Wentz, in his book "Lessons from the Kosovo experience KFOR" ordered the KFOR to support the administration of UNMIK In the field of construction, humanitarian assistance, civil administration and economic reconstruction.So in each sector (multinational brigade) were held weekly joint meetings on security issues-JSC(Joint Security Committee) representatives of KFOR and UNMIK.
Scuba were also used by all international organizations – IO (international organizations) and NGO (non-governmental organizations) so that they had priority by the representatives of: UNHCR, U. N. Civil Administration,OSCE(Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe) and EU.
The U.S. army in this case has attracted from the command of civil administration and psychological operations – USACAPOC (U.S. Army Civil Affairs and Psychological) battalions of the so-called civil administration (civil affairs) and the battalion psychological operations - PSYOP.
Even during the war in Kosovo in the headquarters ARRC and headquarters KFOR the first rotation was according to the book the book "Lessons from the Kosovo experience KFOR" Larry Crown more than two dozen officers of the command of civil administration - U.S. Operational Civil Affairs Presence in order to further their numbers constantly decreased.
Members of this command in addition to the support of command headquarters in the U.S. and had the support of special operations command Europe - SOCEUR (Special Operations Command, Europe) in Stuttgart in Germany.
After entering KFOR forces in sector East, according to Larry Crown acted 411 and 443 of the battalions of the civil administration (civil affairs) of the United States army reserve 315 and Rota psychological operations PSYOP of the United States army reserve.
According to the text of Christopher Colchica "the Operational art of Civil-military operations" ("The Operational Art of Civil-Military Operations: Promoting Unity of Effort" Christopher Holshek) from the book "Lessons from the Kosovo experience KFOR" Larry Crown in September 2000 in Kosovo there was 650 various international organizations,including non-governmental - NGO (nongovernmental) and "volunteer" - PVO (private voluntary organizations)
The commander of the battalion 411 civil administration - Civil Affairs according to Christopher Conseco believed in the summer of 2000 that CMO operations should be part of the process of military planning.
According to the American doctrine of use of special forces,such operations should be carried out for supporting the troops and supporting political processes in the civilian environment.
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- “Agresija NATO-Ratno vazduhoplovstvo and protivvazdusna odbrana odbrana otalia”. General Spasoje Zmieni.Beograd. 2009
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Tags: strategy , USA , Special Forces
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