It is obvious that in conditions of large-scale use of adversary systems cluster and homing weapons in combat may participate (as a whole), the parts with the maximum number of all armored vehicles, 500 units. On the basis of experience. World war II and the teachings of this amount is the maximum that can move on the ground in a single battle in two or three echelons. No coincidence that in recent wars, mainly, there are battalions and tactical groups established on their basis. The battalions have the maximum amount of military equipment, allowing such use, even though armored and mechanized infantry platoons (5 and 4 vehicles respectively) are quite noticeable purpose. Given the fact that these tactical formations the proportion of tanks would be only one fourth or one fifth of the total number of armored vehicles, battalion tactical groups are the only effective combat units for future combat operations.
If BTG to convert to permanent part (currently they are formed on the basis of infantry units reinforced by attached artillery, antiaircraft means, intelligence, engineering and other combat support units), the command can always find them well enough professionally trained staff, some of which could be the current reserve. As part of the strengthened military helicopters for airmobile actions will form the basis of the army, then those parts and can be used as part of operational maneuvering groups.
Without a General mobilization to conduct a large-scale action, as shown by the experience of Yugoslavia and Iraq is not enough. It is obvious that during the mobilization, most of the armed forces for economic reasons constitute the ground forces, equipped with a limited number of discontinued long-term storage of obsolete armored vehicles and towed artillery. Because of this you should have the required number of reserve infantry units that would be deployed in wartime to a full state.
This scheme is acceptable to any modern army. The existence in peacetime of a large number have been cropped (reduced state) motorized rifle and tank divisions, having a reduced state of combat capability of a battalion or regiment strength, as well as cropped of staff of the armies, impede the efficiency in solving the assigned combat tasks. While the nature of fire effects of enemy modern ammunition requires commanders often instant decisions, all staff take precious time in the follow-up command at the stage of its reception, processing and transmission. In modern armed forces there is a need of creation of ACS, not only in the operational level (front-army-division), but in tactical (division-regiment-battalion). The evidence of the years of fighting experience in Yugoslavia and Iraq, when higher headquarters has already received outdated information about a combat situation, which took the old decision and gave even more obsolete orders.
Military equipment can be protected against high-precision weapons only speed and stealth action. Above the battalion task force may become the main combat unit in the armed forces,in a constant composition.(BTG so good that not having a permanent staff structure is formed on the basis of a battalion (infantry, mechanized infantry, armored) by strengthening its various divisions to solve a specific combat mission. The complexity of control, combat, technical and logistical support for a large number of "krasnovidova" units and different types of military equipment turn BTG staff (in the case of their creation) in banal regiments of odnostoronnego composition that they were "first" and "second Chechen war".
The essence of management of temporary BTG is that the military commander does not bother any "minor" issues, in addition to direct warfare, driving a dowry and support his forces and means have their commanders and superiors responsible for all the problems of their factory.- Editor's note A.V. Musienko.")During the fighting they will be the basis for military operations, while the remaining mass of troops would serve to sustain the achieved success of BTG, including the deployment of reconnaissance and sabotage actions in the rear of enemy troops, as he belatedly tried to do the military-political leadership of Iraq, creating the power of the Fedayeen.
Such organization of combat actions is described by the British military theorist Richard Simpkin in the book "Race to the Swift: Thoughts on Twenty-First Century Warfare". Although the author has created a work based on the examples of the Soviet and German troops during the Second World war, but the concept of "hammer and anvil", by R. Simpkins, is in line with the conditions of war, with wide-scale use of artillery and aviation. It is obvious that in the war with the enemy, with a considerable number of artillery-missile and air forces it would not be prudent to send forward "the hammer", not creating "the anvil". In Iraq in 2003 the us air force is quite easy bruiser in a desert terrain mechanized units of the Iraqi troops by the same aircraft, often deploying artillery.
In such conditions, which was delivered to Iraq, it is more rational to move to a defensive action by the infantry deploying in the rear of the enemy reconnaissance and sabotage forces acting front. This "front" was widely used minovanii, antitank weapons and MANPADS for tying combat with the enemy to bring him under blow own tank Molotov, air strikes, missile troops and artillery. The basis of the reconnaissance and sabotage forces were to reach division-level platoon-company (group unit), located in ambushes or secretively sabirovna. ("The battalion will break, because he is deprived of stealth and maneuverability, and smaller reconnaissance group you can always quickly and discreetly summoned for a short period of combat. An example is the defeat of the Maikop ICOS at the train station in Grozny in January 1995.- Editor's note A.V. Musienko.".) In detail the course of hostilities in Iraq in 2003 are well described in the book by A. Mikhailov, "Iraqi trap", published in 2004 in publishing house "Yauza" in Moscow, and thus there is no sense to retell.
The only thing that I would like to repeat to the General public, is the fact the defeat of the Iraqi army from the limited contingent of coalition forces, and not from the whole of the American army, and the defeat a crushing and immediate. That then the Americans were involved in a guerrilla war in Iraq, torn by conflicts between Sunnis, Shiites and Kurds, things will not change. This partisan war waged by supporters of Islamic fundamentalism who was hostile to the former regime of Saddam Hussein, but the initiative is in its beginning was put by al Qaeda, which could in the chaos to introduce to Iraq a large number of members of fundamentalist organizations in other Islamic (and sometimes not at all Islamic) countries, and to start in an environment of Sunni Muslims the Islamic revolution. This revolution has every chance of success as due to irritation of the loss of a dominant position and oil-rich North and South regions in the Sunni elite, which was quite unreasonable, imposed from above American politics course to the complete dismantling of the old structures of power and loss of control over the local environment. This was intensified by the maturing of the decision to transfer control over Iraq to local structures, and as a result al-Qaida were able to "clear" Sunni society, does not agree with her, under the guise of "fighting the infidels".
All of this famous tradition of the East and bring it all to fight "insurgents" with the "occupiers" stupid and unfair, although someone and impossible to change for years advocate the idea. In the Shiite environment in fact took a direct military intervention in neighboring Iran. The Iranian Islamic revolutionary guard Corps almost openly acted in southern Iraq, to put it mildly the strange passivity of the British command, which controlled four of the southern province. The Kurds in Kurdistan themselves generally are not considered part of Iraq. However, Kurdistan was torn apart by strife between two parties - the PDK(MPC) of Barzani and the PUK(PYUK) Talabani, and the possible disintegration of Iraq would cause obvious heightened relations with Turkey, until open war.
All this is undeniable, but also undeniable that "basitki" mode in this case has lost its leadership role, and most of his officials went to the service of the "new" Iraqi government, as a matter of fact natural. Army of Saddam Hussein collapsed completely and irreversibly, and thereby destroyed all pre-war plans about the partisan resistance. Even the corruption of a number of senior Iraqi officials did not play such a big role, because the Iraqi army was unprepared. to military operations in terms of enemy controlled (high-precision) weapons even at the level of commanders Batalov, otherwise they would not their battalions deployed in full battle formations and tried to attack "coalition" troops.
Played here a big role, and eight years of war the Iraqi army against a much more numerous army of Iran. The war taught the Iraqi generals to the long habit of making decisions in consequence of the fact that it was positional and because the Iraqi commanders have escaped responsibility because of the mass terror of the secret services of Iraq. Consequently, the war against Iraq, a victory could win and the army of Iran or Saudi Arabia if they had the appropriate amount of such a number of controlled and cluster munitions. Army of any country can in such a case, to achieve quick victories in the war with the enemy, operating with obsolete categories of thinking and ready to move in offensives of the mass of the armored and infantry regiments.
Reliance on morals need of course the army thing, but he needs no less competent and far-sighted military leaders who will not cover up their failures with propaganda. After all, the slogans also are in need of reinforcements, otherwise the troops have not been disappointed in them and in their media. It is likely that if NATO decided in 1999 to launch a ground offensive against the Serbs, the results would have been similar, although the victims would be much more force in a mountain-wooded nature of the terrain and the presence of a sufficiently numerous Albanian guerrilla movement, who would spare neither Serbian prisoners or civilians. as the command of the Yugoslav army has concentrated the bulk of the troops, except two brigades to the border with Macedonia and Albania, parts of Kosovo and Metohija, first strike artillery NATO has laid out Serbian troops with a hail of cluster munitions and managed. There could not help the SWAT team that was "favorite propaganda weapon" of the Yugoslav authorities. Besides the absurdity of comparing the weapons of the special forces with modern ammunition, artillery and aviation it should be noted that Albanian "partisans" was not a minor factor in this war. During the breakthrough of the Serbian front in Kosovo and Metohija, there would burst forth a few tens of thousands of Albanian fighters from Macedonia and Albania. The rebels knew countryside and defeated the Yugoslav army during the retreat would have lost hundreds of thousands of people. This scenario was seriously considered by the Americans and NATO and military-political leadership of Serbia knew about this.
In Iraq in 2003 had a similar situation, but played the same scenario to the end. The militias of the Kurdish parties and the Shiite opposition (then enjoyed the direct support of Iran, then the American government does not interfere) supported on the battlefield by the coalition forces, while the military and political leadership of Iraq there were many opponents of Saddam Hussein. As the money Western intelligence agencies had a lot of — they had the opportunity to bribe important people, the success of coalition forces was complete contrary to forecasts of some Russian "analysts". However, even in 1991, with its vast power, the Iraqi army lost the war due to the misunderstanding of the modern nature of warfare ("don't understand it now and the General staff on Rfii, preparing in the academies for officers lost the Third world war.- Editor's note A.V. Musienko."). Then an example could be the actions of the 3rd and 7th corps of the Iraqi army, surrounded in Kuwait. Collected in Kuwait, Iraqi forces were doomed to defeat from the outset of hostilities, because the plain desert area gave the opportunity aviation coalition troops to cut them from the main grouping of troops stationed in Iraq, by bombing from the air and remote installation of mine fields (aviation and artillery).
Modern ammunition is allow in some cases, but not always, replace maneuver airstrikes and artillery, remote install cassette min. the Possibility of direct and simultaneous impact on all the depth of combat formations of the enemy and there is a key change in the modern martial art until then unknown in military history. In these circumstances, offensive operations become even more dangerous than before, but the Americans in Iraq won them... the more the mass of advancing troops, the easier target they are (respectively, the higher the efficiency of fire of enemy attack). In fact, today the stealth in action is one of the main keys to success. At the same time, the increased capabilities of modern military equipment, allows even the top ten hidden from the enemy tanks to make serious changes in the course of the fighting in a separate direction, with timely development of their initial success other forces and means. The same applies to the guided weapons systems long range, shock, which is often impossible to predict, because of inaccessibility or limited capacity of their intelligence. As a result, air defence, signals intelligence (electronic intelligence) and EW(electronic warfare) is required in each of the current battalion tactical group and the corresponding equipment must be equipped with a command-staff vehicles, armored vehicles unit commanders or, in extreme cases, cars of the commanders of the tactical groups.
Due to the increasing number of types of engineering and other ammunition should be separate demining engineering unit, equipping them with the means of remote mines in the form of elongated and thermobaric (volume explosion) charges. Existing types of such shells allow you to quickly and effectively make passages in minefields, manually installed and monolithically, or cluster (mines are on the surface). These infantry units can effectively be used to inflict fire damage, especially when conducting offensive combat operations in populated areas and on a prepared enemy defense. These facts (use elongated clearance charges for destruction of troops and fortifications) occurred during the capture of Grozny in 1995. In Iraq the marine corps the US used to install CATFAE (Catapult Launched FAE) with the guide 21 and warhead FAE mixture of MAPR, and the U.S. army installation SLUFAE (Surface Launched Unit FAE) which had 30 127-mm rails with adcaliber 346 mm warhead (BLU-73), containing 38 kg FAE mix based on propylene-oxide.
Because of the serious risk cluster and anti-personnel minefields should be equipped with portable elongated clearance charges of infantry, and, if necessary, the reconnaissance and sabotage units. If the armament of the American army portable battery APOBS mine (Antipersonnel Obstacle Breaching System) Мк7 has a weight of 45 kg, the new British RAMBS elongated charge (Rapid Antipersonnel Minefield Breaching System) has a weight of just 6.4 kg and is installed using rifle grenades small arms.
When creating advanced demining technology must be considered and solutions used in humanitarian demining, where there appeared to be quite successful models, such as machine clearance "Belarty" — modifications UOS-155, UNI-DISC, UNI-SIFT. And created in Norway by the company NoDeCo in conjunction with the Lockwood company Ltd Back the five-ton machine MineCat able to clear anti-tank minefields with the help of a rotating chain (300-350 rpm.min.) installed on pusher machine shaft. You should pay attention to the development of light-weight floating and airborne machines razgryzaniya. In addition to that, you should have in stock mounted packages, such as developed in the United States set MCAP (Mine Clearing/Armor Protection).
This knife trawl, weighing three tons was set in Kuwait for the Caterpiller tractor, providing him protection from debris and extending the passages in the minefields of the blade in the form of a fork. Such kits can be equipped with engineering and construction units, because when you're working in a combat zone frequently found unexploded ordnance and minefields. It should be noted that infantry units on vehicles can operate in the conditions of modern warfare under the condition of equipping them with sufficient engineering equipment, primarily excavation (trenching and excavation) machines. Thus the infantry in the defense areas and the dispersion of protection from modern weapons. For samobrazovaniya combat elements of cluster munitions aetc trenches do not represent goals. As for fragmentation submunitions, they, torn to the ground, less hazardous to personnel in the trenches, if the trenches have overlap, that provide effective protection from ammunition exploding in the air.
To protect against cumulative-shrapnel and high-explosive ammunition should when the device setups to apply a multilayer coating with soil, logs, boards, shingles, bricks, stones. Due to the properties of the cumulative effect, the sheaf has a limited effect due to the relatively small weight of the projectile (from 30 g to 300 g) in such submunitions and can be stopped one-half meter layer of such multilayer coatings. ("Militants in Grozny to protect against explosive projectiles used for these purposes, ordinary wood (branches of trees), covering their shelter, for the same purpose may be used and the mesh netting.-Editor's note A.V. Musienko").
Infantry defense nodes can be protected using the mine layer. The use of mine-layers during the mechanical installation of mine fields, significant limits the maneuvering capabilities of the enemy, holding it for subsequent application of aviation artilleriyska bumps, and allows in a short time to cover up dangerous areas, stopping wedged armored vehicles and enemy infantry. In Yugoslavia to install anti-tank mines protivoglistnyh TMRP-6 (with fuse pressure plate or pin (tilt) action) and min TMRP-7 (with remote magnetic fuse) used the minelayer, created on the basis of the Yugoslav M80 IFV. This is the minelayer ammo to 288 mines that he can set into the ground at a speed of 500 min per hour with the distance between mines 4-10 m at a speed of 2.5-4.5 km/h or a distance of 5-10 m when installed on the ground at a speed of 5-10 km/h.
In the US and the UK, such monolithical do not pay serious attention due to the fact that these States throughout their history did not wage a protracted trench warfare with equal strength opponent. Meanwhile, in Austria for one of the most modern anti-tank mines Pz MI88 with the shock of the nucleus and fuse with magnetic, seismic, pressure or acoustic sensors, developed trailed mikolajczyk. Mina this electronic device has anti-handling devices, it can be cleaned only with a special device for Electronic fuzes used in other modern protivobolevykh mines.During clearing mines with electronic detonator in the first place, cluster, high risk of erosion. Dangerous all types of modern ammunition with electronic fuses.
Mistakenly bytheme opinion that the mines had outlived their time. The use of mines enables infantry units to successfully fight tanks. Especially effective weapons of mine in its application of reconnaissance and sabotage groups behind enemy lines. This witness as the experience of the Second World war (what else wrote Ilya Grigorievich Starinov) so the war of the last time (Chechnya, Kosovo, Iraq, Afghanistan). Only in Afghanistan the loss of armored vehicles of the Limited contingent of Soviet troops from engineering ordnance (mines and bombs) was about 75 percent (of staff — "only" 18 per cent).
Modern protivoluchevye mines in its impact on the target can be compared to anti-tank rocket launchers (some of them even used the RPG shots). Developed in 90-ies in Germany protivoluchevye mines PARM cumulative cumulative warhead with a range of up to 100 m. PARM-1 has a infrared sensor with a choice of up to three objectives, and PARM-2 is active-passive sensor SAPIR with a choice of up to 10 targets. In special purpose forces of the USA used portable charges PAM (Penetration Augmented Munitions), weighing 15 kg and a diameter of 203 mm, the shock struck target nucleus. Charge PAM with a length of 850 mm has a tandem warhead type — the first operates on the principle of a shock core, and the second with the help of a jet engine is done in the torn hole inside the object.
In the face of widespread war, all infantry units should have the skills of a "guerrilla war", as it is obvious that at the current rate of occurrence of the motorized parts of the opponent they are during the day may already be in the operational rear of the enemy troops. Yourself to effectively deal with tanks and armored vehicles in open battle was in the rear of troops of infantry units will not be able, therefore, to abandon the mines is unreasonable. Eventually, in the event of war on the territory of the entire state, in the guise of the chaos of the civil war, what I write and Western experts, will have to draw on all available human resources, most of which will have a low training.
From the foregoing it can be concluded that the strategy of creating a small professional army, equipped with appliances of the last examples for such continental countries as Russia-is not feasible. ("she,what with "foaming at the mouth" stand up Russian Democrats-liberals, very, very erroneous, to say the least — criminal.- Editor's note A.V. Musienko"). First, in the U.S., which used this model saved the troops of the National guard and Organized reserve. If in 70-80-ies they were given technique, taken from the arms of the regular army, then in the 90s it was decided to equip the National guard with modern equipment. The presence of armed "compact army" of modern technology, managed samples and cluster weapons does not mean that the infantry is already not acceptable during hostilities. Infantry units are still relevant, and the question of their number must first be decided on the basis of the analysis of external and internal threats to the state and its economic opportunities is the second. And not Vice versa...
In war 1999 Yugoslav troops have not lost the combat capability and not only organized the defense of the borders of Serbia in the area of Kosovo and Metohija (including, by installing over 10,000 anti-tank mines anti-personnel mines and 30,000), but also by forces of reconnaissance and sabotage, and airborne units made incursions into the territory of Albania and Macedonia. We must remember that in addition to 15-20 thousand fighters UCC (United army of Kosovo — the KLA) located in Albania and Macedonia, tens of thousands of Albanians mobilized UCK in refugee camps (often violently), in the territory of Kosovo and Metohija were a large number of fighters (according to various estimates from 10 to 30 thousand) in eight operational areas.
All this "army" subordinated to the General headquarters of UCK in the village Tropea (army commander Agim Ceku, until 1991, JNA captain, passed subsequently to the side of the Croats). A. Ceku was one of the key people in the famous 9-th Led brigade of HVO (Croatian army later), which operated in the area of Gospic and Medicago the ledge. During the war, Agim Çeku, has reached a large enough influence in the Croatian army and even became a General. With the emergence in Croatia of the American military company MPRI, and he quickly established her leadership with good communication. About the company a lot written, but here it is worth noting that the company adhered to the objectives of the political leadership of the US at the time. Dozens of generals and officers of the U.S. armed forces who worked at MPRI, was presented in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the U.S. command and was directly involved in planning operations of the Croatian-Muslim coalition. Moreover, the air strikes of NATO in August-September 1995, conducted according to a single plan of these operations. A similar situation occurred in Kosovo and Metohija in 1998-1999, where they again played the leading role company MPRI. No coincidence that the commander of UCK was appointed "approved" the Agim Çeku.
Thus, it becomes evident that the actions by NATO aircraft and fighters were UCC cooperative and coordinated, much as it was possible a chaotic situation in the ranks of the Albanians. ("The world's media Americans for the disgrace is not branded. Whipping boy for them was and remains Russia, with its legitimate right to establish law and order in the southern region, or to help its global partners editor's note A.V. Musienko"). Serbs still defended relatively hard. Not the last role was played by the border units of the Yugoslav army, who placed the barrier, which the Albanian guerillas were not always able to overcome. Today, however, these forces replaced the police, which is fraught with serious consequences for the security of Serbia. At the same time the Serbs have not been given enough attention to create a deeply echeloned defence. Troops deployed in these areas, the terrain did not know, and organized communication with the border guards had. Across the border could gush thousand Albanian fighters (reinforced by mercenaries and Mujahideen), support special operations Forces NATO. The NATO troops would, in many cases, to rescue the captives of Serbian military and local civilian Serbian population from Albanian terror (which actually happened after June 17, 1999).
However, the command of the Yugoslav army made the right decision to deploy two tank brigades in the center of Kosovo and Metohija that the plan gave the opportunity to put their strike on stretching in the mountain forest area of Kosovo and Metohija the NATO troops. However the NATO command did not provide for such attacks. In Macedonia and Albania at this time was not more than 30 thousand NATO soldiers, 200 tanks, 350 armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles and 100 artillery guns. The Yugoslav army had in Kosovo and Metohija six times more soldiers and 2-3 times more armor. The command of NATO and was not going to conduct a ground offensive, because it was confident in the success of their politicians.This is proved, the fact that Macedonia was deployed to the NATO contingent, comprising a total of 20 thousand people, under the command of a British General Michael Jackson. Their basis was the strength of France presented 2 and 8 of the parachute regiments of the 11th airborne division (up to 4000 people, several dozen BTR), Germany — 21th tank brigade (about 3,700 troops, 90 tanks, 90 armored personnel carrier and BMP), UK — 4th tank brigade (around 4,500 men, over 100 tanks, 100 units of the BTR and BMP), Italy — battalion "Garibaldi" (about 1000 people, 50 units APC), Holland — 650 special Forces, USA — about 2,000 Marines from the 24th mechanized division (two battalions) and 100 "green berets" mtrs). In addition, the American soldiers together with soldiers of the Scandinavian countries were in the UN forces stationed in Macedonia before the bombing, but the thousand contingent of the UN role has not played.
NATO troops had the support of only hundreds of guns, mortars and RSZO and were not able to defeat even the border forces of the Yugoslav army. In Albania there were only 12 thousand troops from the U.S. forces (5 thousand), Italy (2 thousand), the UK (over 1 million), France (about 800 people), Germany (600 people), Holland (600 persons), Spain (400 people), Belgium (650 persons), Austria (400 persons), Hungary (50 persons), Poland (150 persons), Denmark (100 people) and 250 personnel from other NATO countries and their allies. Held in Albania had little troops of armored vehicles and the border area with Kosovo and Metohija not included.
Naturally, with such a contingent of the NATO command had not intended to attack Serb forces. Their main task was not to allow the Serbian troops to occupy Albania itself, whose troops were in a state of collapse and are often subordinated to UCC. For the Serbs were not easily blow quick to reject NATO forces from Albania and Macedonia, although the quality of command and training in the Serbian ranks left much to be desired. If from the beginning of the war in 1991 in all parts and departments of the Serbian troops created were made here "interventie" group of the best forces and equipment, this would give the ability to conduct deep offensive, lead a tenacious defense even with the loss of the combat capability of the remaining troops.
Unfortunately, front-line practice and was not recognized by the military science of the Yugoslav army, although it is on this principle in the Ministry of internal Affairs was created "interventie" units and "posebna" — (Serbian — special) police forces.
Infantry, not so helpless in the conditions of modern combat, as it may seem. Modern individual cumulative ammunition anti-tank weapons (anti-tank hand grenades, rifle (core) anti-tank grenades, rocket-propelled grenades, antitank grenade launchers), able to impress even modern tanks, especially when firing from ambush in the side, rear and top, and armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles in any proektsii. In many armies, including the Yugoslav weaponry continue to be rifle grenades, both fragmentation and cumulative.
In 1957, the U.S. army has adopted a 66-mm anti-tank cumulative grenade M31(firing range of 250 meters, armor — 270 mm.) which had a piezoelectric Fuze. In 60-ies in the US army under the designation came M28 rifle grenade Belgian "Energa". After the Vietnam war rifle grenades were taken out of service U.S. army (they were replaced by 40-mm grenade launchers M203), but they continued to remain in service with those countries where the Americans they were sold. The U.S. army was used and 140-mm rifle grenade HESH-RAW, but at the moment, its practical application is not installed.
The Yugoslav army used grenades vintovochnyh (here bearing the name of tromblon) M60 and M70 (shrapnel), as well as cumulative M60.
In 50-ies in France was adopted by 73 mm cumulative rifle grenade M-50 (a range of 240 meters, penetration up to 300 mm.) and 65-mm of cumulative rifle grenade M-61 (range 320 km, the armour penetration of up to 300mm.), which was produced under license in Belgium, and 40-mm cumulative-fragmentation rifle grenade M-56 "stream" (firing range 400 m, penetration of up to 120 mm), produced under license in Belgium as AP32Z designed to combat lightly armored vehicles and enemy manpower. In service with the French army are 58-mm rifle grenade company "Lusa SA" cumulative AC PAB-F1 (the range 100 m, penetration of up to 250 mm.) and cumulative-fragmental AP/AV (firing range 300 m, penetration of up to 70 mm). The French company "Elsamex" razrabotki three types of rifle grenades — fragmentation, cumulative-shrapnel and practical, which have the same size and weight with a maximum firing range 400 m Cumulative-shrapnel grenade pierces 30 mm of steel armor at an angle meeting of 60°.
In Belgium in 1956, was adopted by a cumulative 75-mm grenade HEAT-RFL-75N "Energa" (the index N denotes the fired blank cartridge), developed a major Belgian manufacturer of hand and rifle grenades the company Mecar.
Grenade "Energa" (firing range 100 m, the armour penetration of up to 275 mm) was adopted for the army of great Britain, Denmark, Ireland, Norway, USA (under the designation M28), France, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, the Middle East and Africa. Existed upgraded its 73-mm HEAT option-RFL-73N.
Cumulative grenade rifle "Super Energa" was a powder jet engine, which increased her range to 550 meters 40-mm rifle grenades the company Mekar APR-RFL-40N (range of 500 meters, penetration up to 140 mm.) and APR-RFL-40BT (firing distance 400 meters, penetration up to 140 mm.) are at the service of the army of Belgium and more than thirty-five States. The company Mekar shrapnel was made of 55-mm rifle grenade, HE-RFL-BTU LR(firing range — 700 m.).LOT-N7 OF SAP(range 350 m) were also taken into service of a number of armies of other States.One of the latest developments frag grenade AR "Algren" FN (TELeskopic GRENade) can be propelled grenade rounds 5. 56x45, 7. 62x51 or 7. 62x39 with an ordinary, armor-piercing or tracer bullet, and with an initial flight speed of 65-80 m/s has an effective range of 300-400 meters
However, after the Vietnam war more popular than rifle grenades, were "disposable launchers" — or rather, rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs). The first American 66-mm M-72 to the firing range 150 m, penetration of up to 375 mm and a weight of 3 kg, has become an individual anti-tank weapon for infantry.
Later, the U.S. adopted a 70-mm grenade "Viper" (weight 3.7 kg, range 250 km, an armour penetration of up to 400 mm). In the U.S. army as a fire support weapon, and used 130-mm "disposable grenade launcher" grenade launcher "Predator" STRAWS with MPIM warhead (Multi-Purpose Individual Munitions). At a weight of 9 kg, has a tandem warhead RPG (cumulative and fragmentation) and sighting range up to 600m.
The British, and several other countries have adopted a 94-mm RPG LAW-80 (mass 8 kg, range of 300 m, broneprobivnoj to 600 mm). The French have adopted 112 mm RPG "Apilas" (mass 9 kg, cast armor of armor up to 700 mm, range 330 m).
But the revolution in anti-tank weapons of infantry fired anti-tank hand grenade. Even in Afghanistan, spooks quite successfully used Chinese copies are designed in the USSR in 1949, 40-mm grenade launcher RPG-2 — "Type 69" and its modernized version of "Type-56", and a grenade from the "56th" could be used in an RPG "Type-69" (RPG-7. Of the USSR). To believe that modern "big" war can only be fought by the weapons development of the last decades is wrong. After the removal of the weapons of the RPG-2, the Soviet army had a high quality reusable manual anti-tank grenade launcher developed in 1961, the RPG-7 and RPG-7D (assault variant) with the sighting range of up to 500m. At the present time the RPG-7 is the same mass anti-tank weapon in the world like his compatriot Kalashnikov. The RPG-7 used nakalyvanie anti-tank grenades PG-7V and PG-7ВМ (76 mm), PG-7ВЛ (93 mm) 105-mm grenade PG-7ВР with tandem warhead, 105-mm grenade TBG-7V thermobaric warhead with 40-mm (gauge) fragmentation grenade OG-7V. In China, Syria, Iran produced high-cumulative grenade for the RPG-7. RPG-7 is in service with armies around 70 countries and in Iraq they are the main antitank weapon of the Iraqi insurgents. Although it is believed that the RPG-7 is a group of anti-tank weapons (in the Russian army to one infantry division, in Iran army infantry in each Department, there are two RPG-7), in its combat and technical characteristics are in combat with it may make one person, is additionally armed with a rifle or other small arms. Since learning the RPG-7 is quite simple, it quickly mastered in Africa, Southeast Asia, Afghanistan and Iraq, the people without any military training, and sometimes even illiterate.
The same reliable as the RPG-7, but not as advertised, is a 73-mm heavy anti-tank rocket launcher SPG-9, class recoilless guns. Even during the war in Afghanistan (1979-1989) is quite effective when operating from ambush showed themselves, seemingly obsolete recoilless guns 82 mm DKZ-82K65 (China), CR-82 (USSR, 50 years), 75-mm M20 (USA) and his Chinese counterpart "Type 56-2" (China). Despite the fact that modern RPG and ATGM on the firing range and armor penetration especially noticeably pressed "besotted" on the battlefield, to write them off as antitank weapon yet. Their number, especially in service with third world countries, makes us to pay more serious attention to this class of antitank weapons. Moreover, there are modern versions easel anti-tank grenade launchers such as the Russian RPG-29 "Vampire", an Italian 80 mm RPG "Folgore", and the Swedish 90 mm recoilless anti-tank weapon PV-110.
In the war over Kosovo Albanians were widely used German 67-mm grenade launcher "Armbrust 300" (weight 4.8 kg, armor penetration up to 300 mm cast armor at a distance of 300-500 m). "Armbrust 300" was developed in the late 70-ies of the German concern Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm (MBB), in nastoyashchy the moment the production of these grenade completed in Germany, but they are produced under license in Belgium and Singapore. This grenade launcher has a low acoustic noise, due to the presence of the pistons, throws a grenade and delaying the release of the gases.
In service with many countries of the world is the German 60-mm antitank grenade launcher "Panzerfaust-3" (the maximum diameter of 110 mm nadelberg grenades, RPG weight 12 kg). In an RPG "Panzerfaust-3" use of cumulative grenades Pzf3 (sighting range 400 m, 400 mm armor penetration), tandem cumulative grenade Pzf3-T600 (firing range 600 m, the penetration of active armour + 700 mm) and Pzf 3-IT600 (sighting range 600 m, the penetration of the active armour up to 900 mm) and high-explosive grenades Pzf3BKF (sighting range 600 m armor armor 17 mm or 360 mm brick wall).
At the end of 40-h years on arms of the Swedish army was adopted by 84 mm RPG М48М2 "Carl-Gustaf" (weight 14 kg sighting range 700 meters, penetration up to 400 mm). "Carl-Gustaf" has received the most widespread, thanks to their simple design and wide choice of ammunition (cumulative, high-explosive, shrapnel, incendiary, smoke and illumination). In 80-ies of the steel barrel RPG has been replaced by composite (option М86М3) that utensilo a lot of weapons to 9.5 kg, when sighting the firing range of 1000 meters and the use of active-reactive grenades with armor piercing 500 mm + dynamic protection. Grenade launchers "Carl-Gustaf" are in service with dozens of armies in the world, and ammunition manufactured in Sweden, Belgium and India.
A large number of different types of RPGs developed in France: 105-mm ACIP-300, 92 mm ABB, 88.9-mm LRAC-89, 120-mm Dard-120. Although RPG Dard-120 weight of 14 kg and punches 820 mm cast armor for a range of up to 300m, he never taken into service). Armed forces of Spain is RPG C-90-CR-B1, whose condemna cumulative warhead, penetrate 300 mm of reinforced concrete wall or 1500-mm barrier of sandbags. Israel has developed and adopted 82 mm RPG B-300 (effective range 400 m) with high, cumulative (penetration up to 400 mm) and light grenades.
At the present moment in U.S. Army basic grenade launcher is disposable AT-4 (caliber 84 mm, weight 7.5 kg, the sighting range of up to 300 meters, the penetration is more than 500 mm), designed by Swedish company SAAB Bofors Dynamics and American ATK company on the basis of the U.S. disposable rocket launcher M72 LAW. In an RPG, used ammunition created in Sweden for the grenade launcher "Carl Gustaf". At-4 is in service in the U.S. under the designation M136 LAW, and its improved versions — AT-4МР and AT-4МР-T (tendenoy BSC), AT-4СЅ for firing from enclosed spaces (with liquid proteomical), AT-4СЅ-HP for firing from the room with a penetrating warhead.
In service with marine Corps USA since 1984 is reusable 83-mm grenade launcher, the SMAW (Shoulder Launched Multipurpose Assault Weapon) created by Talley defense Systems Rocket System on the basis of Israeli Bazooka B-300. Its warhead with thin walls contains 1,59 kg mixture Comp A3 (phlegmatized RDX with the addition of aluminum powder) can penetrate up to 250 mm of concrete at a distance of 500 m. the Fuze is programmed to the undermining of it hitting a solid barrier (in this case, the deformation of compression of a shell and fit them targets for so-called "Hopkinson effect"). Charge with the "Hopkins effect" provides a penetration of 250 mm concrete wall. And there is a cumulative warhead with a penetration of up to 600 mm. Optionally available with the grenade warhead type FTG (Follow-Through) is a tandem warhead designed to defeat manpower inside the shelters; the first warhead punches a hole in the barrier, then followed her over the obstacle enters the second fragmentation warhead and striking in the shelter personnel, the type of CPR (Common Practice — training with inert warhead),type CS (Confined Space with HEDP warhead type and special measures to reduce exhaust launch for firing from enclosed spaces), NE (Novel Explosive is a thermobaric high-explosive warhead).
In service with USA and consists of odnorazovoe version RPG SMAW — 84 mm SMAW-D (Disposable) created on the basis of assault complex AT-4 LMAW (Light Multipurpose Assault Weapon ) in an embodiment, cumulative and high-explosive warhead. During special operations in Iraq in the U.S. marine Corps there was the assault team Assault Team armed with weapons of fire support SMAW (Shoulder Launched Multipurpose Assault Weapon), later renamed the SMAW-MPV (Short-Range Assault Weapon-Multiple Purpose Variant) "Predator" FGM-172, with a range of targets from 17 to 600 meters. Although the first prototypes of these complexes appeared in 2002, in may 2005, Lockheed Martin delivered the first batch of 400 such complexes for the occupation forces in Iraq. These are managed with the GOS with additional inertial, optical and magnetic sensors of the missile, still cannot be called a ATGM. As for anti-tank capability "Predator", it was first applied percussion kernel contained in the action when flying over the target, and then was installed a multi-purpose warhead (Multiple Purpose Variant) in which in addition to the effect of a shock core, and a pronounced high-explosive effect is caused by additional high-explosive warhead penetrating a barrier shock done through the core hole.
The American company Rocket System Division has also created a portable assault RPG SHIPON (Shoulder Launched Infantry Weapon) on the basis of Israeli B300 rocket launcher. In this RPG you can fire unguided grenades mass of high-explosive and tandem cumulative warhead. These bombs can penetrate up to 400 mm cast armor for dynamic protection. It is likely that in the short term, all of these complexes gunships will be equipped with guided or homing shots, so the line between man-portable ATGM and rocket launchers reusable, will eventually fade.
The Swedish company Bofors ATGM on the basis of "Bill" has developed a new ATGM using the warhead from the missile of the complex, and the rocket and PU portable ATGM AT-4CS. The rocket with an initial velocity of 90 m/s is accelerated on the trajectory up to 300 m/s.
ATGM first generation, developed in 50-60-ies were controlled by wire combining the three points, the rockets goal and sight that demanded from the operator of considerable skill. However, these ATGM remain in service with many armies. They have a fairly high penetration and effectiveness to defeat armoured vehicles in conditions of good visibility, especially at the sides. The range of these "legacy" ATGM is quite suitable for carrying out the ambush of the actions of reconnaissance and sabotage units and various guerrilla groups type. They are effective and, if organizatsii defense in mountainous, wooded and urban area.
So French ATGM SS-10, adopted in the 60-ies, has broneprobivnoj to 500 mm cast armor and range controlled shooting from 300 to 1600 m, ATGM SS-11 — 600 mm, 300-3500 m, SS-12 -600 mm 800-6000 m, "Entact-581" — 630 mm, 2000 -4000 meters, the British "Vigilent" 889 — 66 mm, 280-1600 m, German (Germany) "Cobra" — 500 mm, 400-2000 m, "Mamba" with 500 mm 360-2300 meters.
The main drawback of the first generation ATGM with was a large minimum distance controlled shooting (from 300 to 2000 m), making them impossible to use directly in front of battle orders his troops in ambush at close range.
The second generation ATGM got better and simple to use targeting system. In the second generation ATGM uses a pointing method using two points — a goal and sight. Guidance of ATGM is carried out not only on cable but also radio command method, by laser light or by using infrared (thermal imaging) GOS by holding purpose in the brand of sight.
In 70-80-ies in most European countries, NATO has adopted a ATGM "Milan" Franco-German development, with a range of fire up to 2000 m (minimum 25 m) and penetration up to 500 mm at rocket mass kg. 6,7 This complex is transported by calculation from two persons, and set the armored personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles and various cars. During a series of upgrades were created modifications "Milan-2 and Milan-3" with improved combat characteristics.
Britain and France jointly developed ATGM "Hot", designed for installation on armored vehicles and helicopters, with an effective range of 4000 m. during the modernization of anti-tank complex "Hot-2T" received a tandem warhead and a remote detonator, and its penetration was increased to to 1300 mm.
In the United States to second generation ATGM to take a portable antitank missile launcher "Dragon", different from their counterparts of lower weight (4 kg) and the possibility of using it with one person (PU and two missiles in containers). Currently antitank missile launcher"Dragon" in the U.S. armed forces is replaced by ATGM "Javelin" with a range of up to 2,000 m and the GOS rocket. A similar principle of targeting anti-tank guided missile was first used in ATGW ATGW "Bill" ("Bill-2") Swedish BOFORS company that created a portable controlled ATGM with a range of up to 2200 m.
Modernization is a fairly common way of improving ATGM, both in terms of combat guided missiles, and their guidance. So TOW ATGM has undergone several upgrades (Improved TOW, TOW-2, TOW-2A, TOW 2B, TOW-2D, TOW-3), reaching the firing range of 5,000 m, several types of warhead and laser guidance having received (in the modification of TOW-2F replaced by thermal imaging) and BSC top striking target.
In Pakistan to develop ATGM "Bahtar Shikan" (based on Chinese ATGM "Hunicane", "copied" from an American TOW ATGM) laser guidance was subsequently also replaced by thermal imaging.
For a modern ATGM, in addition to tandem cumulative warhead, developed and high-explosive warhead, as for example for easy ATGM "Eryx" (France) and TOW ATGM and rockets with thermobaric (volume blast) warhead.
Modern ATGM currently has preserved the division into light and heavy. ATGM such as the French "Erix", the American "Dragon", "Spike", "Javelin", "Slash", Yugoslavian "Bomber" can be carried and used by one person, and the Spanish "Macam" and "Bantam", the Russian "faggot", "Metis" and "cornet", the Swedish "Bill-56" American "Mistic", the Ukrainian R-2, Indian "Nag", the Iranian "Raad" maintenance crew of two people.
Developed by the Israeli company IMI state ATGM "Spike-ER" ( distance 6 km) is a missile with tandem cumulative warhead and controlled by optical cable operator - gunner, which receives data from the GOS rocket. There is an opportunity and launch offline only to the GOS. The SPIKE munition (Separated Penetrator Kinetic Energy) accelerates to a speed of 1450 m/s, after which pressure the pressure relief spring 88 is released tungsten finished striking element, flying under the action of centrifugal force and creates a bundle with a diameter of 25 m. damaging lightly armored target at a distance of 2 km In the CPU "Spike" has a database of 3D models in three dimensions. There is a choice of the objectives during the flight to the target. There are three modifications of munition SPIKE: "Spike-MR" with a range of up to 2.5 km, "Spike -LR" with a range of 4 km, "Spike -ER" with a range up to 8 km . Currently the program of development of weapons of Spike, jointly developed by Israel and Germany.
The addition of grenade launchers and anti-tank guided weapons, the main weapon fire support to infantry are mortars. Training in the firing of mortars, it's possible to implement under the command of experienced instructors in less than a month, and the effectiveness of action purpose of mortar may be higher than that of artillery. Mortars are integral weapons of the guerrillas — the "partisan artillery". They were widely used by Soviet and Vietnamese guerrillas, the Afghan Mujahideen and irregulars etc.
The effectiveness of mortar fire is greatly increased when using remote detonators, as mortar shells create more shrapnel lethal than artillery shells even larger caliber than a mortar shell. Mines with a radar fuse, are many ammunition of mortars, including the Yugoslav 120-mm mortar M-75 and German 120-mm mortar (120-mm mine 120НЕ-L company Rheinmetall, with a remote trigger, exploding at a height of 15 m from the ground surface). The U.S. Army is armed with a towed 120mm mortar М120/121 (a range of 7200 meters), based at the Israeli 120-mm mortar K-6 (Soltam). Through the use of composite materials the mortar was 144 kg. For comparison, Singapore 120-mm mortar has a lot 236,7 kg and the maximum range 6500 m, and Romanian 120mm mortar Model 82 has a mass of 180 kg and a range of fire up to 7400m.
From portable 81 and 82-mm mortars, perhaps the most common in the world are created in the early 70-ies, the British 81-mm mortar L16 (range 5800 m, mass 32 kg) and Soviet 82-mm mortar 2Б14 (weight 42 kg, range of fire of 3,600 m (long-range charge up to 4230 m). There are a number of models of portable mortars in the world, this is a Chinese 82-mm mortar Type 53, South Korean 81-mm mortar КМ187 (mass of 43 kg and a range of fire 6.3 km), Singapore 81-mm mortar (mass of 43.6 kg and the range of fire of 6.2 km), Slovak 81-mm mortar (mass 65 kg and the range of fire 6.8 km), Romanian 82-mm mortar Model 77 and Model-94 (mass 43 and 47 kg, and the range of fire 9000 and 5700 m.), Yugoslavian 82-mm mortar М69 (range М69 new mine, which contains a charge of 690 grams of hexitol is from 100 to 4900 m.)
Mortars of calibres of 120 mm and 81/82 mm mortars can apply cumulative and armor-piercing ammunition. In France were developed piercing armor-piercing mines F601 caliber of 60 mm and OFL90 caliber 81 mm with feathered core, amazing goal top. At the same time, the creation of controlled GOS for armor-piercing mines of calibre of 81 mm was considered unnecessary, due to their smaller volume and range than the 120-mm mortars .The only guided (homing) 81-mm cumulative mine "Merlin" British Aerospace Dynamics has a mass of 7 kg, the GOS radar millimeter range and firing range up to 1500 m. However, due to the high costs of developing the mines was stopped. In the US company Boeing in the 90-ies of the developed managed via optical cable with the adjustment on the GPS device 120-mm mortar mine FOMP (Fiber Optic Master Project), but the project was stopped.
More successful was adopted by the army of Sweden in 1994, a 120-mm guided anti-tank cumulative mine "Stryx", developed by Swedish Ordnance to AMOS mortar. Swedish 120-mm mine "Stryx" has the IRS and a range of up to 7000 m. After having left the barrel at the mines the rocket engine. In flight, the mine is controlled by the microprocessor 12 of the rocket nozzles on. 120-mm mine "Stryx" is in service with Sweden and Switzerland. A new Swedish 120-mm mine "Bussard" should be equipped with cumulative or tandem cumulative warhead and have laser guidance, provide options of equipping it with IR or radar GOS. When the mines wt 17 kg it has a range of up to 5 km Lockheed Martin (USA) and Diehl (Germany) - based mines "Bussard" developing the 120-mm mine mortar M managed-395 PGMM ( Precision Guided Mortar Munitions,there existed the symbol ATK) with tandem cumulative warhead(approximate date of adoption — 2010).Mina has the body of improved aerodynamic shape with a radius of 15 km(minimum 0.5 km), and guided to its target by a laser GOS,but there is a modification to the GOS combined with IR sensor and GPS.
The Israeli company Soltam has developed a 120-mm mines HE managed-TAG (Terminal Area Guided) laser GOS M150 for firing from mortars and 120/121 M M-151 for mortars with extended range And-7. The range of fire of the first bomb 7200m, and the second 9500м. Developed in Israel and modification of guided ammunition "Fireball" with laser and GPS GOS. Munition "Fireball" is applied from 120-mm mortars, but it can be adapted and 81-mm mortars. The range of fire of 120-mm mortar up to 15 km, its guidance is carried out using a laser GOS, when adjusting with the help of GPS receiver. For this mine there are several modifications of the warhead, including cumulative.
The ammunition of the British 81-mm mortar L9A1 can be estimated on the basis of the contract of 1995, when ordered from min 400000 — 200000 was shrapnel, and smoke 100000 100000 cumulative. Cumulative 82-mm mortar mines produced about many countries, for example in the UK, France, and also Hungary is 82 mm cumulative Mina.
While the grenade launchers have almost replaced the 60-mm mortars, everything in the world is applied in a similar class of mortar weapons. To modern 60-mm mortars are South Korean mortar KM181 (mass 20 kg with a range of fire up to 3.5 km), the Romanian "Commando" and "Standery" (weight up to 8 kg and the range of fire, respectively, 1.9 and 3 km), Pakistani M6 and others.
During the war in Kosovo Albanians were widely used Chinese 60 mm mortar Type-63, the same mortars used in Afghanistan and the Mujahideen.
I would like, with the best intentions, to refer to organizational measures against artillery and enemy aircraft. This applies, above all, changes in the organizational structure of units. Staff structure is important because it determines the actions of the commander, because it is impossible to expect all the knowledge and skills of the commander. Modern organization of the Soviet type requires the commander to organize the actions of the regiment as the basic tactical formation is the battalion. Sample organization of NATO with the division into battalions does not fundamentally different, since it also provides for operation in the battalion tactical groups. These groups consist of a large number of different types of combat vehicles (tanks, IFVs, APCS, SPGs, ZSU, SPARK, crank, emergency vehicles, tractors and cars). So many cars is a major target for aviation. In addition, the division of the Soviet sample and the sample brigades of NATO have up to thousands of armored vehicles and several hundred armored vehicles that, according to the experience of the Second World war, makes impossible their simultaneous movement on the roads. Modern tanks have more mass than tanks during the Second World war. This is the reason additional restrictions on their use on the ground, and thus they become an easy target for the aviation and tanktechnik directions, to determine which can even not leaving the headquarters on the map. As already mentioned, the war of recent times are an indication that even in limited combat operations the main tactical formation is the battalion tactical group (BTG), which can be transferred in full to one or another theater of operations. However, the above practice of fighting in the conditions of the use by the opponent and managed cluster munitions and requires the separation of these groups into several parts, which would include tank, mechanized (motorized infantry) company and other units (artillery reconnaissance, communications, electronic warfare, anti-aircraft, anti-tank, engineer, logistics and technical, medical, etc). Practically, this would mean the creation of groups, which would be two or three dozen tanks, armored personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles and BRDM, and a half-two dozen armored vehicles, fire support and others. Such units are quite efficient even with the loss of half of the armored vehicles, then they should be send to fitting or reformation. ("Currently, in addition to battalion tactical groups exist and company — RTG that perform independent tasks (in the interests of the regiment, brigade or division) or in the structure of BTG. What the author suggests were widely used by our troops in Afghanistan (1979-1989) and Chechnya (1994-1996 and from 1999 to 2001-2002). Moreover, Afghanistan has received wide razvodyatsya action armored group of between 4-6 to 15-20 vehicles (tanks, IFVs, APCS, SPGs, ZSU, etc.) — editor's note A.V. Musienko"). In 1973 during the Arab-Israeli war death toll reached 7 days before 50% in anti-tank vehicles and 30% in the tanks, so tank battalions were reduced to companies.
In the fighting tanks and infantry fighting vehicles would operate in tandem. In such circumstances, the use by the opponent and managed cluster weapons will be less effective because of the sparseness of combat orders. Of course, will require construction and military positions. Should include infantry units, which would have a sufficient number of engineering and construction equipment, anti-tank weapons, artillery (especially mortars), sapper units, equipped with a large number ministring devices, mine-layers and means of remote mining. Of course infantry needs, primarily in the weapons system fire support which the infantryman could carry, or transport it on light vehicles.*
("Iraq, fearing in 2003 scenario "desert Storm-1990" so "emptied" your military orders, that the armored part of the Americans and the British went through them as Guderian on the Eastern front in June-July 1941... Not "retrieving" is necessary, and to cover the air defense system, to mask (and in the optical range and detection of technical means of intelligence), equip a false goal, to create time and spare firing positions, use of favorable terrain conditions, etc.-procee-other than written, rewritten, but no one in my head this doesn't answer, each time stepping on a rake — editor's note A.V. Musienko")
The position of Serbia is similar with the situation of Russia having "sworn friends" from their borders. This requires the creation of units of the organized reserve, including the "militia" type, allowing the rapid mobilization of the reserve has already been prepared. Yugoslavia had in the structures of the special forces of the Ministry of internal Affairs and state security system of the organized reserve, from which, after the "democratic" revolution eventually refused. The deployment of territorial units on the basis of special forces 'strength' reserve and will provide an opportunity to ensure the viability of the state in the critical period of the beginning of aggression. Similar formations in conditions of disorganization of state administration in power factor "of samodejatelnost" and self-sufficiency in the state will play a cementing role in society. For their armament to the above-mentioned forces "acting" reserve can much more efficiently use available in the warehouses of armament, even outdated, but not physically (physically lead bullet fitting the 19th century, killing as well as bullet machine of the late 20th century...). Nothing new to invent is not necessary, just efficient use of the available opportunities. So in Russia's various ministries and departments have their own military units, where up to two million soldiers. In the Russian Federation is now in 12 ministries and agencies, under current law permitted military service. This is the Ministry of defense, MVD, FSB, Ministry of emergency situations, the SVR (foreign intelligence Service), FSO (Federal protection service), FAPSI (Federal Agency of government communications and information), the state technical Commission under the President of the Russian Federation, Federal service of special construction of Russia, Federal service of railway troops of the Russian Federation, Main Department of special programmes etc. of Course each such structure requires their own military units, but the lack of a unified management makes difficult their rational use in time of war.*
("Each of these agencies has its own mobilisation plans in a period of threat, the outbreak of war and in case of other emergencies. According to these plans in the country will create a single management body which will be subject to all of the military structure of the state.- Editor's note A.V. Musienko.")
In most cases their tasks are to perform the formation of the "applicable" reserve, including their professional backbone without which no trimmed formation impossible. The use of computer-managed and cluster weapons, does not mean that "infantry had become obsolete". Rather, as new and effective weapons systems significantly limit the use of large masses of armored vehicles, and devices multi-kilometer lines of defense. ("Write off armored vehicles to the scrap only on the example of the undivided rule of enemy aircraft in the skies of Yugoslavia (though with some opposition defense) and Iraq should not hurry. That's where the air will be par (the Eastern front 1942-1944), then armored vehicles and shows. And pokazyvaya the example of Nazi Germany in 1941-1942, the red Army in 1944-1945, the U.S. in Iraq in 2003 — editor: A.V. Musienko.") Any line of defence is now able to be overcome by the use of not only managed, cluster and thermobaric munitions, and heavy infantry weapons. The only problem is the human factor, as people are able to fight selflessly and foresight to act in battle, under the influence of the ideology of "the Golden calf", there is less and less. And educational level durmanenko alcohol and drug citizens is not always possible to apply modern high-tech weapons systems. Of course the current conscript system of recruitment based in 18-19 year old conscripts outlived itself. At the same time from General mobilization in any country in the world not refuse, and she remains a military of different States. Another thing that society Western States, due to "multiculturalism", "multireligiosity" and "multinationality" I have no idea of the old monolithic database that could during the first and Second world wars to provide the army "trustworthy" mobilization base.
Consequently, when creating the "infantry" units in any case will have to comply with their "religious-ethnic" cohesion. which provided the army of Yugoslavia in 1999 (the vast majority of servicemen the Serbs) through appropriate mobilization policy, the relative resistance under NATO bombing. Just the lack of solidity in Iraq led to a rapid collapse of the army of Hussein, the units and formations which often crumbled, and collisions with "coalition" troops. Naturally, due to a shortage of command staff and due to the above features of tactical actions, such "monolithic" part of reservists may be the only individual battalions attached to the needs of any regular parts. At the same time, this "infantry" to perform independent combat tasks can not. Such parts could be called, using the terminology of the Soviet army — "assault" or "shock". In fact, such parts will be a kind of equivalent of the troops, whose role would be to action into a mountain, forest or urban area (well-known due to the territorial basis of recruitment), but in the exercise of the functions of the military police. ("Such a practice is used in the military use of infantry battalions "West" and "East" as part of 42 motor rifle division in the Chechen Republic (the headquarters of Khankala, the Chechen Republic), manned by Chechens. It should be noted that the effectiveness of their actions is determined by the flow of lies and slander various "human rights activists" and "independent" journalists. Actually its tasks both Chechen battalion of the deal in full, making a significant contribution to the stabilization of the situation in the region. Attempt to create a Cossack paramilitary groups in the North Caucasus, operating in the "First Chechen campaign" in 1999-2001, and has not received. There are all sorts of reasons.
Of course all good wishes for modern Russia, since the former structures similar to Cossack formirovaniem Russian Empire now, and those "costumed Cossacks", like mushrooms after the rain got out on the post-Soviet space is far from battle of Cossacks as a Rabbi from the mosque. Unfortunately the official Cossacks in modern Russia is just a smoke screen, a slip — "the roof", for trivial commercial activities.
At the same time it should be remembered that with "religious-ethnic" principle parts in Iraq was not (with rare exceptions of parts of the Presidential guard), but, nevertheless, a guerilla war began there. Of course, to follow Iraqi recipes is not necessary, since the Arabs have a very specific psychology, it is incomprehensible neither to Americans, nor the Europeans and not us Russians. And merit in the establishment of the Iraqi Partizanska belongs to the international Islamic organizations, the same that formed basisto-catasto in "Free Ichkeria".
In case of development of military-political situation in Yugoslav or Iraqi scenario in each part or combined connection can be created from individual volunteers "shock" unit. Why got famous during the great Patriotic war, our front-line scouts? Yes, because the recon company and razvedroty staffed virtually by the volunteer force there and nobody was holding. — Editor's note A.V. Musienko").
It is quite natural that infantry strike units should podderzhivaetsya tank and motorized rifle divisions and artillery. which should temporarily be included in the composition of such teams to perform specific missions.
("In modern warfare role of the infantry no less. It is only necessary to use it efficiently without sending its mass in the untrained areas of the defense or throwing to the attack on nepokalenow in the enemy's defenses. It all sounds trivial, but for some reason in every war, and the war, I mean — armed conflict, are the "merrie men-generals" such recommendations neglect. For Russia "First Chechen war" the clearest proof of its recent history.- Editor's note A.V. Musienko")
In the West, the importance of the role of the infantry proved by the large number of light vehicles (jeeps). Almost those or other forces acting on these jeeps, carry out tasks of "light infantry". Widely known by images from Iraq, Afghanistan and Yugoslavia, the American "Hummer" modifications, M998, M1114 М1037 and weighing about 2.5 tons at full combat load 3,5-5,6 so These machines are the most popular equipment of the U.S. army, but his armor protection (option) is weak and can not withstand the hit of 7.62 mm ammunition. Besides the layout, with space occupied by the engine and transmission in great volume in the cabin, and you can not make long trips because of the inconvenience of placement of the crew. Upgraded a Hummer, received the additional protection of a steel and ceramic modules.
More popular in Iraq the Americans have become adopted in 1989 jeep LSV (Light Strike Vehicle) weighing 1600 kg and a payload of 700 kg, speeds up to 96 km/h. the jeep can be fitted with 12.7-mm machine gun М2НВ, 7.62 mm machine gun М240, 40-mm automatic grenade launcher or TOW ATGM Мк19-2 with six ATGM.
In 1997, the U.S. had developed a combat vehicle Advanced LSV the mass of 2350 kg and a payload of 1100 kg For France issued its modification ALSV mass of 2600 kg and a payload of 900 kg.
Another American jeep "Peacekeeper-2", has a 6.35-mm armor and a mass of 6800 kg, allowing it to reach the speed of 100 km/h. it is possible to install the 7.62 and 12.7 mm machine guns and automatic grenade launchers Мк19.
In the British army since 1990, jeep used the "Saker" in versions with two and four wheels. Its mass is 900 kg, with a load of 400 kg. On the jeep except the guns may be mounted ATGM "Hellfire" or "Milan-2". However, the UK jeeps "Land Rover" in 60-70-ies of the mounted ATGM "Vigellent" and "Swingfire", and later ATGM "Milan". On the basis of "Land Rover" was created vehicle modification for SWAT RSOV (Ranger Special Operation Vehicle), which was bought for special operations forces of the U.S. under the designation MRCV (Multi Rule Combat Vehicle). Its weight 1900 kg, with load 900 kg and a maximum speed of 150 km/h In service with the British army and is a jeep "Land Rover 110" in which it is possible to install weapons MWP module (Modular Weapon Platform) with 20-mm cannon. By car the larger dump trucks "Land Rover Defender" — TUM (Truck Utility Medium) mounted the platform WMIK (Weapon Mounting Installation Kit) with the installation of a 12.7-mm machine gun, twin-barrel 7.62-mm machine gun, 20-mm or 30-mm cannon.
In Australia since 1991, is armed with three-axle combat vehicle of its own design LRPV (Long Range Patrol Vehicle) with the stock fuel до1300 km and a maximum speed of 95 km/h, equipped with ISUZU engine 4BD1T Turbo. Its length 6,02 m, height 2,05 m.
Naturally, for operations in Iraq, military forces of US, UK and Australia use different vehicles as much as possible.
In service with airborne units of the German cars are "Kraka" which can be built ATGM "Milan" (in France ATGM "Milan" will be installed on jeeps FL 500). In operations in Afghanistan, the German army uses light armored vehicles "Dingo" in the modifications of ATF-1, ATF-2 and ATF-3 is developed by the company Krauss-Maffei Wegmann. Vehicle height 2350 mm, width 2300 mm, length 5450 mm, the volume of salon of 6.5 m3, the maximum speed of 120 km/h, weight 8860 kg, payload: 1400 kg On light armored vehicles "Dingo" can be mounted 7.62 mm MG-3 12.7-mm М2НВ.. This car is designed as a fighting machine, not as a military modification of the civilian jeep. In Afghanistan "Dingo" has demonstrated a good protection of the crew (5 people) from small arms fire and artillery splinters. similar with the LME "Dingo" has the characteristics of Slovak two-axle jeep "Alligator" weight 6.7 tonnes at a load capacity of 1.2 T.
In Afghanistan military and police contingent of Danish applied biaxial armored vehicles of the Swiss company MOWAG "Eagle-1 and Eagle-2" (1995-1996 purchased 36 cars). Their length 4.90 m, width 2.28 m, height 2.35 m, weight 5 tons, and the armour protects against 7.62 mm ammunition from a distance of over 30 meters. Power reserve of these cars are 300 km away.
In the West there was still a number of machines of this type, as for example the German biaxial Mersedes "Puch" modify G and B, and biaxial and triaxial "Bucher", French "Sovamag" TC10 and Portuguese UMM Alter.
Russia has developed a similar car GAZ-3937 "Vodnik" and its modification with allocation of crew ahead of GAZ-39371, with a total weight of 6.6 tonnes (7.5 tons), and the possibility of different combat modules. ("On bulk purchases of this car for the Russian army until the money was found, contrary to optimistic articles stating that the "oil and gas are getting more expensive and they sold more, and the country is becoming richer." But not everyone in Russia, as in Ukraine or in Belarus, rests on the lack of money. Often found a lack of brains. This includes the now popular theme of the "spetsnaz", which acquire all and Sundry, even the Pension Fund will soon be his to have. — Editor's note A.V. Musienko").
Meanwhile, the USSR had the world's best center for training intelligence and sabotage units, in conditions of guerilla warfare. This center, which also had a solid scientific base existed in the KGB and was called the advanced training Courses of officers-"EMF". He was subordinate First chief Directorate of the KGB, and was located in the suburban town of Balashikha. When creating these "special courses" continued the tradition of special forces NKVD — OMSBON (Separate motorized rifle brigade of special purpose), which was the Fourth (partisan) office which was led by Lieutenant-General P. A. Sudoplatov. The employee of this Department and was known for his books and articles legendary spy-saboteur Ilya Grigorievich Starinov, that had experience on the basis of guerrilla warfare in Spain, Ukraine and Yugoslavia. With the war in Afghanistan from students and teachers of "special courses" were created by special forces of the KGB "Zenith" and "Cascade" performing tasks to combat units of the spooks and their agents. In the second half of 80-ies on the basis of Kwasa was established detachment "Vympel" representing himself "classic" (reconnaissance-commando) special forces unit. Of course, after the infamous Belavezha accords, "EMF" was closed, and the group "Vympel" disbanded after refusing to execute Yeltsin's orders to attack the Parliament building of the Russian Federation. The structure of "Coosa" primarily based on fully preparing the units for operation in conditions of guerrilla warfare (both its own and allied forces), the so-called "active reserve."
It is worth noting that in the former Yugoslavia in 1991, with the beginning of hostilities, the guide DB (state Security) of Serbia has created such strength of forces, but with surface preparation for hostilities in Croatia and Bosnia. The special forces participated in operations in Kosovo and Metohija in 1998-1999. In this case, and it was proved that the special forces in the fighting can receive tasks to perform particularly demanding tasks assault as "infantry" units. Ultimately they served as a kind of backbone for the bulk of the infantry, and often "special forces" served as the commanders of those or other infantry units.
Thus, it can be concluded that such forces "acting" reserve, can and will be used to command as a force that can "cement" mobilized infantry units. The aforementioned "shock" units just can sozdavalsya with the command staff of these special forces. That would provide a flexible structure, which even with significant personnel losses "infantry" parts to keep their combat capabilities, rallying around the "special forces" and their shock troops. Surviving the "infantry" could go either to the defense or to the conduct of the reconnaissance and sabotage actions behind enemy lines.
Guerrilla warfare is inextricably linked with the concept of "total" war. As a positional action in the front can lead to a transition to guerrilla warfare and guerrilla war could escalate into a war position. Such examples in the history of Yugoslavia during the Second world war, North and South Vietnam, Afghanistan after the Soviet withdrawal, etc.
The modern trend to create a multiethnic and racially-diverse society, with the so-called tolerance in the religious question has led to the fact that without exception, all "Western" States should ensure favourable conditions for the action of so-called "internal enemy". And found that their governments after the beginning of the "war against terror" declared by U.S. President George Bush. Bush in September 2001. These governments could threaten the leaders of al-Qaeda, but the latter, while not a unified military organization that quickly realized this fact.
Thus, sooner or later, in case of a state political crisis in the society will be heavily armed group formed on religious and national basis. And they wish to change the existing order in their favor, and the only possible means of combating them would be the aforementioned special forces, "active reserve",staffed with personnel with regard to national-and religious and moral and ideological factors. Unless of course he created. The special forces will be able to act not only as a military unit, but also as a conditionally speaking — the operations division of the security apparatus. This special forces and will need the parts above are "light" infantry, including "shock", reinforced tank, mechanized infantry and desanto-assault divisions.("It's not nonsense, as it may seem, the realities of recent history. This "infantry" in the civil war in Tajikistan was the formation of a Popular front managed and coordinated by the serving officers of army special forces. A "shock" was the so-called "mechanized brigade faisaly Saidova" with T-72 tanks, armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles (about 10 units of armored machinery). That they were on the way penetrated because of the Panj Islamic revolution. Then, in the autumn of 1992, in the chaos of the civil war in the complete paralysis of government by "self-organization" Tajik Patriotic forces headed by Sangamam Safarov was able to restore (or create new) patterns of power and stop the bloodshed. Now, armed confrontation won bow special forces, "infantry" and "shock brigades", to whom the present head of Tajikistan this rule and is obliged. In this way it was possible to solve "the Chechen question" in 1994, but none of the "wise" leaders to the special forces experience. And not drawn. — Editor's note A.V. Musienko").
Of course all this is closely connected with politics (and where without it — editor's note A.V. Musienko"). but in the case of the use by the enemy of new systems, even conventional weapons, system control and communication in the military will be broken, and to rely on officers of special forces and other troops will have on the awareness and commitment of their subordinates, which often have to operate in deep isolation from his troops. (Which has been demonstrated to us in the first weeks and months of the great Patriotic war. And the old Russian fun "Stepping on the rake" Oh, how we love.- Editor's note A.V. Musienko").
Chapter from the book of Oleg Beleckogo "the New strategy of USA and NATO in the wars in Yugoslavia, Iraq, Afghanistan and its influence on the development of foreign weapons systems and ammunition" (ISBN: 978-5-902835-07-3)
The book highlights the development of new types of managed and cluster weapons and their influence on the tactics of foreign armies and the strategy of the States with sufficient stocks of such weapons, especially the US and NATO. Deals with the subject of private military companies, whose role has increased particularly in Iraq and other troubled regions of the world.
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