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Franco-Russian cooperation in the military-industrial complex: 2000-2012
Material posted: Publication date: 25-10-2014

France and Russia in the XXI century, play a fundamental role not only in Europe but in the world. These countries are the largest suppliers of weapons in various States. Military-technical cooperation is one of the main articles of replenishment of the budget for both countries. Revitalization and strengthening of cooperation in the military-industrial complex is the result of a long historical process of rapprochement of the two States. Cooperation between these two European powers in the period after the Second world war developed, but rather ambiguous. The study of the topic is caused primarily by interest in politics, which was carried out by Vladimir Putin in this direction for 2000 to 2012.

Military security and political stability were a priority for foreign ministries of Russia and France at different times. Successful development among countries in the sphere of military-technical cooperation depended on the interpersonal relationship developed between the two leaders.

Vladimir Putin in relations with Jacques Chirac sought to enhance bilateral relations in various fields, such as energy, defense industry, education, space, equitable solutions to various problems. Among these problems - the political-diplomatic settlement of situation around Iranian nuclear dossier and creation of conditions for long-term stability in other hazardous locations. Considerable attention was paid to the development of cooperation between Russia and the European Union, as well as to create European regions in the field of economy and trade, internal and external security, freedom, justice, science, and culture. According to Putin, relations between Russia and France — two countries with rich cultural traditions — the crucial role played by humanitarian cooperation, development of relations in the field of language learning as a Russian in France and French in Russia, the development of youth exchanges.[1]

In turn, Jacques Chirac was interested primarily in the energy and military-technical cooperation. Gasification projects of Europe are the priorities in foreign policy, not only for France but for Europe as a whole. In his opinion, without military security cannot be security of energy. In addition, France is also counting on the active cooperation in the field of resolving various international issues, resolve issues related to combating international terrorism and organized crime.

The rapprochement between France and Russia in the military-industrial complex during the study period was due to a set of assumptions. This was due to similar processes in the economy of the period. Enhanced cooperation in the economic, political and cultural spheres, created the conditions for closer cooperation in military-technical field. Traditionally Russia and France acted as major arms suppliers, in turn, being competitors, but it has contributed to a closer cooperation in the spheres of military, energy and nuclear security through the pursuit of common goals.

The rapprochement between Russia and France, and enhanced cooperation between these countries was the result of economic, political and military reforms. In Russia after the coming to power of Vladimir Putin, the country was an acute need for structural changes in the economic field. In France in this period there was economic growth, and the exchange of experience with the French party was allowed to spend more quickly and efficiently abrupt changes in the economic field. Thus, in particular large changes have occurred in agro-industrial and fuel and energy complexes. Huge amounts of money to allocate on support of domestic producers. In addition, in the fuel and energy complex of great importance began to be given to the development of technologies for processing of secondary raw materials. In the energy sector Russia and France discussed the projects of construction of various oil and gas pipelines to Europe, in particular, an agreement was signed and a financial Protocol on investment in the Russian oil industry, which contributed to increasing supplies of hydrocarbons to Europe[2].

Great importance is played by the position of France, which influenced the revision of Russia's relations with NATO. France acted as a mediator in the negotiation process between Russia and NATO, and it was connected with the international situation in that period, with the complication of relations between NATO and Russia, as well as with the impending expansion of NATO to the East. For France's part in this process was a step to strengthen its position in the EU in the period under review, with the aim of increasing their prestige and authority. Moreover, the interaction of Russia and France in this period contributed to strengthening the prestige of Russia in the international arena.

In the cultural field during this period, between Russia and France saw a significant rise. So was the year of France in Russia in 1997, and the year of Russia in France in 1998. Cooperation and activities in the field of culture held by the Embassy of France, covered the following areas: support to higher education institutions, research centres, French and Russian institutions for development of scientific exchanges between laboratories, training in the exact Sciences. Activities in the field of culture was carried out in the cultural events in Moscow (was the large exhibition "Moscow - Berlin - Paris")and on the whole territory of Russia, joint creative productions, and also held exhibitions of weapons, and international air - space salons MAX[3]

In the legal and judicial cooperation took part without exception, all Russian participants of reform: the Ministry of justice, presidential Administration, Supreme Court, Supreme Arbitration Court and the Prosecutor General's office. The goal of these activities was the exchange of experience between relevant institutions. For assistance in the field of professional training has created dozens of training programmes (initial and refresher) within the framework of partnerships between French and Russian institutions.[4] the opening of the Francophone field offices was to allow in the future through gradual integration into the University space to promote transfer of training specialists, to assist in carrying out scientific researches in the field of the reform of the court process and also help in the development of the principle of student mobility in the context of open translation credits to countries of the European community.[5]
In the field of science and technology France and now is one of the first places: in theory, mathematics, astrophysics, biology, medicine, genetics, physics (Charpak, de Jeanneret, Neel), which contributes to the strengthening of relations between the two countries. Huge experience of French scientists in these fields allowed us to apply this experience in practice in several studies in Russia.

Military-technical cooperation of the Russian Federation with the French Republic had already 15-year history. It is based on an intergovernmental Agreement on military-technical cooperation between the two countries, signed on 4 February 1994, which identified a number of key areas for interaction and cooperation: the aviation and aerospace industry, manufacture of small arms and production of artillery systems,shipbuilding, shipbuilding and tank industries.[6] In order to coordinate joint activity in this field was the Russian-French Committee for military-technical cooperation. In June 2008, Moscow hosted the 10th anniversary meeting of this Committee.[7] Starting from 2005, Russia and France are showing great interest in cooperation in the naval field. To define promising areas of cooperation in this sphere within the framework of the Committee set up a working group on cooperation in the field of development and production of naval equipment.

Thus, the rapprochement between Russia and France in sphere VPK, in the period under review was a significant process for the development of bilateral relations. As a result, all these prerequisites were a guarantee of developing a successful, warm, friendly and equal relations. As a result, these prerequisites in various fields and areas of activity, gave a new impetus to development of bilateral relations between Russia and France in the sphere of military-technical cooperation. The results of this interaction, first of all, you should consider exchange of experiences, as well as the convergence of Russian and French positions on critical issues among which are the military and energy security in Europe.

Military-technical cooperation is a special kind of activity in the field of international relations, the basic principle, which is to provide state monopoly in this sphere. The MIC/defense industry of Russia in this period experienced a number of contradictory phenomena, some of which had negative consequences for the economy and for the country as a whole, and it was caused by a whole complex of reasons. Among these causes on the one hand, the ineffectiveness of the conducted economic reforms that were one-sided, inconsistent. On the other hand, weak state support and totally inadequate government funding, a cumbersome and inefficient system of control orders, the absence of a clear vertical management of the state military-technical policy, military R & d and production in the framework of the State armament programme.

In the year 2000. in the ongoing in the Russian Federation large-scale administrative reform of the military industrial complex/defence industry key issues guide on military-technical cooperation with foreign States was under the direct control of the President of the country, which allowed more clearly and purposefully to implement the promotion of Russian military products to foreign markets, greater integration of economic and foreign policy interests of the state. During this period, “presidential vertical” become important questions of increase of efficiency of functioning of all links of the mechanism of such cooperation. [8]

So in the year 2000. in accordance with the presidential decree №1834 of the Federal state unitary enterprise Rosoboronexport is the sole official assignee on all previously signed commitments as of the USSR and Russia in the sphere of military-technical cooperation. In collaboration with Federal authorities, it participates in the formation of market for Russian-made weapons, to provide organizational, informational, methodological and financial assistance of the Russian defense industry in the implementation of their products for export. [9] it was allocated the main directions of activity:

  • export, import the entire spectrum of products and services of military and double appointment;
  • maintenance and repair of previously supplied weapons and military equipment;
  • modernization of armament and military equipment produced in Russia;
  • promotion of innovative high-tech products for civilian use, developed at the enterprises of the Russian military-industrial complex, etc.[10]

With regard to, the objectives of the military-industrial complex in this period, this greater interaction with the countries in NATO and the European Union, entry into new markets with joint production. This was particularly relevant in terms of developing collective mechanisms of neutralizing global threats in the face of religious extremism, organized crime and international terrorism.

Among the external problems in MIC/MIC in the period were the search for new ways of expansion of cooperation with the UN, including through the provision of peacekeeping operations, production control and non-proliferation of weapons, including the control of proliferation of MANPADS. To the group of internal tasks in the MIC/defense industry in this period were: implementation of targeted marketing activities, including analysis of the military-political situation and economic situation of the intended importing country, military construction and condition of weapons and military equipment. As well as the development of the forecast of the complete life cycle of weapon systems, and planning for the promotion of domestic products to replace them.[11]

In my opinion, the development of these areas would help to revitalize the military industrial complex/defence industry in order to obtain significant funds to the state budget from sales of weapons and it had to raise Russia's credibility in the eyes of European partners, and to strengthen the position of our country on the European markets of weapons.

Thus, the analysis of internal and external assignments in the military-industrial complex to Russia, allows to draw the conclusion that the military-industrial complex of Russia in the period under review, experienced a complete reorganization of the, in different spheres and areas of activity. In turn, together with the restructuring of the MIC, changed relations and cooperation between Russia and France in this period. For Russia, this meant opening a new page in military-technical cooperation with France, as well as obtaining international experience in activation processes of modernization of Russian weapons in all directions. For France this meant the purchase stability on the issue of military security in Europe.

Military-technical cooperation between Russia and France has traditionally been an important part of bilateral interaction, this trend was a key area of cooperation between the two countries. Russia and France have always believed that it is the Foundation of stability and sustainability for both countries, since both side have the huge potential of various weapons. One of the important directions of bilateral military cooperation is small arms and artillery systems.

Figure 1. [12]

Artillery systems and ammunition are the oldest in military production, like France and Russia. Design and manufacture of artillery and small arms carried out in state arsenals in France in the following cities: Bourges, Tarbes (artillery), roan (ACS), Saint-Etienne (small arms), Tulle (guns anti-aircraft artillery), as well as in the factories of private companies in the cities of Paris, La Ferté-Saint-Aubin and Tulle (mortars), Cuse and Mulhouse (rocket-propelled grenades and small arms), Saint-Chamond (naval artillery systems), Bourges (grenade launchers)[13]. Production facilities to produce ammunition consists of national military arsenals and factories. They are collected in the enterprises of the private sector. The manufacture of explosives, gunpowder and rocket fuel fully concentrated state-owned factories.

Regarding a joint Russian-French project, France has made the largest ever post-war European order for guns in 2004. Latest semi-automatic gun which entered service with the French forces of law and order. This project was developed by the German arms firm "Sauer und Zones" with the participation of Russian representatives, has won the tender of the Ministry of internal Affairs, the new weapon is called "zig". France received more than 200 thousand units of "ina-Pro". The barrel and breech are made of blued steel. The holster is made of heavy-duty synthetic material. In the MAG to 15 rounds, plus one in the chamber. It seems that this convenient and compact 9mm Parabellum will force law enforcement officers to leave with a heavy six-shooter revolvers "Manurhin-f-1" in service with the police, as well as the antediluvian "MC-50", which is the national gendarmerie. Automatic pistols manufactured by "Sauer und Zones" are in service of the security forces of 60 countries worldwide. In France they are used by intelligence agencies, particularly the Department for combating banditry.[14]

Among other interesting joint projects is the modernization of the tank "Leclerc". Frontal armor of the tank "Leclerc"is formed by an outer sheet of sharedetails steel, then the steel sheet of high hardness, a filler of layers of ceramics and fiberglass, able to withstand the cumulative jet, and the back lining of Teflon and fiberglass with a reinforcing carbon fibers. The side of the tank "Leclerc", in addition to anticumulative screens are in front of the steel trunking width 200 mm, composed of hollow sections hinged. The combined power-plant allowed "Leclerc" to outperform most tanks of the third generation on the power density, reaching 27,5 HP/t, and come out on top on speed and dynamics (less than 6 tank accelerates to 32 km/h and can reach a maximum speed of 71 km/h).[15]

Thus, bilateral military cooperation between Russia and France in the manufacture of small arms and the production of artillery systems is developing dynamically, which resulted in a number of joint mutually beneficial and equitable projects. On the one hand, Russia has increased the competitiveness of Russian weapons in the European markets in relation to existing counterparts and got the next portion of the international experience in this area. On the other hand, France has received additional possibility of arms supplies to Russia, thereby securing a stable profit to the state budget.

One of the main directions of cooperation between Russia and France is the market for armored fighting vehicles, in recent years it design, development and procurement of wheeled armoured fighting vehicles. Wheeled vehicles have a higher level of strategic mobility and require less operating costs and maintenance, but have a lower level of protection and firepower. Their crawler counterparts have a higher level of protection, firepower and tactical mobility, but they usually have more weight and when you transfer to long distances require the use of vehicles for transportation of heavy military equipment.

So the French army equipped with armoured fighting vehicles VBCI, of which 630 will be manufactured on previously approved orders. The main supplier is the firm Nexter Systems, produces 96 units per year and provides for increased production. The main subcontractor of Nexter Systems is the company Renault trucks Defense, which is responsible for the procurement and suspension. From the General requirements of the French army for 630 cars a large portion will have the configuration of the BMP and the rest 150 is command-staff vehicles, which offer extra communications equipment and are equipped with fighting module with remote control, armed with a machine gun M2 HB 12.7 mm. the First model of infantry fighting vehicle had a single turret armed with a 25 mm stabilized gun М811 two-way filing ammunition and a 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun. In the future, possible replacement for a two-man turret armed with a new weapon system with 40-mm cannon.[16]

 

Riswan 2. [17]

In addition, the armored industry in France presents state military arsenals belonging to the industrial Association IAT, and enterprises of public and private companies. Arsenal is leading in Roanne, which produced tanks, APCS and reconnaissance vehicles. Other Assembly enterprises are located in the cities of Chalon-sur-saône (light tanks and vehicles on their basis), Saint-Chamond (APC), Marolles-EN-Wrpw (BTR, dBm). Parts and components supply GIAT military arsenals in the cities of Bourges and Tarbes, as well as factories of other companies. Head of research center of the industry is located in Versailles.[18]

As for Russia, it models such as the BTR-60, BTR-70 and BTR-80, which belong to the class of floating cars and are designed for both domestic consumption and for export. Production of the BTR-80 and BTR-80A continues at the Arzamas machine-building plant and depends on export orders. The base model of the BTR-80 equipped with a single turret, armed with 14.5-mm and 7.62-mm machine guns. The latest variant of the BTR-80A is equipped with a single turret armed with 30 mm cannon and 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun. [19]

So the joint Russian-French project, the latest Russian-French machine with the wheel formula 8x8 is the BTR-90, which is in fact an enlarged version of the BTR-80. The BTR-90 can be fitted with various overhead weapon stations, including the tower of the BMP-3. The total weight of the BTR-90 is on the order of 22 tons, it can carry 7 Marines in full gear plus a crew of three. Like all early variants BTR-60/BTR-70/BTR-80 BTR-90 is floating and being propelled in the water by water jets placed in the rear part of the body. The main disadvantage of all the Russian BTR series shown is the rear location of the MTO, which complicates operational landing and landing from the car and limits the performance of combat tasks. The shape of the case also creates problems for the installation of additional armor and other specific variants of the car.[20]

In the field of shipbuilding industry has a large experience in the construction of ships. In terms of production France ranks third in the capitalist world. The total number of people employed in it exceeds 30 thousand people. Industrial base, includes 13 enterprises, chief among which are the state of the naval arsenals. The main enterprises are located in the cities of Brest (aircraft carriers, guided-missile cruisers, destroyers URO, frigates URO), Cherbourg (submarines of all classes), Lorient (destroyers URO, URO frigates, minesweepers). The construction of warships involves private shipyards in Saint-Nazaire, La-Seine-sur-Mer, Nantes and others.[21]

As a result, Russia is interested in French amphibious helicopter carrier type "Mistral". In the case of the sale of this transaction will be the first deal of its kind, concluded between Russia and the country is a NATO member. Besides the ship is scheduled to acquire licenses to build four such ships in Russia. If the contract is concluded, the construction of a helicopter carrier to Russia will deal with French shipbuilding company STX France and DCNS. The ship will be based on civil standards and will be supplied without armament and radars. According to some estimates, the construction of "Mistral" Russia will cost 400-500 million euros, and the government expect that buying a ship will cost up to 900 million euros. The displacement of the amphibious helicopter carrier type "Mistral" is 21 thousand tons. The ship can reach speeds up to 18.8 knots, and range of his voyage of almost 32 thousand kilometers. "Mistral" can carry 16 heavy or 35 light helicopters, as well as from 450 to 900 soldiers and landing craft.[22]

Moreover, equipping the French systems of Russian tanks and combat aircraft, destined not for export but for their own Armed Forces. In 2008 the army and air force received the first machine, the package comprising blocks with "Gallic" names Catherine FC, Matiz and Damocles. Which in turn will strengthen the armed forces of Russia.[23]

In the summer of 2007 between Thales and Rosoboronexport signed a contract to supply thermal imaging hundred of Catherine FC cameras for installation on tanks T-90 of the Russian Land forces. The use of imaging systems allows vehicle crews to navigate the terrain and conduct aimed fire at night and by day in conditions of natural and artificial interference (fog, smoke). Catherine FC weighs 5.5 kg and has a range of 8-12 μm, providing a resolution of 754 × 576 pixels and physical angle 9° × 6,7°, narrow 3° x 2.2°. The tank is detected at a distance of 10 km. to Classify target at the distance of 4.5 km and identified at a distance of 2300 m.[24] For the Russian side this means, above all, reliable and successful development in the field of tank industry.[25]

French thermal imagers are already in use in some export samples of Russian military equipment for various purposes. They include, for example, infantry fighting vehicles BMP-3 and anti-aircraft missile-gun complexes "Pantsir-S1" supplied to the United Arab Emirates, as well as landing craft air cushion "bison", exported to Greece.[26]

In 2007, the French company DCNS signed an agreement with CRI. academician A. N. Krylov, which provides for the transfer of advanced technologies in the field of construction of submarines. DCNS is a major supplier of nuclear and diesel - electric submarines (nuclear and diesel submarines) French Navy. The latest developments of the French designers are submarine project "Barracuda" and "the bet". The last is a non-nuclear submarine (nuclear submarine), the appropriate grade Russian "Amur" and German Type-212. In contrast to the previously used diesel-electric propulsion, a new generation of nuclear submarines equipped with fuel cells, or other types of air-independent power plants (AIP). Fuel cells provide the possibility of long-term scuba diving without surfacing. The level produced submarine noise much lower than most submarines. Submarine project "the bet" has a displacement of 1750 tons (surface - 1400 t), a length of 66.4 m, width 6.2 m. the Maximum diving depth is 300 m, speed - 20 knots, cruising range - 6400 nautical miles at 8 knots. The submarine can autonomously perform tasks while at sea for 45 days with a crew of 32 people. The weapons-nuclear submarine "the bet" in the standard version consists of six 533-mm torpedo tubes (18 torpedoes), as well as launchers for cruise missiles.[27]

Figure 3 [28]

Thus, this allowed Russia to gain experience in the construction of such types of submarines, and to Deposit such weapons the Navy of Russia. The delivery of this type of weapons in domestic military-naval forces have been strengthened the Maritime border of Russia, as well as critical marine transportation arteries of the country. Another important result was the receipt of the latest technologies and principles in the construction of such armaments, thereby strengthening the naval fleet of Russia and to attract the attention of European partners to the process of participation in joint projects on creation of weapons of this type.

High hopes in Russia confer on cooperation with France in the aviation industry, aviation market – a long one. The French side has decided on the allocation of 460 million francs for the project on the creation and export promotion training aircraft "MiG-at". The partnership with France will allow Russia to enter non-traditional for Russia, the markets of arms of French influence. On 19 December 2000, the Prime Ministers of Russia and France, Mikhail Kasyanov and Lionel Jospin signed in Paris the agreements on expansion of cooperation between Rosaviakosmos and European aerospace Corporation. The document envisages, in particular, the joint modernization and delivery to the markets of third countries aircraft MiG-29, the development of military training aircraft, cooperation in the creation of new types of helicopters.[29]

The visit of Jacques Chirac to Russia worked on a document about the participation of Russian companies in the creation of a European super-Jumbo "A-380", designed for 500 to 800 seats, and its future cargo version.[30]

Within the 44-th international aerospace salon "Le Bourget 2001" a contract was signed between "Airbus industry" and Verkhnaya Salda metallurgical production Association, for which Airbus will use titanium mill products and aluminum alloys are produced in Verkhnaya Salda (Sverdlovsk region). Joint work on creation of regional plane RRJ has strengthened the cooperation between Russia and France in the field of advanced technologies. France gave reimbursable advance in the amount of $ 140 million to create the power plant of the aircraft, and Russia - guarantees in the amount of us $ 100 million and direct budgetary financing under Federal programme for the development of civil aviation.[31]

A big step in the rapprochement between Russia and Western Europe were the launches of Soyuz from Kourou in French Guiana, the first of them took place in 2007. In addition, the European space Agency and the Russian Federal space Agency are working together in French Guiana, the construction of the launch complex. The basis of the cooperation agreement Moscow and Paris and the decision of ESA. Financial basis for this was found - the European Investment Bank provided to the Russian side 123 million euros.[32] In the field of aviation cooperation focuses on the development of fifth-generation aircraft and unmanned combat aircraft. It is anticipated construction of major projects - the creation of training aircraft MiG-at and the modernization of multi-purpose fighter su-35 the Corporation "Dry". Moreover, the program develops aviation leasing.[33]

Significant is the interaction of both countries in creating systems of outer space. And here, Russia also intends to help France in the establishment of its own system of control of outer space. At the first stage it was planned to put the French side computer model to predict the movement of space objects and experimental verification of the exchange of orbital parameters for a limited number of satellites. With the participation of French companies established and latest satellite platform EAT (Siberia+Europe by SATELLITE), which will allow to increase operation life of apparatus and the relay to 10-15 years. Russia and France jointly create a heavy launch vehicle "Ural". The program "Ural", involves "joint work on technology development for advanced launch vehicles, including the system research, development ground and flight demonstrators". These media will be used to run useful cargo transport maintenance and servicing of orbital systems and space vehicles. Joint project "Ural" is aimed at the development and creation of carrier rockets medium and heavy class, in which France will need after the current "Arian-5" will produce the resource. [34]

By 2020, experts of the two countries plan to develop cost-effective booster with a high degree of reliability and safety that does not harm the environment. The budget is for 5 years (2005-2010) of the project will amount to 200 million euros.[35]

Within the aviation-space salon in Le Bourget in 2005. presentation of the joint project on modernization of Russian combat helicopters Mi-24 (export version Mi-35). Russian and French experts have combined their efforts for the modernization of avionics and armament of Mi-24 in the interest of foreign customers. The basis of this partnership became internationally recognised expertise of the Russian helicopter industry, coupled with the latest developments of the French company "Sajem" cooperating in the field of military avionics with more than 20 countries. "Sajem" specializes in the design of modern electronics systems for military aircrafts. The upgrades will allow for full compatibility with radio-electronic systems of Western European countries. With the interested Russian and French state agencies in the face of Russia and representatives of the Committee of the General Department of armaments of the Ministry of defence of France will have political and military-technical support to this joint project. The idea is that the helicopter got the opportunity to work day and night, in all weather conditions, at very low altitudes, to align them with NATO standards and to provide the most modern weapons produced in Russia and in the West.[36]

In 2006, Russia and France celebrated forty years of cooperation in space exploration, in particular, is implemented in the following areas: the development of manned space flight, space medicine, satellite navigation technology and development. The Russian astrophysical Observatory of the series "Spectrum" set of French equipment. French experts participate in the project experimental reentry device "Demonstrator". In 2006, Russia put into orbit the French companion "metope", and "Kingdom".[37]

As for the prospects of cooperation in the field of space then this:

  • the construction of the vehicle into Earth orbit;
  • mirrors to Shine sunlight North of the city;
  • the development of more powerful telescopes;
  • building an industrial city on the moon and flight to Mars. [38]

Thus, bilateral cooperation in the field of aviation and rocket-space industry between Russia and France has a huge potential. Aviation and for Russia and France is one of the priority areas of development cooperation, fleet, civil aviation and development of new high-speed aircraft and fighter jets - that's the common goal of both countries. In the field of cosmonautics, Russia and France are committed to the development of new spacecraft and in active space exploration. Astronautics and aviation, the key directions in cooperation between the countries concerned.

As the XX century and the XXI century begins under the sign of the Russian-French cooperation. These relations have entered into a number of main foreign policy priorities of Russia. This choice was logical. History is closely linked the destinies of our peoples. The close interweaving of the cultures of Russia and France, a long tradition of mutual communication and sympathy between the two peoples, the closeness of their geopolitical interests constitute a solid Foundation of Russian-French relations. Over the past few decades they have become more versatile and dynamic. Both sides showed them attention, regardless of the alignment of internal political forces that were in power. Convincing evidence has been established between Russia and France at all levels active and trust-based political dialogue and real cooperation between the two countries, particularly in the settlement of regional conflicts in the past five to seven years. The high level of Russian-French relations - the result of adding a number of factors, one of which is the cooperation in military-technical sphere. The fact that today relations between the two countries were among the first in Europe's characteristic of privileged partnership, demonstrates the path traversed together Russia and France to the beginning of the third Millennium.

Military-technical cooperation between Russia and France is one of the priority directions of cooperation. Topical issues for both countries in this field are the manufacture of small arms and artillery production, the shipbuilding area shipbuilding and tank industries, the area of aviation and rocket-space industry, and of course the sphere of military security and cooperation in the field of nuclear energy.

Not less important sphere of cooperation is joint participation in conflict resolution on the territory of the former USSR, in particular the Karabakh and Georgian-Abkhaz. France, along with Russia holds the presidency in the "Group of friends of the UN Secretary General on Georgia". The position of France and Russia largely coincide on the Iraqi problem. Russia and France strongly condemned the methods of the American administration, which led to heavy casualties, and demanded the strengthening of the role of the Security Council.

The


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