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Especially the work of PMCs and their issues in Africa
Material posted: Valetskiy OlegPublication date: 01-06-2013
On the private military companies now written a lot, but, oddly enough, in the Russian Federation, the topic is not enough known that opens space for various psevdoissledovateley publish their opus based on the fact that the Russian Federation itself this type of activity is not legal and because you can write everything in a head will climb.

In this case it makes no sense to repeat the story of the emergence of PMCs in the world, especially what this author wrote in the article "Private military companies, their establishment and development — experience in Iraq, Afghanistan, Africa and other regions of the world".

All the same in General terms to deal with the main stages in their development.

In its present form the market themselves PMCs created in the wars in Afghanistan (since 2001) and Iraq (since 2003), where private military companies have received contracts directly from the ministries and agencies of the governments of the USA and the UK (Department of State, U.S. Agency for International Development Department of Defence) and various offices of the U.S. army (Army Corp of Engineers, Logistics Civil Augmentation Program, U.S. Army Contracting Agency), and UN (UNICEF, UNHCR, UNDP), The world health organization (World Health Organization) and from the new governments of Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as from various Western companies udavshihsya issues of oil production, transport, energy and water, are also attracted to the security of the PMC.

To the actual conduct of hostilities in Iraq and Afghanistan have a small number of companies involved in either the preparation of armies and police forces of Iraq and Afghanistan, or transportation, including aviation, or the protection of some military bases.

Note that the Anglo-Saxon model of the USA army is deeply different from the model army, adopted in Europe, and the American army basically represents a large Corporation that traditionally uses to their advantage, as, relatively speaking, contractors, other corporations, both private and public.

In view of this, activities of the armed forces, which in Europe traditionally were run by different military departments and the armed forces, the U.S. army is now outsourced to private companies.

So, for example, logistics of the American army in some regions of the world since 1992 is carried out privately by signing of tender U.S. engineering corps "United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)".

With respect to the substantive PMCs on the conduct of security activities, we should distinguish between two essentially different areas: the first, consisting mainly in the interests of private companies or public agencies in support of convoys and escorts "clients", the latter is called "Personal Security Detail" (although in the U.S. army this activity is called a Protective Services Detail); and the second called “Static guard”, consisting in the protection of objects in the interests of the U.S. army.

The U.S. army is part of the tasks for the protection of its own military bases handed over to private companies and, accordingly, in the case of protection of clients and the escort workers of the PMC are part of the commercial sector, as in the case of protection of bases of the U.S. army, employees of PMCs are part of the U.S. army with the appropriate rights and responsibilities.

As for the commercial sector in this case PMCs, leading to the protection of objects, working on contracts with commercial entities or with the U.S. army, primarily with the us engineering corps"United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)", either by receiving contracts from UN agencies or other international organizations in the framework of the program of reconstruction of Afghanistan.

 

Training Kurdish security erinis the PMC camp in Iraq in 2004 in the camp of the company Flor-contractor "United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)".

In this case, it should be remembered that the activity data of PMC is divided into several areas, fairly distant from each other, and therefore companies specializing in one of them, quite profoundly different from companies that specialize in the other direction, which again does not deny the possibility that one company may operate several such areas.

So the company "EOD Technology" beginning in demining projects in Africa, then engaged in Iraq guarding convoys and clients, and since 2006 together with the companies "Triple Canopy, "SOC-SMG" and "Sabre" was performed before the withdrawal of US army from Iraq in December 2011 protection of virtually all U.S. military bases in Iraq and a significant number of such bases in Afghanistan.

Important role in the protection of objects of infrastructure and diplomatic missions also play company "G4S",”Armor Group” and “Global Strategies Group”, which is thus to some extent also act in the interests of the U.S. army.

In the past few years, a new type of PMCs — the fight against improvised explosive devices (IEDs, or in American terminology — IED(Improvised Explosive Device)). The appearance of the market of counter-IED or Counter Improvised Explosive Device (CIED) due to increasing scale of data application of IEDs in the wars in Iraq, Afghanistan and Somalia, although after the Ottawa conventions with weapons were dropped anti-personnel mines and stopped doing the training on him.

With the war in Iraq in the U.S. army in Fort Irwin has been creating the organization responsible for program development funds for the fight against IEDs and the IDP, which is called the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO), led by General Montgomery MiGs.

In the framework of this program appeared in the market, and for PMCs, and in this field began their work on A-T Solutions, Raytheon, MPRI, Roncо.

Absolutely it is a question of training of the armed forces of foreign States. In the field of PMCs it is a rare activity, and accordingly experienced professionals in this field have more than a limited number, and the number of companies is small. As one of the first of this kind may be mentioned the American company "Vinnell Corp.", owned by military-industrial company “Northrop Grumman”, which in 1974 received a contract to train the National guard of Saudi Arabia, in whose jurisdiction was the protection of petroleum development in Saudi Arabia.

More revealing experience of the South African "Executive Outcomes", received in 1993 in Angola a contract worth $ 30 million, financed by oil company "Oil Ranger", which was interested in the restoration of oil production on oil development in the region of Soyo in Angola, which was suspended due to the attack by UNITA forces on the position of the Angolan army.

In Angola following the agreement on a ceasefire and withdrawal from the country of Cuban troops was created by the UN mission (UNAVEM, United Nations Angola Verification Mission), and in may 1991, the mission was transformed into the UNAVEM-2. Under her control in September 1992, elections were held, the results of which are recognized by the UN, but has not recognized the opposition UNITA. In October 1992 fighting was resumed, and the UNITA forces almost took Luanda.

As a result of combat operations, designed and conducted by company "Executive Outcomes" and its tributary forces of the Angolan army from November 1994 to January 1996, UNITA forces were nanesennom serious defeat, and the leadership of UNITA agreed to talks.

Then in January 1995 the company "Executive Outcomes" has been awarded a contract from the government of Sierra Leone for the preparation of the Sierra Leone army and for conducting combat operations against the rebels of the revolutionary United front (Revolutionary United Front), which at that time entered the capital of Sierra Leone-Freetown and took control of the mines titanium oxide Sierra Rutile and bauxite Sierramoco.

In April-may 1995 from the rebels was cleared Freetown, and in August of the same year, from the rebels by the company was cleared and diamondiferous area Koibu, after which was organized by the company on the helicopter to the headquarters of the United revolutionary front, in which the headquarters was destroyed.

And eventually, in November 1996 was signed the peace agreement in Sierra Leone.

After the termination of the company "Executive Outcomes" Briton Tim Spicer, using her tried and tested base and creating the company "Sandline International", commenced a new task, on the island of Bougainville in the Pacific. There after the UN mandate and with the accession of Papua New Guinea in the 70-ies of the political representatives of the local population demanded independence, which in considerable measure was caused and the presence on the island mines of gold and copper belonging to the company "Bougainville Copper Limited", which was part of the concern "Rio Tinto".

Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea Julius Chan appealed for help for Spicer, and the gathering staff of the company "Executive Outcomes", picked up 44 employees, who arrived in February in Port Moresby as instructors of the army of Papua New Guinea. However, the Australian government, threatening sanctions and demanded cancellation of the agreement by the government of Papua New Guinea, and eventually all employees "Sandline International" were arrested, and deportirovali from the country.

More successful in this respect was the activity of the American company "Military Professional Resources Inc.", here in 1987 in the United States. In fact, this company was private only conditionally, for they acted as separate management of the U.S. army, differing from the rest of the army simply because its employees were in the reserve or retired.

On September 29, 1994, Secretary of defense William Perry and Minister of defence of Croatia, Gojko Susak signed at the Pentagon the agreement on cooperation in the military field. In the framework of this Treaty it was agreed that the company will participate in the MPRI training the Croatian armed forces and the participation of its specialists in the planning of the operations of the Croatian army. At the same time, a similar contract was signed with the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina. All this played a significant role in uniting efforts to this warring of the armed forces of Croatia and the Croats of Herceg-Bosna, on the one hand, and forces of the army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the other, which played an important role in the defeat of Serb forces in Western Slavonia (may 1-2 1995), in Kninska Krajina (4-8 August 1995) and in the Bosnian Krajina (July-October 1995).

The contract between the Croatian government and MPRI company was subsequently in 2011, the basis for the fact that the two lawyers ' office in the U.S., led by American Serbs, doverennosti of a number of Serbs from the former Republic of Serbian Krajina in Federal court in Chicago has filed a lawsuit against the company, demanding financial damages in the amount of $ 10 billion.

In 1998, the same company from the Pentagon has awarded a contract to train the armed forces of Equatorial Guinea, and in 2000, the company MPRI was awarded the contract for the reform of the army of Nigeria.

After the American invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 and Iraq in 2003, MPRI was awarded contracts to create new armies of Afghanistan and Iraq, and subsequently, the company MPRI has received a number of similar contracts, including the preparation of the military contingent of Georgia to participate in operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, and the preparation of the armed forces of South Korea,Taiwan, Costa Rica, Macedonia and Colombia.

In Colombia, in addition to MPRI trained the security forces of Colombia were also a number of PMCs from the UK, in particular, the company "DSL(Defence Systems Limited)”, and later entered the company “Armor Group”, received from oil company's contract to guard oil fields and pipelines Ocensa Colombian company whose main shareholder was the British oil company British Petroleum. Force in Columbia specifics of the DSL company effectively controlled the actions of several units of the army of Colombia, received the tasks for the protection of objects and infrastructure of the company Ocensa, however, in performing these tasks, participated, together with DSL and the company Silver Shadow from Israel. Another company from Israel Hod Hehanitin(Spearhead Ltd.) participated in the preparation of the Colombian armed forces to fight against the guerrillas.

Private military companies also took an active part in the work of international police missions in Bosnia and Herzegovina (IPTF-International Police Task Force in 1996-2004) and in Kosovo and Metohija (UNMIK in 1999-2005). Big role in these regions played an American company "DynCorp, Inc.", responsible for the recruitment of staff for the American contingent of international police missions and participated in the inspection work of the staff of these missions and in the preparation of the local internal Affairs. The same company later in Iraq and Afghanistan has also received contracts for police training in Iraq and Afghanistan.

The British company "International TASK" opened its own office in Florida and concluded with the governmental structures of the USA contracts for the training of police Jamaica and Malaysia, the Presidential guard and the Nigerian special forces of the UAE.

Finally the army operations in Georgia in 2008 in South Ossetia was prepared by PMC, the Israeli "Defensive Shield", which had a contract to train the Georgian armed forces.

In 2011 the American company "Reflex Responses" received a contract for 529 million dollars from the crown Prince of Abu Dhabi Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed al Mahayanna for creating and preparing the battalion to conduct security and counter-terrorism. The British company "Ferocitas Global" received the contract for training security forces of Kuwait in 2011.

Now the situation in the PMC market is changing, and Africa after Iraq has become the new center of effort (and money investment) from the United States after coming to power of new administration of U.S. President Barack Obama.

The American army created in 2008, the African military command (AFRICOM) has started its activities in many African countries, for example in Ethiopia, Sudan (Darfur), Uganda, Rwanda, Congo, Seychelles, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Nigeria, Liberia, Cameroon, Gabon, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania.

Program was launched AFRICAP (Africa Peacekeeping), which provided logistical support, education and training of the armed forces, construction, security of Maritime navigation, provision of equipment, operational command and aviation observation priorities: armed forces of southern Sudan, the peacekeeping forces of the African Union in Somalia, do the armed forces of the Somali government, the armed forces of the Congo(Zaire), Liberia and Sierra Leone, as well as peacekeeping forces of the Economic community of West Africa (Economic Community of West African States, or ECOWAS).

11 September 2009 State departartment USA declared that in the course of the tender carried out in the framework of the program AFRICAP (Africa Peacekeeping), on which their allotment was $ 1.5 billion, contracts, divided into equal parts for 375 million dollars, received four company — PSI (Protection Strategies Inc), DynCorp International, AECOM, and PAE (Pacific Architects and Engineers).

In the long run the main goal was to counter the threat to American interests from the forces of radical Islam associated with al-Qaeda, and the expansion of China in Africa. For this purpose was carried out is another ACOTA program(Africa Contingency Operations Training and Assistance), conducted under the Pentagon's control. According to it, until the end of 2010 forces command (it is about 3,500 instructors) should be prepared 75,000 troops of the African armies.

Just in this area and received contracts for private military companies. For example, with the beginning operations of the African Union force in Somalia, private military company MPRI, PAE and received the contract on preparation of military contingents from Uganda and Burundi, formed the basis of the peacekeeping forces of the African Union — AMISOM.

In most Africa due to the instability of the situation PMCs is important enough to ensure that the activities of the various public and private Western corporations. Including for the protection of areas with specialists of these companies. For example, in Kenya, widely presented in this region, G4S, and in Uganda — company "Saracen", which is hiring local staff and contract local security companies are quite active.

In Nigeria, especially in the Niger Delta, there is a growing influence of Islamic fundamentalist groups (the most influential organization of them: Boko Haram, Hisbah, al-Sunnah of Jumma Wala, Muhammad Yusuf Movement), who advocate maintaining the armed struggle against the "Christian" South and Western oil companies. There are security services PMCs such as Control Risk, Erinys International, ArmorGroup, Triple Canopy.

Increasing efficiency in the actions of PMCs, which in Africa began to penetrate in places of armed conflict already before the coming of the American army suggests that they become an independent factor in American politics.

In this case the American army should rather evolving political environment and increased threats to increase financing of programs of training of the armies of African States. Without going into questions of how politics of the modern international community contributes to the pacification of Africa that in fact Libya is more than obvious, it should be noted that the PMCs in terms prodolzhaiushchikhsia wars there is no main condition of successful PMCs — the presence of military units of NATO armies or their number very limited.

Thus the situation somewhat out of control. Modern media exaggerate the degree of influence American policy and spending is the impact of PMCs on the various aspects involved in wars.

So in Libya in 2011, appearing from time to time messages about certain other types of PMCs say only the example of the very limited volume of tasks, because usually these companies are only involved in the set personall to protect Western diplomatic missions, in particular the U.S. Embassy in Tripoli or the various departments of the UN, primarily UNDP, UNICEF or IOM in Libya, as well as for consulting services in the field of demining.

What direct deyatelnosti PMCs in Libya — a dangerous occupation, was confirmed in may 2011 when in Benghazi was killed Marziali Pierre (Pierre Marziali), resident of French private military company "Secopex".

Thus the forces of the Libyan NTC, and although defeated in the civil war thanks to the support of NATO, at the same time are outside the control of this NATO as adopted in Iraq and Afghanistan, the model for the creation of the new armed forces by the Western armies and PMCs in Libya is missing.

The war in Somalia, Sudan and in Libya have created new questions for contemporary private military companies, because in this case there is a completely different situation than in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, where these companies have taken up such an important place. In this case, it requires a much higher level of staff training and the organization of the PMCs than it did in Iraq and Afghanistan, where operational management of these PMCs may be a single call to the headquarters of the neighboring States part to solve all the problems in the relationship with the command of the local forces and attack enemy forces. In Africa such a challenge is far more than problematic, and therefore to the tenders for contracts in accordance with the rules "ACOTA Contract Procedure Guide" allowed companies such as MPRI and PAE whose management and staff have many years experience of military service and participation in training programmes, but also in the conduct of operations special purpose .

As concerns Maritime piracy, it is a derivative of the war in Somalia, and the seizure of ships ply the militias of the "Islamic courts" and in fact the key organizations of the movement "al-Shabaab", and units of local warlords, only formally subordinated to the Transitional government.

It is obvious that the Transitional government of Somalia cannot eradicate piracy, but it is also clear that the peacekeeping troops of the African Union, the problem will not solve.

According to "Maritime Bulletin" the company "Sovfraht" in a day through Gulf of Aden goes to 250 civil courts, and to protect each ship is impossible. It is also clear that the pirates have an extensive network of informants in countries of the Persian Gulf, without which they would not have been able so successfully to act.

With the expansion of the war in the horn of Africa, the navigable area will be under much greater threat than ever, because the movement of al-Shabaab is unlikely to refuse from seizures of ships, especially if he will be able to spread its influence in Puntland and Somaliland, coming to the shores of the Gulf of Aden. Therefore, the problem can be solved or the armed forces of a "civilized" state (so the services of their Navy suggested to Canada), or some private military company, for which it will pay the money.

Therefore, there appeared on the market, private military companies, naturally, American and British, as already known from Iraq and Afghanistan, Blackwater (Xe company) and Aegis, and the company traditionally specializing in the field of Maritime security, such as Drum Cussac, Trojan Securities International, Securewest International and Blue Mountain, and novosportivnya — SeaMarshall, Naval Guards Ltd, Solace Global Maritime, Nautilus International, Aspida Maritime Security-Shield Risk Consulting, Trident Group, Halliday Finca.

As a rule, the payment here was variavles 500-700 dollars to one skilled in the art in one day on Board and two to three times less when in port.

Later several contracts were awarded to companies from the former USSR, particularly the Russian "Moran group" and "HSG group".

As to the findings, applicable in the post-Soviet space, we should note first of all the effectiveness within the organization PMCs efficient use of available personnel. In this case, there is no common for the Russian Federation "military farm", in which subordinates often believe that they can determine in what direction the policy of the company and who it can absorb. In addition the activities of such PMCs strictly reglementierung rules as to security clearance (security clearance), and the quality and quantity of machinery, equipment and weapons, which guarantees that the minimum level during the received contract will be implemented. The organization of PMCs allows short term and, if necessary, and long-term planning of operations, what is significant in Africa, where PMCs are organically linked to the plans and activities of AFRICOM command. So the program of instruction POI (Program of instruction) prepared by the PAE and MPRI companies go through the process of verification in command of AFRICOM in accordance with the requirements of rules of conducting operations in support of peace PSO (Peace Support Operations). In addition, programs in engineering data preparation operations are coordinated mine action centers MAC (Mine Action Centre), established by the UN in several African countries.

The selection of employees for PMCs program ACOTA is carried out by the management of companies based on the requirements of the AFRICOM command, and the experience of activity of the companies.

The use of PMCs allows the command of AFRICOM to act more quickly, because the sending of military forces to train foreign armies requires complicated procedures in the U.S. Congress and the U.S. Department of State.

This practice looks much more professional than the practice of a number of post-socialist armies. which during the "cold war" kept the market of training African armies, but with its end most part of the market lost. Without denying the important role of the political factor in this fact, though it should be noted that these post-socialist army was not prepared to change the conditions of activity.

Meanwhile, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Africa was not closed to the Russian army. So according to the article "the Cash part" Orhan Cemal ("Russian Newsweek", 30.11.2009), in 2004, instructors from the composition of the special forces of the GRU of the General staff of the Russian army participated in the preparation of the Ethiopian army, later took part in operations in Somalia, including in the assault on Mogadishu in December 2006.

In this case, the nature of the work of the Russian instructors differed little from the actions of American PMCs trainers except maybe lower prices. In fact, this program could serve as the basis for the creation of the Russian PMC, which would implement plans for the training of the armies of Third world countries.

The necessity of the existence of such PMCs to post-socialist armies is confirm in the course of the war in Libya.

In this war, as we know from media reports (newspaper "Alo" from Belgrade, the newspaper "Večerni list” from Zagreb, the website "Iraq war"), on the side of the army of Colonel Qaddafi there were several dozen military advisors from Ukraine, Belarus, Croatia and Serbia. Not referring to the usual accusations of various human rights organizations of the government of Moamer Gaddafi, which, apparently, are set in accordance with the already familiar since the war in the former Yugoslavia in the price list, it should be noted that at that time the government of Libya was recognized as the legitimate international representative of his country, being a member of the UN and various international organizations. The Libyan government has provided public and private companies of Ukraine, Belarus and especially Serbia the opportunity to participate in various projects in Libya with the possibility of bigger profits. Nominated by the International court in the Hague indictment against Colonel Gaddafi in the perpetration of war crimes could not affect the legal legality of providing military aid to Libya due to the fact of precompile of innocence. In addition, the U.S. government found it possible to send a company MPRI for training and command of the army of Croatia, which, according to the judgment of the International Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, committed during "operation Storm" in August 1995 numerous war crimes on the basis of what the commander of the Croatian army General Ante Gotovina was convicted on 15 April 2008, the International criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Hague to 24 years in prison.

Moreover, even in a report dated 1 June 2011, the British newspaper "daily Mirror" has provided images of British military specialists in Libya made by a broadcasting company "al-Jazeera” in the city of Daphnia to the West of the City.

Thus, the government of Serbia had every right to provide military assistance to the Libyan government, which for decades helped the governments of Yugoslavia and then Serbia.

In low training Libyan rebels and full of the superiority of the army of Libya in Libyan military equipment of several parts, having in its composition of experienced military experts from Serbia, were fully able even before the international isolation of the Libyan government to crush the opposition and to dislodge its forces from Benghazi and Tobruk.

However, in reality, due to understandable practice of "classifying" such military assistance, the organization hiring military advisors and planning their activities conducted various, often unrelated one to another by persons who have not had the opportunity to command and control his advisers, and especially the army units of Libya, resulting in the conceived in the headquarters of Colonel Gaddafi, the idea of recruiting large numbers of military experts from Serbia,Ukraine and Belarus turned out to be unfulfilled. In Tripoli soon there were other military experts, including from Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Afghanistan, and Colonel Gaddafi was publicly tortured and killed without trial.

If in this case in Serbia, Ukraine or Belarus there was the PMC that had the rights and responsibilities for the preparation and command of at least several parts of the army Libya, the situation could have gone completely different way.

Actually the appearance of Western PMCs in Africa had caused similar problems, because UN peacekeepers have proven ineffective in Africa, devoid of its former colonial system of governance.

An example is the war in Rwanda in October 1990 the revolt of the Hutu tribe, which constituted the majority population of Rwanda, against who ruled the country for the Tutsis. Although with the coming to power of the Hutu tribe in Rwanda began genocide of Tutsi tribe and eventually civil war, the UN mission in Rwanda (UNAMIR) was founded in October 1993 by resolution No. 872 of the UN Security Council. Its numbers were 2548 persons, with a gradual increase up to 5820. By may 1994 was established the relative safety, but only in the triangle Kibuye - Gikongoro - Cyangugu case in the area of responsibility of the French military contingent. However, peacekeepers are unable to prevent a new massacre in April 1995 in the refugee camp Tutsis in Kibeho, and eventually intervened in the conflict of Uganda troops, entered the territory of Rwanda, so as a result the UN mission in Rwanda was closed. In neighbouring Burundi, which came to power Tutsi, whereas the Hutu who shared in several groups, launched a guerrilla war with support from Zaire and Angola, since 1993 also began a civil war, which killed 200,000 people, and 1200000 became refugees.

However in neighbouring Zaire were operating units of the Tutsi, which also became participants in the civil war in Zaire (Congo) between the rebels of Laurent Kabila, supported by the Americans, and the President of Zaire – Mobutu, supported by the French. When Mobutu, in spite of Serbian mercenaries and French help, lost the war in 1996, two years later, fighting again resumed, as the Tutsi forces in the North-East of the country came into conflict with the government of Kabila, supported by Uganda.

Taking advantage of this, expelled from Rwanda Hutu troops suffered fighting against the Tutsis on the territory of the Congo, started in 2000, the town of Uvira, which was under the control of the Tutsi.

In the Congo in 1998 was also sporadic fighting between government troops of President Denis Sassou-Nguesso, on the one hand, and squads of "Ninjas" of former President Pascal Lissouba and the groups "the Zulus" of the former Prime Minister Bernard the Kolel.

In Angola, where by 1995 the number of UNITA reached 63 thousand people, and the plans for its demobilization in accordance with the agreement in Lusaka on 20 November 1994, had not been implemented, although UNITA and stopped fighting, her troops continued to hold the diamond-producing regions in the country.

Choose the UN peacekeeping force in February 1995 were converted to UNAVEM-3, and from July 1997 MONUA (Missao de Observasao das Nacoes Unidas em Angola).

In June 1998 after the crash for unknown reasons, which killed several leaders of the UN mission in Angola, UNITA forces took the offensive and captured several villages, and since December 1998, in Angola full-scale war began. The UN mission had considerable success, and in February 1999 at the request of the government of Angola it was closed. In the fall of 1999 the Angolan government forces went on the offensive, inflicting a serious defeat UNITA, capturing its supply base and centre in Andulo.

In August 1998, in Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo) started a new rebellion Tutsi forces supported by Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi. The Kabila government and allied forces Hutu rebels received the support of Angola, Namibia and Zimbabwe, sent back their troops. While in Zaire later clashes broke out between troops of Uganda and Rwanda, and between supporting their Tutsi factions, and in North-Eastern Zaire fighting broke out between the tribes, the lendu and the Hema.

Bet the Americans on the army of Senegal and Nigeria in West Africa and the army of Uganda and Kenya in East Africa for their use in peacekeeping missions has not justified itself. Surface approach in their preparation, based on short-term courses, did not affect the essence of the African armies, so a large part of the funds allocated by the USA, just stolen a military-political response.

The failure of the ECOMOG peacekeeping troops in Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone, the passive behavior of African Union peacekeepers in Somalia prove that the rate of Americans on the African continent – a lost cause. In this case, African countries have not been prepared and partly the higher average team of personnel, capable of fulfilling combat tasks.

In addition, the downsizing of the French military contingent in Africa to five thousand people has a serious blow to the ability of the U.S. ally — France — to conduct independent operations in Africa.

Created "cross-regional forces" from armies of countries that were former French colonies (Ghana, Namibia, Guinea, Cape Verde, côte d'ivoire, Mauritania, Mali, Senegal and the Lusophone Guinea-Bissau) has proven to be slow, although it has conducted several exercises of these forces .

As a result, in Mali in 2012, the French had again to enter own forces, in order to prevent the coming to power of Islamic fundamentalists.

Another pillar of the UN in Africa – South Africa is not crucial in the UN peacekeeping operations in Africa due to the impact of policies of the UN in the fight against apartheid, so South Africa already has the more efficient army, which she had in the 80s, when her troops were able during the operation "Protea" put Cuban troops facing the threat of rout.

It is clear that the military security in Africa – fragile and ready to collapse at the first large-scale occurrence of the same Islamic fundamentalists from Sudan and Somalia at large-scale outside support, and even more so with the direct participation of military contingents in the countries of Northern Africa and the Middle East, for other forces ready to upset the balance on the African continent, is not there.

Regional command of NATO South headquarters in Naples now has the opportunity to participate in a relatively small peacekeeping operations in the Mediterranean and on combating illegal emigration.

The same applies to the created in the "Western European Union" "South euroserum".

The only force at the moment in Africa is the U.S., established a separate command "AFRICOM” for action on the African continent. This command has a limited contingent of Marines and the emphasis is on training of the allied armies. "AFRICOM" is able to solve problems in a given country, however, with the escalation of internal wars in the war between the States, "AFRICOM" would be unable to solve growing problems without involving additional troops of the U.S. army.

It is obvious that in these conditions, all the broader will be the practice to have the involvement of PMCs to the preparation and command of the military contingent of the African armies that can turn them into more effective means to achieve its purpose, for the Africans are quite disciplined and Executive soldiers.

However what happens in Africa would be quite possible with time and a pattern for the rest of the world. As Clausewitz wrote, war is the continuation of conducting policy, and policy in turn depends on any economy that actually gives scope for PMCs. However, any policy depends on national, racial and religious factors.

Colonization of those same Africans to Europe will inevitably lead to the fragmentation of state bodies adopted in Africa scenario.

Simply put, the Western world will take is typical for Africa the vicious tribalism and corruption, for the migrants themselves, of which Angela Merkel recently called upon to recruit more civil servants, their psychology is not much different from the environment of their "national" States.

In such circumstances, it will inevitably affect the armed forces of Western States, and for more effective protection of the interests of private companies their owners are likely to be increasingly to involve the PMCs are based on the current stimulus money.

This gives a certain space for similar activity and less influential forces in the world, in accordance with the assumptions of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem Professor Martin van Crevald made in his book "Transformation of war" on the future of "fragmentation" of the war.

Such "fragmentation", according to Martin van Creveld meant a whole array of different activities from terrorist to guerrilla and political extremism to economic sabotage.

In such circumstances the PMCs is becoming quite an important factor in fighting, why the charters of the American army now considering the PMC part of the operations of the American army in a number of positions.

In fact is happening is a natural process when military strategy is largely determined not discredited politicians, and owners of transnational corporations. For the last growing interest now is Africa, and so as to use the American army because of the lack of a clearly defined enemy there is very hard, modern PMCs play the role of a kind of operational mechanism for management of local African armed forces.

 

A list of the sources used

  1. “Global Security “ http://www.globalsecurity.org
  2. The article "Private military company:a legitimate international entity within modern conflict" By major s. Goddard, maj, ra inf, Australia B. A., University of New South Wales, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.2001
  3. The website of the company “KBR” http://www.kbr.com/
  4. The website "Private Security Company Association of Iraq" http://www.pscai.org/
  5. "The Caucasian Litmus Test: Consequences and Lessons of the Russian - Georgian War in August 2008".Robert Larsson,Eva Hagstrom Frisell. Swedish Defence Research Agency
  6. "Executive Outcomes-Against all Odds".Eeben Barlow.Galago Publishing.2010
  7. "LOGCAP 101:An Operational Planner''s Guide".Colonel Karen E. LeDoux."Army Logistic University" http://www.almc.army.mil/
  8. The website http://closeprotectionpsdjobs.blogspot.com/
  9. Britains Secret War in Libya: British Special Forces uncovered on the ground by Chris Hughes, Daily Mirror 1/06/2011
  10. “Colombia, Israel and Rogue Mercenaries”.By John C. K. Daly.ISN Security Watch (09/03/07)
  11. "Modern problems of peacekeeping in Africa". Colonel Gavrilov, candidate of psychological Sciences,Colonel S. Tents. "Foreign military review "Transformation of war".Martin van Creveld. Moscow.2005. "Almina business books" - "House" (The transformation of war "Martin von Creveld)
  12. The website SSR group http://www.rsb-group.ru

Source: http://www.warandpeace.ru/ru/exclusive/view/79610/


RELATED MATERIALS: Defence and security
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