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Tactics of actions of militants in the North Caucasus
Material posted: Valetskiy OlegPublication date: 06-06-2013

The basis of hostilities against the Federal forces of the Russian Federation constitute methods and means of armed struggle with elements of guerrilla warfare.

The main principles of warfare of the IAF are: avoiding direct confrontation with superior forces of Federal troops; renunciation of the tactics of positional war, from retention of the occupied areas for a long period of time; extensive use and the combination of terror with the indoctrination of personnel of the Ministry of interior and local population; the main method of warfare - surprise attack, so-called "tactics of Shamil" (plaque-waste).

The main forms of action of the IAF are: ambushes, attacks, raids, hostage-taking, mining routes the Federal troops and supply routes of resources.

Tactics (IAF) depends on various factors: time of year, nature of terrain, ethnic composition of the population, the quantity and quality of weapons, the objectives of the operation and other.

Characteristic features of the actions of the militants are: carrying out subversive and terrorist actions in the settlements, important industrial facilities and hospitals; a wide use of mines, roadside bombs, including managed, roads and facilities; widespread use of grenade launchers, as against brontobytes and against manpower.

The militants are constantly shelling the positions of the Federal forces, to provoke them to retaliatory actions, and provocations are carried out near the settlements where civilians live.

The IAF is an ongoing exploration near the base of centers of Federal troops (PV) produce mining roads and approaches thereto, to commit sabotage and provocations.

For ambushes, blocking roads and ways of transportation, the leadership of the IAF can use the local population (the elderly, women, children), hiding behind them as human shields.

Great attention to the management of the IAF devotes to foreign military experts and mercenaries. They are responsible for most of the tasks for carrying out terrorist acts and sabotage against the Federal forces, militants training methods and techniques of guerrilla warfare, a punitive function.



The composition of the ambush force, as a rule, enter: observers; fire subgroup is intended for defeat of manpower and equipment; subgroup prevention - to limit the maneuver of the enemy; the backup sub-group - to gain fire sub-groups and cover the waste.

Before the ambush, the militants carried out a thorough reconnaissance of the area. Data collection is carried out by specially trained scouts, and through relatives of militants, living near locations of parts and units of the Federal troops. For reconnaissance surveillance may be hired teenagers from the local population. On the basis of the information received in advance to prepare firing positions, determine escape routes and place of the subsequent group.

Firing subgroup, which includes the main forces of illegal armed groups (2-3 grenade launchers, some snipers, and in some cases mortars), usually located on the remove, allow effective fire.

The militants of this subgroup are located along the road, defile, narrowness at the distance of 50-100 m and 10-15 m from each other.

Subgroup warning occupies a position on the likely direction of retreat or maneuver. At the entrance of the column into the kill zone of a sniper the first to open fire on drivers and senior head cars.

Other fighters at the same time fire personnel and fire on armored targets from the RPGs and machine guns. The main goal is to disrupt the control pillar, to create panic and the conditions for its disintegration, destruction in parts, or capture.

Conducting ambushes template does not have, they are possible, both in the morning and in the afternoon, before nightfall, in order to eliminate the possibility of the use of aviation by the Federal troops.

Sometimes fighters use a special diversionary group, which is located ahead of the main force of the ambush. This group opens the sudden fire at the convoy and seek to hamper the combat guard unit. At this time, held forth without escort a convoy, came under the fire of the main forces ambush the IAF and has huge losses.

When organizing an ambush in the settlements, the militants secretly behind fences, in homes and other buildings, try not to find yourself freely and missing the intelligence and organs of health. With the approach of the main forces opened fire from the loopholes, the Windows and doors of houses, focusing it mainly on vehicles carrying personnel.

At the time of opening fire, usually made aiming a volley of small arms, mortars and grenade launchers, then intensive shelling of the individual goals.

In green zones arranged an ambush on the likely routes of movement of units by a sudden attack both from the front and from the flanks. While ambushes can be carried out consistently with several milestones as we move equipment and personnel.

Encountering the resistance, the militants immediately leave the place of ambush, seeking to avoid combat. The greatest danger to them is the dismemberment of the group in the rear.

In a well-organized intelligence and security forces of the support columns and air cover, the fighters, typically, do not risk to attack the column.

Attacks of roadblocks, checkpoints and the RESTORATION of the commandant's offices. Places of attacks, depending on specific conditions, chosen as far as possible at close range. Before the attack is carried out thorough exploration of the object.

There were cases of rocket attacks, mortars and small arms from the moving vehicles (cars) that allows the group to approach the object, producing the attack and quickly go beyond the zone of effective return fire.


A RAID on the object

The RAID is preceded by a thorough exploration of the object (a security system, fencing, escape routes, the possibility of strengthening, etc.).

Organizing a RAID on the facility, the rebels make a plan of action, including elements of stealth approaches the scene of the attack, ensure the safety during the RAID, of escaping with the use of the maneuver.

Usually before bloom are training in conditions close to real.

During the RAID of illegal armed groups can act enlarged groups and troops numbering several dozen people. However, their order of battle could include diversionary group, which extends to the object of attack in full growth, and percussion group acting secretly, mostly on all fours and executes the main task. Usually this group consists of two subgroups.

The optimal composition of a shock group is 10-15 people. It includes subgroups: suppress, cover, plaque, and engineering. Their tasks are: the neutralization time, blocking escape routes and maneuver, providing gaps in the obstacles, engagement (retention facility), the cover waste after the job.


Attack and capture of settlements

The attacks on populated areas is preceded by thorough preparation. First of all, fighters will be collecting data about the location of security posts in the various localities where they have informants among the local residents, employees of local authorities and the police.

Then being prepared, in which in this locality in the gardens and yards of local residents secretly equipped with caches, which are in advance are the stocks of arms and ammunition.

Some militants under guise of civilians, relatives or friends for 1-2 people sneak into the village and wait for the set signal. The main part of a gang headed by the leader on the road, usually early in the morning, arrive in town. It is adjacent to the part of the militants ' advance, the building was occupied. Militants destroy or inhibit the departments of the Ministry of internal Affairs, posts and location of Federal troops occupy the administrative building and take hostages. In the case of capture of the settlement, the actions of the militants are in the nature of, characteristic of Basmachi gangs: are executions of local officials, looting of the population (mostly Russian speaking) and arson.

In the case of capture of one or another settlement and intent to settle therein, the militants have carried out activities in preparation for conducting defensive actions. To this end they, attracting locals, equip firing positions, moves traffic, develop a system of fire, mine the approaches to the village. On the roofs of houses put observers in the deep areas of stacked ammunition and EXPLOSIVES.

For machine guns, mortars and RPGs preparing several positions. At the approach of troops, the militants opened concentrated fire, and then go back to the settlement on the new line of defense.

When you RAID and shelling by artillery, they hide in specially constructed shelters. At the end of the shelling resumed their former positions.

The actions of militants in the settlements become more organized and become a deliberate, vindictive. So, in the conduct of hostilities in Gudermes, the IAF took up positions on the frontiers to a considerable depth and has established a separate centers of resistance, in which mounted heavy weapons.

There were cases when some parts of the city in advance were equipped in engineering terms. Along the streets were coming off trenches, moves traffic, equipped with dugouts, permanent firing points several firing points.

The approaches to pillboxes, the streets and alleys mined antitank and antipersonnel mines. In houses not occupied by militants, set booby traps (on doors, Windows, household items).

Attack and capture of settlements aim: to create tensions among residents, undermine their faith in the ability of the authorities to effectively fight against the militants, forcing them to join the ranks of the militants or go to the neighboring regions and of the Republic, for the formation of (gain) there is a Chechen Diaspora.


Combat aircraft

IAF pay great attention to the issues of combat aircraft and helicopters during the application of their fire blows in the air support of the troops.

The main means of struggle are heavy machine guns: MANPADS, ZU and ZSU. In mountainous areas it is common to install anti-aircraft under the eaves with an appropriate sector of fire.

In combat helicopters anti-aircraft fire is usually associated with a barrage of volley fire from small arms. In addition, for shooting at air targets, the gunmen used automatic weapons with a calibre of conventional improvised "machine" (branches of trees and other local items).

Dispersal anti-aircraft ensures that the fighters firing at the same time from different directions, making them difficult to suppress.

The militants carefully study the vulnerabilities of aircraft and helicopters, routes, aviation, and were watching them.

In service with the IAF are also modern means to destroy air targets at low (350-500 m) and middle (2500-3000 m) altitudes. The leadership of the IAF is aggressively seeking to increase their supplies.



The mining of roads, destruction of bridges and communication lines are also one of the ways of doing illegal armed groups the armed struggle.

The laying of mines is a special mining groups (4-5 people) to help attract local residents and teenagers after their long training.

Most often they are laid on the main (paved) and field roads used by the troops.

As a rule, for the destruction of military equipment and vehicles on the carriageway are used anti-tank and anti-personnel landmines, sometimes boxes of EXPLOSIVES.

In some cases fighters use powerful bombs: artillery shells and bombs, two to four anti-tank mines stacked on one another or simultaneously anti-tank and anti-personnel. Typically use three methods of mining routes: ordered, unordered and mixed.

In the unordered method, the distance between mines is 1.5-2 m During mining in the snow mines repainted in white color.

The last time the rebels began to apply on the roads mining "chains" - sets of 30-40 min on the site long, 200-300 m, resulting in undermining increase in the number of vehicles and personnel.

A new element is the use of mines, roadside bombs, filled with gasoline, kerosene or diesel fuel. In this case, when the explosion occurs the splashing of the burning substance and the ignition is not only undermined, but nearby.

There were cases when militants buried an open bottle of gasoline or kerosene near mines, with the aim to impede their detection search dogs.

The IAF also used controlled mines and bombs intended to destroy a specific, pre-selected targets, for example, machinery management, heads of local and Federal authorities, the command of the Federal troops.

A special place in the actions of the fighters assigned to conduct sabotage and terrorist acts. Their main objects are the communication and power supply systems, public and cultural institutions, business enterprises, employees of Federal and local authorities, representatives of the intelligentsia. Applying on a large scale terror and sabotage, the rebels seek to create a climate of fear and uncertainty.

Diversions are conducted by specially trained groups (units) of different size. Usually the group splits into parts, each of which performs its task. So, first does the attack on the security of the object, the second (technical) ensures the implementation of the diversion directly at the object, the third is intended to disrupt lines of communication and combat, with reinforcements. As a rule, this part of the group is in cover that provides reliable camouflage and is armed with light machine guns, assault rifles and grenade launchers.

Diversions occur usually after 1-2 hours after dark. The most typical species of sabotage are undermining military equipment, the decommissioning of pipelines, the destruction of buildings of authorities, airports, hospitals, hotels and other vital infrastructure and social facilities.

For the destruction of military equipment, which at night returns to the place of deployment of units, the militants of the mine sites, and often the approaches to them.

For the destruction of the buildings the militants used landmines and roadside bombs, the installation of which involved specially trained staff.


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