Experience of operational and combat activities of the troops of the KGB (MVD) to combat the armed gangs of the bourgeois-nationalist underground during the great Patriotic war and in the postwar period, and the modern view of command of the armed forces of the imperialist States on the formation, tactics gangs behind enemy lines indicate that gangs usually carry out their subversive activities in remote areas of the countryside: mountains, forests, and other areas that hinder the operations for the timely identification, disclosure and destruction of gangs.
The commanders of the troops of the KGB (MVD), operatively-fighting activity which takes place primarily in the fight against enemy agents and armed gangs, you need to know to combat gang violence in various conditions. The present manual is intended for students of the Institute and aims to show the main features of the operational-combat and service use of troops of the KGB (MVD) to fight the banditry in the mountains.
FEATURES OF MOUNTAIN CONDITIONS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE ACTIONS OF GANGS AND TROOPS
Mountain conditions dramatically affect the nature of operational service and combat activity of troops in the mountains. The mountain regions are distinguished by the lack of roads, the inaccessibility of some areas, steep climbs and descents, a large number of natural obstacles, rocky mountains, jumble rocks, dense thickets and fallen trees, the sudden rise of the water in mountain rivers with steep banks, the presence of gorges, piercing winds, and sharp temperature fluctuations, and winter, in addition, snow blizzards and avalanches.
This rugged terrain has the following features:
a) ridges and spurs of mountains as divide the area for the natural compartments, which creates difficulties in the organization of management in operating the operation units;
b) forests covering the slopes of mountains, lack of in some cases distinctive landmarks hinder the orientation of the terrain;
b) a large number of fields of invisibility, and the so-called dead spaces, the limitations of the review during the frequent fogs and low clouds descending (mostly in the mornings) hinder observation, however, with peaks and ridges of the mountains you can organize observation at longer distance than on the plain;
d) sharp temperature change, the complex configuration of the terrain to reduce the effectiveness of rifle and machine gun fire.Shooting in the mountains is at high angles of elevation (positive and negative), for different air density, which greatly affects the trajectory and reduces the accuracy of fire, at the same time, the presence of deep valleys, creating a perfectly safe dead space, provide the possibility of firing over the head of his troops;
d) the existence of dissected mountain ranges with steep cliffs, deep gorges reduces the rate of movement and in some cases limits the maneuverability and divisive actions of office-military outfits, which forces conduct operations in areas, isolated from each other areas.The latter often precludes the ability to organize and fire a constant visual connection between the chekist military groups operating in the operation;
e) the increased audibility in the mountains, especially in the valleys and gorges that allows you to capture the noise at a considerable distance from the location of military units and service orders;
g) sometimes in the mountains after heavy rainfall produce large masses of snow slipping from the mountain slopes at high speed (snow landslides), represent a great danger to moving office outfits. In some mountain areas dangerous for troops and stone avalanches, which usually happen in the mountainous areas in spring due to melting snow and rain. Such landslides are caused by natural destruction of rocks;
h) the weather in the mountains is more variable than on the plain, and depends mainly on the heights of the mountains. Sometimes the temperature fluctuates even for one day; prevalent rains and fogs. The daytime temperature is higher, but the wind and clouds and after sunset it is dramatically reduced;
and) mountain rivers and streams often create serious difficulties for units and service orders, restricting their maneuverability. The difficulty of overcoming mountain rivers due to fast currents, uneven bottom and low water temperature. The rate of flow and quantity of water in rivers and streams often and unexpectedly changed, most flowing fast and there are rivers and streams during the melting of snow in the mountains. During this period, especially when it rains, the little mountain stream poured in large rapidly flowing rivers and still further complicates the organization of the passage. In addition, these rivers are noisy, sometimes deafening the sound of a gunshot at a distance of about 500 -600 meters;
a) mountainous terrain complicates the organization of radio communications. The main obstacle to the passage of radio waves in the mountains are so-called dead zones that arise due to the shielding effect of mountain ranges and absorption of energy forests;
l) low population density, sparse and usually small settlements, limited local food resources, and also features mountainous terrain pose serious difficulties in the supply of existing units. The features have to some extent affected the conduct of operations against banditry in the mountains, but at the same time create conditions for a broad initiative, maneuver, full encirclement and elimination of enemy gangs.
The experience of combat use of troops of the KGB (MVD) demonstrated the possibility of successful carrying out of operations on liquidation of banditry in the mountains, and the skillful use of the peculiarities of the mountain relief gives the troops a significant advantage over the enemy. Limited permeability in the mountains with the proper education and training of troops cannot be an obstacle for their combat use.
Another great Russian commander Suvorov said: “Where the deer will be there and Russian soldiers will be held, and where the deer will not pass, and there will be Russian soldiers”.
Units led by educated, well-trained, enthusiastic, resolute commanders who can easily adapt to mountain conditions and, acting boldly and confidently, gain superiority over the enemy. Mining conditions have a great influence on the methods of action of armed gangs, which use features of the mountain relief in the interests of a more thorough conspiracy and sudden bandit manifestations. Bandits operate in the areas of their residence or near them. The study area is made by them for a long time, calculated in some cases for years.
Their main tricks the bandits - build on the use of features familiar to them from the highlands. The bandits are in the mountains, as a rule, small fragmented groups and hiding in difficult terrain, in hamlets, caves, dugouts and tents. In these places the bandits usually create stocks of food and clothing. In areas adjacent to the permanent shelters settlements bandits trying to buy their liaisons and facilitators, which impute the duty to inform them of the appearance of troops, as well as all activities undertaken in the settlements. The bandits have a spare and shelter, located high in the mountains. The latter are used by the gangs in case of occurrence in areas of the main hiding places of the bandits operatives and troops. Spare going into the shelter, the bandits through their liaisons and associates are trying to obtain information about the actions of military groups and often forces after the termination of the search in the main area of the gang are returning the most hidden mountain passes far from the shelters to their places of permanent stationing, in the expectation that a secondary search in the same area will not.
Bandits arrange their shelters in such a way that access to them was limited by steep rocks, mountain river and other natural obstacles, leaving only one passage to covertly enter the vault and exit. Very often this shelter is in the deep cave. Bandits do not have any standard havens, shelters, and these shelters are made by them depending on the situation, the experience of the leader, the degree of activity of our search groups and other conditions, but usually the gangs tend to choose the shelter that meets the following requirements:
a) inaccessibility of the approaches to the refuge;
b) providing a circular monitoring approaches;
b) reliability of the shelter for fighting the appearance of our troops;
g) availability of source of water;
e) stealth departure from the refuge;
e) providing the necessary masking of both the seekers and the approaches to it. The bandits especially carefully concealed inlets (manholes) and the paths leading to the refuge. A gang usually has a direct maintainance of the observer, which is located in area shelters in place, the most convenient view of the area. At night sometimes placed sentries.
Very often the bandits placed the rocks on the steep trails leading to the sanctuary, so that these stones by touching them, falling down, creating a large noise. It warns the gang about the approaching outfits and, in addition, a few delays the movement of the outfits that used by the gang for timely care or the ready for battle. To hide your location and disorient the bodies and troops, bandits commit hostile manifestations at a certain, and sometimes a considerable distance from the places of their permanent stationing, and on the approaches to their bases, as already stated above, monitoring and maintainance.
Movement in the mountains for the purpose of looting, killing, food, change their location, the bandits are made under the guise of protection and monitoring, using various tricks. For example, they dressed in the uniforms of soldiers and policemen, sometimes portray the movement in the mountains of our military groups and so on. most Often, the bandits make a movement at night. At day same time they move in exceptional cases, at the most concealed routes, using also all sorts of tricks and disguises. For example, there were such cases, when under the guise of a local resident one of bandolino or bandits should be ahead of the gang on horseback with the legend prepared beforehand in case of meeting with our troops. Normally, such an accomplice or the gunman loaded some belongings, allegedly intended for sale in the market or to transfer any of relatives, neighboring aul (village). Having found themselves ahead on the route of the army group, the accomplice or the gunman takes the conditional signals and thus warns the gang that abruptly changes direction, trying to quickly break away and escape from persecution.
Typically, a small bandit group back down from a fight with our units and engage in battle only in the following cases:
1) When army group went into combat contact with the bandits it is unexpected for last. The gang engages in battle with the aim of covering up its waste. In these cases, the bandits opened a heavy fire, creating the appearance of their numerical superiority and at the same time they begin immediately a part of the waste, marking to cover two or three people from among the most young and well-trained bandits. In turn, this cover is also keen to move into the most hidden from the fire area and remain valid until the departure of the leader and the core of the gang. The gang, breaking away from our military groups, out toward one of the flanks of its cover. Sometimes the gang is scattered one or two people, so that under cover of night, to meet again at their shelter or at another agreed place.
2) When military groups enter the narrow defile. In these cases, the bandits are trying to take advantage of the terrain, secretly located on the slopes of the gorge, passage, or one of the surrounding heights, let the military group at close distance, a sudden touch of fire defeat and go.
3) When the bandits are surrounded by our troops. The largest gangs are sometimes specifically hunted down our military group and ambushes on the path of their movement. These gangs enter the battle, usually in the afternoon, mainly in the second half, so in the evening to break away from our units, and under cover of darkness to go to the places of their permanent stationing, without giving the opportunity to our operational group to find them permanent shelter.
In pursuit of the bandits last try to use the folds of the mountainous terrain, quickly put down the og units, leading the pursuit, and the escape routes leaving small ambushes or single bandits who are firing from medium distance, providing a departure of the core of the gang.
On the roads, the trails, the gorges, which could lead to the movement of troops, the bandits try to set the observation from a vantage point, or arrange the notification of the appearance of troops on these routes through their liaisons and band-associates. Weapons of the bandits in the mountains usually consists of rifles, sawed-off shotguns, rifles, pistols, hand grenades, and in large gangs and machine guns.
In the composition of gangs may be units formed in the US army for subversive activities behind enemy lines. The personnel of these groups armed with light automatic weapons. In addition, there is the possibility of using these units and heavy weapons infantry. In this section we list some of the most characteristic features of the methods of action of gangs in the mountains and their tricks. Depending on the situation bandits, and apply other tricks.
PECULIARITIES OF PREPARATION AND METHODS OF ACTIONS OF TROOPS IN THE MOUNTAINS
One of the most important conditions for the successful execution of combat tasks of the troops in the mountains is the training of personnel.
Units designed to fight the banditry in the mountains, have to find the time to conduct special training for action in the mountains, which includes:
• tactical preparation;
• fire training;
• mining training and physical training of the personnel;
• topographical preparation;
• logistics and sanitation training. Tactical training.
The basis of tactical training must be an experience in the mountains to combat banditry. With this purpose it is necessary against the background of the situation around the upcoming actions to conduct, with officers a number of lessons in the form of group exercises on the map and on the ground and if the situation allows, and the war game.
The main topics to practice should take the following:
1) Organization of search and elimination of gangs in the mountains.
2) Organization block in the mountains.
3) Ensuring interaction of divisions.
4) the particular action of all kinds of military outfits (reconnaissance group, the ambush, the secret post of observation, etc.) in the mountains.
On the two topics should be conducted also with private and non-commissioned officers. Fire preparation. All the features of mountain conditions affecting accuracy of fire, should be well known to Riflemen and machine gunners need to train in shooting in the mountains at various distances, with special attention to the exercises with shooting up and down the ramp, and shooting offhand. Of great importance and teach the Recognizer your throwing hand grenades in the mountains. So, for example cast into a deep gorge grenade sometimes doesn't give the desired result, because the explosion is in the air, etc.
Mountain training and physical conditioning
Mountain training and physical conditioning of the soldier, Sergeant and officer can be reached:
a) daily training for ascents on peaks and descents from them;
b) learning the technique of movement in the mountains;
b) teaching the selection and fitting of equipment and uniforms;
g) learning the technique of movement on forest, shrub, herbaceous mountain slopes, and the technique of movement in the mountains with crumbling soil and rocks;
d) training personnel the ability to transport the wounded, goods and other issues connected with peculiarities of action in the mountains. Topographic training
In the mountains, especially forested, difficult to navigate, so required special training of personnel in the ability to navigate both day and night. In the units it is advisable to have specially trained guides asiatico. Logistical and sanitary preparations Features mining conditions require economic and health bodies ensuring the actions of the troops in the mountains, a careful study of the area, especially supply routes and evacuation sites for deployment transfer stations (bases), as well as conditions of the food, sanitary and veterinary services to the troops. The possibility of an attack of bandit groups requires protection of the warehouses, staging bases and transport (caravan) in the path. When a significant activity band-groups, it is sometimes necessary to provide strong escorts for escort convoys of cargo, and evacuated wounded and sick.
Sanitation in tori should be directed primarily at prevention of the development of altitude sickness, frostbite, sunburn, and in high mountainous areas to prevent snow blindness. In the absence, in some cases, roads suitable for motorized traffic and vehicles, very often the main means of transportation of ammunition, food and equipment are of pack horses or donkeys. In this regard, for actions in the mountains, you must choose the most strong and hardy horses and spend a few training grooms and horses to overcome steep climbs and descents. Operational units, it is expedient to exempt from bulky goods, to facilitate the equipment and the weight of the soldering, replacing some foods with concentrates. In some mountainous areas require special equipment: special shoes, trousers, crampons, rope, alpenstocks, sunglasses, etc. Organization and management search the Primary method of action of the troops in the mountains to combat gang violence is the military search for the enemy (bandits). The identification of location of bandits is made, usually by activities of the operational staff of state security agencies (Organization and methods in this work are the subject of special study and in this manual are not considered).
Military search is a vital addition to the undercover activities of the authorities to trace criminals. Military search is usually completed activities and activities in determining the hiding places of the enemy.
Military search in the fight against gang violence is almost always preceded by fighting to eliminate the enemy and has a great influence on the successful outcome of operational military activities.
In the mountain field the search is separate reconnaissance groups, the number and the number of which is determined by the atmosphere and depends mainly on the General plan of operation, the number of objects that need to track down, the number of gangs and the nature of their actions, the terrain and other conditions.
Mountainous terrain usually difficult to offer solid search, a poet of reconnaissance groups conduct a selective search in separate directions defined by the senior warden, or in sections. Due to the fact that in the conditions of the bandits of the mountains, using natural cover, may hide in so many places, search is usually done in the mountains in a large area several reconnaissance groups, each of which operates within the limits stipulated in the operational plan. Due to the difficulties caused by the mountainous terrain and the inability in some cases to provide timely support to reconnaissance and search groups by fire and people, these groups generally operate independently and shall be in numbers and armament capable of finding the enemy (the band), to capture or destroy it. The search is performed, generally near water sources, at the command heights, along roads, trails, in caves, in forest and shrub areas, in stone piles, in beds of dry streams, etc.
When inspecting objects, you must find the hidden approaches to them. Moving forward we need to provide cover. The actions of one group on examination should be observed and the possibility of fire support of the other group. Search in the canyons is like on the bottom and on the slopes. Before descending into the gorge it is necessary to take measures for the protection, for this purpose there should be set up observation posts on the edges of the gorge. In addition, depending on the situation (the number of the wanted band, the data on their possible whereabouts, the degree of activity of gangs in the area of action) it is advisable to put at the entrance to the gorge or convenient to fire heights adjacent firing points, which if necessary cover fire down in the gorge of the military group. The group that produces the search on the bottom of the gorge, usually moves the ledge behind the groups producing search slopes.
When conducting the search should not be around crowded places, stop in an open area. Before entering the private area you must make a thorough investigation and to arrange measures of protection. The personnel leading the search, is obliged to have the weapon ready for immediate action. Among staff, you must distribute the responsibility of monitoring of the area. Before stepping out of turn, or the trail from the forest into the open, from behind cover to see ahead lying countryside. During the inspection of the slope it is advisable to go to the opposite height, where carefully inspecting the slope and the area adjacent to it. Cliffs and caves are also pre-inspected from the opposite heights, it is necessary to establish the presence of tracks leading to the cave and the rock. All stone piles where they can hide bandits, needs to be carefully examined.
When conducting the search should avoid aimless shooting. If it is impossible silent capture or destruction of the bandit you have to shoot only for certain. While searching in the mountains you need to use service detection dogs. The analysis of the experience conducted more equal than searches of single gangs and bandits in the mountains found that in many cases using a well-trained detection dogs were able to find the whereabouts of the bandits. In some months during the autumn of 1942 only in one of the districts where acted gangster group, with the help of service dogs was found over 20% of the total number of bandits, discovered by search teams. Especially advisable to use detection dogs in the search, the bandits on the trail. Well trained guard dogs have a very subtle scent and not only find the bandits on the trail, but often by their conduct prevent the outfit of the presence of strangers. Even cleverly hidden bandit will always be detected at the approach of sniffer dogs to its shelter. Sniffer dogs used in the search for the bandits on the plains, but in mountains, abounding with many sorts of natural shelters, the use of dogs to a much greater extent facilitates the search for the bandits and in some cases protects against excessive losses in personnel. As mentioned above, the search for the bandits in the mountains is dedicated reconnaissance and search groups. However, in addition to the actions of reconnaissance groups need to organize a special surveillance network, especially in rugged mountainous terrain, where the terrain forms a large number of dead spaces and fields of invisibility.
When the location of the observation posts on the heights very often possible to trace the emergence of gangsters and the direction of their movement. These posts can timely notify the operation about the results of observation, and with a clear and proper interaction and communication in the operation of these observation posts their signals suggest search teams to the object of the operation. The number of monitoring points depends on the particularities of each operation: the data available on the likely whereabouts or intended movements of the bandits, the configuration of mountain terrain, etc. the Checkpoints are carefully placed under cover, disguised as the company, operate in secret, trying to find herself, and placed both in front and in height, so that the observation area of operation is not stopped even with a large, low cloud, strong and dense fog, snow, etc. In connection with disabilities in the mountains of conducting a continuous search for individual areas will need to override the barriers and outfits. Very often the bandits after their discovery, trying to evade reconnaissance groups or having received information from their liaisons and facilitators of the direction of motion of reconnaissance groups, using the folds of mountainous terrain and rapidly change the direction or the place of its location. The bandits trying to escape through the areas that are not covered by our search groups. The secretive location of screens and outfits in these areas ensures the elimination of bandits, barriers and outfits let the bandits close up and capture or destroy them with fire. Action search groups, barriers and outfits are coordinated operations on time, and if necessary on the frontiers. Due to the nature of mountain terrain some search parties will be somewhat delayed in their movement, others will move faster. This raises the need for equalization of borders, which regulate the traffic of the search teams front. In addition, the surge boundaries and to these lines the operation could clarify the issues of interaction, to inform the group about search additionally obtained data about the enemy (gangs) and to supply any additional tasks, if necessary.
Stay on equalizing the turn is limited so as to ensure minimum stay of the personnel groups and the simultaneous nominate them for the further reference search. Surge boundaries are assigned only in cases where the search is conducted on large plot areas with large military forces allocation of a significant number of reconnaissance groups. No more or less rigid rules for determining the distances between the surge lines are not installed. The choice of these boundaries is made in each individual case depending on the specific situation: front of the search, the number of reconnaissance groups, the nature of the terrain, visibility conditions, etc. In average egalitarian frontiers are appointed in approximately 2 - 3 hours search teams. Block mountains Block mountains (when possible and necessary) is done to ensure a successful search and the elimination of bandits in the area of their intended residence. The blocking of the area is done usually before the search team will begin the search. This is necessary in order to prevent the bandits to leave the area of search. The value of the blocked area depends on the situation and is determined by: the nature of the data about the enemy (accuracy), tactical troops, the character of the area. In all cases you need to block the area that includes all places likely to shelter bandits. It should, however, proceed from the realistic accounting of its forces. The nature of mountain terrain gives the possibility to prevent the withdrawal of the enemy from the search area by overlapping screens, outfits, individual gun emplacements all possible to exit enemy areas. On hard-to-reach areas normally the individual outfits for surveillance. On the inaccessible areas to military forces may not be exhibited at all. Usually overlapping roads, trails, gorges, passes, valleys, rivers, and the separate slopes, ridges, spurs, edges of forests, out of the deep caves, etc. order of Battle barriers may consist of secrets, putting on a sharply crossed and covered areas; monitoring stations located on dominant heights, view of the countryside; patrols sent on difficult observable areas; firing points, well camouflaged and ready to fire in the corresponding directions, and the reserve is provided mainly for chasing bandits.
The frontier location in the mountains of screens are selected to achieve a good review and shooting. It is necessary to pay special attention to the monitoring service, which must be continuous. Observers, secured relevant instruments of observation, can see large areas of mountainous terrain and in some cases to observe the actions of prospecting groups, as well as to detect and inform about the appearance of bandits. Special attention should also be given to the proper selection of the location of the provision of the barrier, which is necessary to enable the timely exit of their districts for action in the prosecution and liquidation of bandits. In this reserve it is advisable to arrange so that he could operate on the ground from top to bottom. Because of the difficulty of maneuver in the mountains of screens reserves and reserves management operations should be located in several places. The system fire barrier constructed according to the special conditions of mountain relief and ensure that cross those sites that do not hide behind service-voyskovym outfits. In those cases, when the gang is pursued by search group, moving directly towards the location of the barrier, it is necessary to consider a danger from the military, leading the prosecution, and to take measures to avoid the possibility of such damage. Shooting off of a screen at the bandits in such cases is almost in focus.
The density of the block in the mountains varies widely. In accessible areas it will be equal to the density adopted for flat terrain; on hard-to-reach - 2 - 3 times less. These considerations about the density of the block does not mean that in practice there can be deviations in one direction or another, as in the fight against banditry in the mountains the density of the block will vary depending on the nature and characteristics of each operation. Chasing bandits in the mountains Stalking the gang in the mountains should be persistent, as long as you use plenty of shelters and dramatically rugged terrain, a gang can quickly go from the blow of our divisions. The prosecution should be conducted simultaneously in several directions: directly behind the band and along parallel ridges, debts. At the same time, it is necessary to take measures to intercept the escape routes of the gang. To this end, the paths (routes) exposed secrets and barriers, and on the heights of the likely path of movement of the gang — emplacements (machine guns, etc.). The chasing group needs his footwork to force the bandits to retreat to the formidable obstacles (cliffs, rivers, rocks) or areas where our ambushes, barriers, secrets and decisive action to capture or destroy the bandits. To eliminate ambushes, leave exhaust the bandits, you must use part of its forces, main forces — to avoid the bandit ambushes, not allowing the gang to escape from the pursuing. In order to hold down the waste of bandits, you have part of the forces, leading the prosecution, to occupy the commanding heights, to fire at the waste band, another part of the forces to relentlessly pursue the bandits. Features fight to eliminate gangs in the mountains, Mountain environment makes it possible for a small gang to provide prolonged resistance of our units. Known cases where a small, well-armed gang, taking command the height with steep inaccessible slopes, remained invulnerable to the fire of our divisions and delayed the fight until dark, and using the mining equipment left from the blow via not covered with troops of hard-to-reach areas. Skilful actions of the troops on the elimination of the gang are detected, thus, an indispensable condition for the successful resolution of operational combat missions in the mountains. Upon detection of a gang should not be distracted firing competitions with her. Advantageously, distracting the gang by the fire of their forces, the main forces to occupy the commanding heights and a convenient boundaries around the gang from the flanks and back, after which a joint action to destroy it. At the same time it is necessary to block possible escape routes of the gang. We must act swiftly, decisively and in whatever was to capture or destroy the identified group of bandits. Of great importance for the elimination of the gang has the fire of snipers and machine gunners manual, which occupied the neighbouring heights. In all cases, you must strive to ensure that our fire weapons were located in the area above. The defending gang must attack only after a thorough fire training and only from the top down. To attack the gang from the bottom up (the slope) should be only in extreme cases. Military action group, faced with a gang, as a rule, should not be discontinued until the complete elimination of gangs. It should be borne in mind the advisability of capturing bandits alive. Only in those cases when the bandits do not surrender, provide fire resistance and are trying to leave, you must take bold and decisive measures to destroy them, but in battle, capture the “language” is very desirable for subsequent work on the final cleaning of the area from banditry. In some cases, depending on the situation troops can get the job is to capture the leader or just another bandit alive. Officers, heads of military groups in such operations, receive thorough instruction and necessary data from its senior operational leaders.
Features of the service of the garrisons in the mountains
With the arrival to the place of new dislocation of the head of the garrison necessary to study the area served by paying special attention to the terrain in order to navigate freely on the territory of the district at any time of day, in any weather and teach it to all staff. This should be accomplished by visits by area cars or horses, Hiking through the bypass strongly rugged mountainous terrain areas, etc. of Course, it is advisable to combine this study with any practical combat training. The study area is undertaken to establish the degree of its permeability, identifying likely routes of movement of bandit groups or individuals of the enemy both by day and night, possible hiding places of the bandits, state trails, mountain roads, fords, mountain passes, etc. in addition, the garrison commander must determine the distance from the garrison to visible objects and different boundaries, taking into account that distances in the mountains are more difficult to assess than on the plain. Benchmarks or milestones, located on the mountain (above us), seem closer and, Vice versa, located under the mountain (below), appear farther. It is necessary to know the location of the district's settlements, individual buildings, their names and the distance between them, possible ways and means of getting from one mountain village to another, the height of mountains, the path of ascent to the ridges of heights, etc. it is also advisable to place to find out the features of mountain climate, affecting the weather, and also known to the population, especially the old-timers, the simplest signs of improvement and of deterioration of weather. For example, in mountainous regions (the Pamirs) signs of bad weather are: the crown around the moon, visible stars twinkling in the morning rising mist, the scarlet dawn, hazy sun, winds blowing from the valleys to the mountains at night and during the day from the mountains.
Signs of improvement in the weather in such areas are: the scarlet evening glow, the lowering of the temperature in the valleys in the evening, the evening mist in the valleys, no wind, clear sky, morning dew, of a misty mountain tops, etc. due To the fact that the weather in the mountains changes very often, the garrison commander must evaluate the weather from the point of view of its influence on the actions of the troops, and also on the actions of the bandits. When goal-setting outfits official head of the garrison takes into account the peculiarities of the rapidly changing weather in the mountains and depending on the upcoming weather takes steps to ensure successful activities outfits, as well as conservation of their physical strength. The weapons of the personnel of the garrison must be given its trouble-free operation in the mountains. Special attention should be paid to the content of grenades, as in the battle against gangs in the mountains they are often applied. In addition, frequent weather changes in the mountains require a systematic view of validity, garnet, thickness, lubrication, etc.
In 1948 in the mountains of the Grozny region occurred when, after a long search gang last night was caught in his hideout, but in the ensuing battle, abandoned the search party 20 live grenades did not explode, which enabled the gang and its leader wounded with a rope to descend into a deep gorge and thus to escape from persecution. Even before the entry into the area of new deployment or arrival, it is necessary to find the corresponding operational the head of the local authority of the KGB with the available data about the enemy (gangs) in the serviced area (a feature of the methods and modus operandi of gangs in a mountainous area, the conclusions on the operations until the arrival of the military garrison, the nature of past bandprofile (if they were) and tricks the bandits in the region served. The location of the garrison should be chosen so that it provided a good view of the area, a good way to exit a division or army group from their own locations in the areas of operations, realization of data about the occurrence or detection of criminal groups and the strengthening of appropriate existing official outfits. Due to the fact that the location of the garrison may be clearly visible from the mountain heights, located near garrison, it is necessary to provide measures to disguise the exit of the location of the military garrison of outfits sent for the service. Of particular importance is the masking of the output of the reserve intended for immediate actions to the data obtained from the location of the garrison. However, note that the observers from the number of bandits or their accomplices can view the outputs from the garrison and in such cases, immediately inform the gang about the output units. The experience of the struggle against banditry in the mountains showed that the bandits are sometimes carefully followed the activities of the garrison troops of the KGB (MVD), located in the mountains. Applying all sorts of tricks, they were monitoring the outputs from the location of military units. Noticing troop movements, the observer from the number of bandits or their accomplices to inform the gang about the danger. The bandits set their observers mainly at altitudes where they operate under the guise of shepherds herding flocks of sheep, the highland peasants engaged in the cultivation or harvesting, etc. Upon detection of a release of military bands from the garrison one of the closest to garrison this observer sends a signal to neighbouring and observer in the conditions of mountains, where from the heights provided good visibility and audibility, gang, located at the removal 10-20 km, can receive this signal after 5-10 minutes. The signals transmitted by the bandits of the simplest ways (hasty curtailment of the flocks in a certain direction, roll call shepherds, loud prayer, breeding one, two or three fires, etc.). In order to ensure appropriate masking of the output units from the area of its location it is reasonable “fee for the alarm to produce a silent signal and in advance, even during combat calculation, to identify ways covert exit of the garrison. In some cases it is necessary to organize the exit from the garrison, one or two people, which is then collected on a sheltered Assembly point, located near garrison. The route to Assembly points at night to avoid accidents should be selected in such areas where there are no steep cliffs and rocks. In addition, it is sometimes advisable to first come from the location of the garrison in one direction, and then have a hidden area to turn on the desired route.
The protection of the garrison is organized taking into account the peculiarities of mountain relief and is performed by placing sentinels, and in necessary cases — and dedicated patrols. In the service of the garrison in the mountains there may be features associated in each case with exactly the current situation. Accounting for these features is mandatory for the commander and senior officer, sent a division in the mountainous area.
Peculiarities of ORGANIZATION AND holding of the CHEKIST WOJSKOWYCH OPERATIONS IN the MOUNTAINS of Chekist military operation in the mountains are the same as on the plain, but during the organization and conduct of operations take into account peculiarities of the mountain relief, the manners, customs and peculiarities of living conditions and life of highlanders who inhabit the area where the surgery is performed and other conditions of mountain areas that differ significantly from the flat terrain. On the organization and conduct of operations is also affected by the scale of the operation. Chekist-military operations can be conducted against a small gang against several gangs, and also against a significant number of gangs of one or several mountain areas. Operations in one or more areas should be referred to by major operations.
Chekist military operation in the mountains and on the plain, usually includes:
- the preparation of the operation;
- occupation troops initial position (the blocking of the area of the operation or environment of an object operation);
- the conduct of operations.
One of the elements of the organization operations is to assess the situation.
A careful study of the situation in the organization operations in the mountains is one of the most important conditions for ensuring the successful elimination of the gangs. The main focus in assessing elements of the situation must be devoted to identifying ways of preventing the departure of the bandits and the lone opponent from the impact of the military units. While a comprehensive assessment of the specific conditions of mountain areas can facilitate the production of correct and appropriate solutions. Ignoring the peculiarities of the mountain relief will inevitably lead to serious errors in planning and organizing operations that, in turn, will adversely affect the results of this operation. Officer and his Deputy at the troops necessary to examine the situation and to understand in further detail the following issues:
When assessing the enemy:
- numbers, weapons, places and ways of hiding band;
- actions of bandits when detected forces;
- possible directions of departure of the bandits from the area of operation.
In assessing the area:
- the location of the likely hiding places of the enemy (the presence of caves, ravines, dugouts, separate hamlets, streams, commanding heights);
- the most likely place from where the bandits are able to monitor the approaches to the area of operation;
- the possible routes of movement of bandits (trails, along streams, mountain rivers, passes, ridges ramps available);
- places from which you can view the main gorges and observing the movement of bandits;
- possible ways of the stealthy approach of the troops to the locations of gangs;
- places in the way of the movement of troops, where bandits can ambush set;
- the presence of crossings we are interested in rivers and streams; locations of crossings that can be used by bandits to monitor and forwarded to their attack;
- hard-to-reach areas in the district operations and activities to overcome them.
In assessing their strength:
- the tactical capabilities of their forces and means for blocking and search;
- the necessary arrangements for the special training of troops for action in the mountains;
- the required number of reconnaissance groups, ensuring their independence.
When assessing time and weather:
- to what extent weather will affect the actions of the troops;
- what you need to carry out activities, in order to provide the troops with everything necessary for a successful action of the sudden change in weather.
These questions do not exhaust the whole content of the evaluation situation.
They are only part of the content, in this case, for the mountain environment is the most important part. On review of the listed issues, the commander should pay the most serious attention. The evaluation of the situation, the commander makes conclusions, which in principle do not differ from the conclusions made by the commander during the operation under normal conditions.
Gather information about the situation and clarify them are held in close combination of chekist activities with the actions of troop commanders. It is necessary to study documents previously conducted in the area of operations, available schemas, operational reports, descriptions of combat actions, topographic maps and other materials describing the state of the district, which is scheduled to conduct the operation. In some cases it is possible to arrange a personal check out to the area commanders of the respective connection part, and the officers of their staffs. You need to produce outings like this are hidden, leaving ostensibly for reconnaissance of the area during the upcoming exercises; you can go in civilian costume under the guise of lovers tourists, etc.
It is sometimes necessary to change the senior officers and generals in the form of Junior officers. Methods of concealment of trips, and, most importantly, the goals of these trips are disguised under various pretexts, depending on specific conditions. To clarify the above matters it is necessary to use a material obtained by KGB agents and by the result of investigation on the Affairs of persons involved in gangsterism. With the approval of the chief operating head sometimes depending on the situation is a survey of local residents. Should be considered highly appropriate to capture the “language” shortly before the start of the operation and implementation of this event it is desirable to arrange through agent combinations as actions of the troops in the capture of the “language” before the common operations are not always appropriate and may prematurely push gang at the thought of the upcoming operation.
Comparing a number of data about the enemy, the nature of mountain terrain, data about their abilities, meteorological and other data management operations shall issue a decision which determines:
- the boundaries of the area of operation (location of boundary barriers, separate outfits), the manner of its execution, duration, type of search and block;
- parcels, strips, areas where should concentrate the main efforts;
- the grouping of forces and means;
- combat missions the units allocated to the block;
- the task of the reserve;
- the initial position and the direction of action of hunt groups and their tasks;
- the order of interaction units;
- output time units from deployment sites and their initial position;
- the routes of movement of units (units) to the area of operation;
- events in the political, financial, medical and combat support missions;
- place command post, control methods and communication, as well as other issues related to preparation and conduct of operations.
The concentration of troops in the original position to the operation Mountainous terrain complicates the movement of troops to their original position. This is due to the following circumstances:
- In the mountains there are a limited number of roads, in most cases of poor quality.
- Roads usually are reviewed by andpossibly that seek to inform the bandits about the appearance of the troops.
- The roads are not allow to commit all the way by car, in connection with marches usually occur in a combined way; part of the very rugged path is necessary to pass on foot.
- Dramatically rugged nature of the mountainous terrain and lack of roads impede the simultaneous arrival of units to the area of operation, since the movement of units to the area of operation along different paths hard-to-reach areas.
- In some cases the units do not have time to complete the concentration in one night, and motion in the bright time highly undesirable. Advancement in the area of operation is with all these circumstances.
Before going to the area of operations, commanders must first map to carefully study the terrain and the direction of movement, to take into account ascents and descents, open and sheltered places and calculate the time of their passing. To clarify the route can be used and conduit from the local community.
Selection of such conductors must be made with the approval of the respective operational head of the public security organs. The headquarters of the mission you must carefully plan, skillfully and to calculate the duration and timing of the movement of troops in order to ensure their simultaneous concentration. With this purpose it is necessary to select a shortest and most convenient road and mountain trails, to determine the speed of traffic on the routes and make an approximate calculation time for all the columns with the characteristics of each route.
It is necessary to consider atmospheric conditions, possible changes in the weather and the height of each mountain route, because of course, that depending on the nature of the terrain and the height above sea level the speed will be different. In addition, you should take into account not only meteorological and topographical data, but also the degree of training of personnel for action in the mountains.
Choosing the route, it is necessary to proceed from the calculation to ensure the secrecy of movement, terrain of the route and a timely arrival at the assigned points in accordance with the plan of management the operation. Hidden advancement in the area of operation is achieved:
- hiding the March from observation and enemy intelligence;
- the introduction of the bandits and their accomplices misled.
The concealment of movement contribute:
- movement at night and in bad weather;
- the use of natural masks location and above all the forests;
- the dismemberment of the marching order;
- strict adherence to camouflage discipline when moving and at stops (halts). The speed will depend on the extent izrezanna terrain on the trails.
On average, you can assume that the speed of movement of the units on foot will be 2-3 kilometers per hour. On a site with steep terrain, the speed will decrease. Commanders and staffs at all levels shall take measures savings forces personnel. Saving energy is achieved:
- the choice of the most convenient ways for traffic;
- the discipline and regime of the March;
- proper fit of equipment;
- regular rest and meals;
- good health services.
The order for movement, the order of the building columns, as well as the distance between units determined by the width and condition of the tracks.
The rate of movement should be uniform and regulated depending on the steepness of the ascents and descents. To bring to normal breathing on the climbs steeper than 10 degrees are short, 2-3 minute stop, the steeper the climb, the more often must make stops. At rises with a slope up to 12 degrees every 40 minutes to do the 10-minute halts, and lifts from 12 to 20 degrees in 30 minutes. On steep slopes (30 degrees) the 10-minute halts are made usually after every 20 minutes of movement. The distance between units is established within ten minutes of running.
An important element of the work of the directing staff of operations during the concentration of troops to the area of operation or boundaries of the block is the management of the marsh. The control columns on the March in the mountains is provided.
- the purpose of equalisation range and the time of their passing marching in echelons;
- assignment in separate columns of the source and control points and the time of their passing;
- the allocation of staff officers for traffic control during the passage of the gorges, steep ascents and descents;
- by establishing good collection of reports on individual sites, allowing for the connection on the front (in the presence of lateral paths, passable ranges);
- the control and refinement of the calculation of the movement. Engineer support of the March can be arranged depending on existing concrete conditions of each operation.
The staff organizing the March, one must consider primarily the nature of the actions and tactics of the bandits in the mountain area, taking into account terrain features on each route. Engineer support of the March will be composed of investigation and extraction of bodies of health. The removal of a camp in the mountains of health should ensure the safe passage of track sections and to prevent a sudden attack of bandits, especially in those areas where deployment is difficult to fight. The flank guard on the March depending on area may be movable, immovable and mixed. Movable side guard is moving along parallel paths, roads, or ridges in the next valley. On steep terrain, where the lateral movement of a camp guard, headquarters sends fixed side protection, which is located on the commanders of the heights, capturing the approaches to the flanks of the moving column.
When passing all the column stationary outposts removed and attached to the tail of the column. During operations in the mountains troops of the KGB (MVD) has always taken careful measures of health and, as a rule, were successfully concentrated in the original position to eliminate the gangs. However, there have been cases where as a result of the lack of organization and neglect of the issues of combat support of the March of the troops had unnecessary losses in personnel. For example, in one of the operations in highly rugged mountain terrain Galvanoscope district acted reconnaissance group, the power in a cavalry platoon.
The group was headed by the commander of the shock battalion captain Barannikov. Acting in the equestrian ranks, the platoon moved along the gorge, giving to the head guard horse patrol.
No provision of the March from the flanks was not organized. The side protection was not removed. The observer from among the bandits discovered the movement of a platoon in four kilometers from the village (village). The leader of the gang has installed covert surveillance of the movement of the platoon and making sure that no side health no, secretly arranged one group on the outskirts of the village, and two of the gang - on both slopes of the gorge.
Located on the outskirts of the village thugs that go unnoticed, missed the watch in the aul (village) and then, when the core of the platoon came up to them at a distance of 200-250 meters from three points suddenly opened fire, which resulted in the platoon had lost in killed and wounded about 50% of the staff and almost all the horses, and the captain Varennikov, having received gunshot wound, went down for a long time. The remains of the platoon barely escaped that fire bag, and sent to the place of collision, a new unit of troops the gang is not caught, as the latter after the fight immediately left the village and disappeared. This example demonstrates the need for action combat support of the March.
In each case the combat support plan should be carried out with the indispensable consideration of the peculiarities established in the area of the operation environment that sometimes requires the adoption of specific measures, suitable only in certain specific conditions of one operation, but it is not always appropriate for another operation. After concentration to the starting position, troops will proceed to conduct operations in accordance with the approved plan of operation.
Control and communication
Due to the fact that units of troops in the mountains, often operate in disparate directions, and the situation can quickly and dramatically change, staff leadership operations need to take special care for the organization of communications and command and control. Command post leadership is usually selected at this site, which collects information about the operation's progress from all areas of district operations, and mainly in the point from which provides guidance and supervision on the most important in the operation direction. In addition, when choosing where KP takes into account the conditions of the operational environment, the need to camouflage command post, a timely personal influence on the course of the operation when confronted with gangs, etc. In order to preserve the secret of the overall design of the operation and the number of operational-chekist events unit commanders in some cases are guided about the situation only in so far as they are concerned, but also about their neighbors right and left. In some cases, when it is possible and necessary in the interests of ensuring the most complete initiative and control, unit commanders reported all available data on the situation and the details of the plan of the operation.
Dissociation of individual areas and the most rugged mountain terrain to some extent affected the personal contact management operations with units of troops. In this regard, the head of operations must have a sufficient number of mounted orderlies and cyclists of the number of officers and sergeants for the transmission of orders, instructions, etc.
Command posts, telephone stations, collection points reports are, as a rule, on sites of roads, trails, etc.
Means of communication in the mountains is most appropriate to apply the following: radio station of conversation using a simple code, encoded cards for feeding radio signals; mounted messengers (where possible, motorcyclists); foot messengers; signaling by means of heliograph, lamps, signal fires, smoke and other simple communication signals.
In some cases, in operation it is advisable to use the aircraft communications. Wire connection in the mountains is possible, but the targeting and exploitation of its very difficult, so its use in the conduct of the chekist-military operations in the mountains is very limited. It should be assumed that the primary means of communication when conducting operations in the mountains is the radio.
In some cases, for larger operations when regular radio stations military units and divisions of troops is not sufficient, provision is made of the radio by removing them from the parts not involved in the operation. Sometimes advisable to use the simplest forms of communication: visual, light and sound, but the use of the latter should be made with consideration of the peculiarities of the mountains.
It should be borne in mind that in the gorge the sound is better distributed from the bottom up, over the crest of the mountain folds, the sound does not pass, in clear weather, the sound can be heard from a longer distance than in cloudy. The higher above sea level, the lower the audibility and, finally, the echo in the mountains dramatically confuses the location of the sound source. For each operation the staff leadership makes the communication scheme considering the features and operation of mountain terrain. Features of the organization of interaction between Mountainous terrain in many cases requires us to conduct an operation in certain areas. This circumstance creates a number of peculiarities in the organization of interaction between divisions and all elements of combat orders.
The most important prerequisite for the proper organization of interaction in the mountains is, above all, local knowledge of the area in which the surgery is performed. Proper interaction is achieved:
- excellent clarifying its tasks and objectives of neighbors;
- approximate knowledge of the plan of action of neighbours upon detection of a gang and confronted with her;
- establishing simple and clear signals of mutual recognition and interaction.
In the mountains it is necessary first of all to ensure the cooperation of the military groups that overlap possible outputs of the bandits from the area of the block. To this end it is important to ensure reliable communications between the barriers. Chiefs must know the location of their neighbors and the strong recognition of his.
It should be borne in mind that the screener may not leave the area until further notice, however, in the case of the appearance of bandits on the plot neighbors the chief barrier is obliged to use the folds of mountainous terrain and to assist the neighbor in the defeat of the gang through part of their maneuver forces, in any case, leaving open the direction. The allocation of all its forces to help the neighbor may result in the mountains for the opening section, on which acts a barrier that can be used by bandits to break through from the area of operation.
General management outfits or groups who came to help, is obliged to be the commander, on the site of which the band appeared. In all cases, all elements of the combat order should be uniform for all troop and operational staff involved in the operation signal indicating the detected direction of movement of the gang. Generally, the signal rockets were set colors, released in the direction of movement of the gang.
It is advisable to have a special table of a single conditional signal of rockets, flags, etc. the table must be short, simple and to consist of several of the most necessary in the operation of signals, for example: “I See the gang”, “I Am fighting”, “Stalking”, “Gang broke through”, “Excuse me”, etc., Reconnaissance and search groups need to thoroughly understand the location of the barriers and ambushes.
a) timely signals to inform the screen about the detection and prosecution of gangs;
b) to pursue the bandits, who had gone under actual fire towards those areas where there are barriers;
b) in a timely manner to inquire about changing the direction of movement of bandits in those cases, when the gang, faced with the barrier, trying to return deep into the blocked area of operation;
g) to prevent the contamination of their fire barriers.
To clarify relationships in the group search should be envisaged:
- coordination of actions of reconnaissance groups on the frontier;
- the provision of reconnaissance groups of mutual assistance in elimination of the found enemy.
It is advisable before the operation to play on the maps or in the sand box, all the issues related to the interaction during the operation. The interaction in the operation should be carried out continuously during the entire operation and ensure the direction of the joint efforts of hunt groups, barriers and ambushes for the complete destruction or capture of the object of the operation.
Interaction in the mountains can be fully enjoyed in the presence of carefully designed ways and means of implementation continuous communication. It is necessary to consider that the simpler and clearer the strong interaction, the easier it is to implement this interaction in the mountains. Often during the operation even in rugged mountainous terrain, the manual operations can make to the overall plan of operation a number of amendments and changes in relation to specifically established during the operation setting. Of course, this will require a maneuver by forces and means and to change the original order of interaction. The staff must quickly and skillfully to rebuild the interaction and to make the necessary maneuver forces and means. For more flexible maneuver of forces and means it is necessary to have sufficient reserve. The interaction of the provision with the current military groups and barriers are organized by manual operation depending on the direction on which the reserve is put in.
The political work
Political work in the military units of the KGB (MVD), operating in the mountains, organized the same way as if the actions of troops in flat conditions, but with consideration of the peculiarities of the mountains (topography, climate and others). Conducting operations in the mountains requires a very high physical and moral tension forces. In this regard, priority should be given to the education of high vigilance, courage, courage, initiative and ability to endure all hardships that may occur during the conduct of the troops in the mountains to combat banditry. Serious attention should be paid to the permanent care of the conservation of forces troops in the mountainous areas. The balance of party-political workers, party and Komsomol of the asset is made so as to ensure party and Komsomol influence in all military groups, which, as a rule, are divided by ridges of mountains. The content, forms and methods of political work in the conduct of operations in the mountains in each case will be determined by political bodies, depending on specific tasks, parts and units involved in the operation.
Logistics activity taking into account peculiarities of mountain conditions set out in the previous sections. Usually before, the beginning of a great activity, you create a Central logistics base, to accommodate existing uses within the area warehouses or newly adapted for this purpose room. On this basis, it is necessary to create a sufficient supply of ammunition, food, clothing, engineering equipment,. means of communication, etc. the Range of material means that the base is chosen to calculate the full ensure all troops participating in the operation. In addition to all the supplies used in normal conditions, it is necessary to have material resources specially provided to supply the troops and operational staff in the mountainous areas: for example, special mountain gear, food concentrates, the required amount of dry rations according to the norms prescribed for personnel operating in the mountains (mountain ration), cotton jackets, ropes, alpenstocks, crampons, shoes, etc. depending on the nature of the transaction, the timing for its conduct of the troops are supplied from this base or (when this is beneficial to the interests of the operation) choose the material resources at once for 20-30 days and only periodically get from the warehouse everything you need for refreshment emergency rations or for current allowances. Sometimes units get from shelf inventories, which are stored and consumed in the process of preparing and conducting operations.
Depending on the situation and time, are designed to carry out operations such stocks in divisions can be created for a period of 5-10 days. The order of supply is determined depending on the nature of mountain terrain and other features of the operation. In places where this is possible, the supply shall be organized by vehicle or on carts.
In other cases, use horses or donkeys. Sometimes at high altitude or remote areas where it is impossible to use horses and donkeys, are created by teams of porters. In all cases it is necessary to ensure maintainance of vehicles and caravans along the trails. Such protection may be arranged either through the protection of routes or by protection of each vehicle or caravan on the road. For each operation more or less a large scale the plan of supply approved by the management of the operation. In those cases, where the operation is short-circuited or by one entity, usually the past is carrying rations and ammunition at the time of surgery (1— 3 days).
Available on the rear of the operation stipulate:
- the arrangements for ensuring that parts and units;
- routes for movement of vehicles with goods;
- the ways of protecting the transports and convoys in transit;
- support for personnel operating in the highlands, warm clothing;
- the increase of ammunition;
- order the evacuation of the wounded;
- ensuring that units operating in remote areas, special mining equipment (packs, climbing ropes, crampons, ladders, ice picks, alpenstocks, points, blocks, etc.).
Climbing rope is used for safety when moving through difficult and dangerous rocky areas. Safety glasses — to protect eyes from the rays of the sun, especially in the presence of snow cover. Cat steel plates with spikes-teeth that attach to the shoes. Sticks or mountain stick, a strong stick with a sharp tip with a loop on the handle, which pass through the wrist so that the stick will not slip. The length of this stick is usually 1.5 meters.
It can help to protect yourself from falling on steep descents. When conducting operations in the mountains medical facilities need to be closer to the units and in reconnaissance and search groups and barriers to have nurses with the appropriate set of medicines. Logistics units of regiment and battalion appropriate depending on the situation be placed on the nodes of the roads and mountain trails. Providing personnel with hot meals can be arranged in divisions. Often due to very rugged terrain the delivery of hot food to individual squads or even whole units are made in flasks.
In cases where the operation is carried out in great depth and covers a wide area of the terrain, expansion joints for roads with animal-drawn animal-drawn roads and paths are organized with pack transfer stations and material - funds and transfer the wounded. In hard to reach areas in the community to ensure the delivery of ammunition, food, fodder, water, medicines and fuel, and to evacuate the wounded can be used transport aircraft and helicopters. All commanders, political workers and service parts and connections should pay serious attention to the supply of troops in the conduct of operations against banditry in the mountains. This manual outlines only the main features of conducting operations to combat banditry in the mountains. You must keep in mind that every single operation has its own peculiarities and is conducted with specific regard to the current situation on the ground, so the manifestation of intelligent initiative, ingenuity and strict account the specific conditions always help the commander to find the most appropriate in each operation, forms and methods of its organization.
- Operational-combat activities of troops of the KGB (MVD) liquidation of banditry in the mountain-wooded area usually takes place in complex and diverse environments. Complicated conditions of mountainous terrain creates a number of difficulties, the overcoming of which is possible. Prerequisite for the successful combat operation of troops of the KGB (MVD) in the mountains is the knowledge and the peculiarities of the local mountain conditions.
- The commanders of the troops of the KGB (MVD), performing tasks to combat banditry in the mountains, are responsible for knowing these conditions, to consider them, to show courage, determination, combat initiative, focusing in specific environment, to adopt appropriate solutions for the complete capture or destruction of gangs.
- In mountain conditions, in contrast to the flat terrain of the individual units and search teams have to act in disparate directions, and therefore, these groups should be able to eliminate the gangs, not hoping for quick support. The search for the bandits in the mountains can give good results in close combination of the operational-chekist activities with the fighting troops.
- During the planning of serious importance is the correct initial grouping of forces and means, since the rearrangement in the course of the operation, though possible, but is associated with greater difficulty.
- The primary means of communication when conducting operations in the mountains is the radio. A full security units with radio equipment is a mandatory condition for reliable communication.
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