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Chinese Navy surface ships - guided missile weapons carriers
Material posted: Ponomarenko Oleg J.Publication date: 30-04-2015
The presentation of his book "Red Dragon: China's modern naval forces" Y. Vedernikov draws attention to the paradoxical, in his opinion, the fact that such a continental power like China in its development is mainly focused on the creation of the marine component. In fact, no contradiction in this, taking into account the circumstances of the geographical and economic nature, to which the founder of Stratfor correctly points J.. Friedman: "China - is, in fact, the island.

Certainly, it is not encircled by water, but it is encircled by extensive sections of an inaccessible terrain and heathlands which reliably insulate it from other world »[1]. The basic unit of the population bunks at east foreshore third of territory of the country, also all industry which is in critical dependence on sea transport streams, connected with deliveries in the country of raw materials and export of goods on the international markets in the same place is concentrated. In the annual report of the Pentagon it is underlined that in 2012 84 % of all oil imported by China it was conveyed through the South Chinese sea and strait of Malacca [2]. Besides, on all water area which are bordering on to a zone of coast of the country, from Japan to Vietnam China has unresolved territorial disputes with the countries of this region, including in zones of a prospective finding of oil fields and gas.

The aspiration to creation of the modern Navies, facing in the past with restrictions of economic character looks natural under these circumstances. Considering a wide range of the problems facing military fleet, China builds the classical Naval Forces, one of the major which component is presence of the numerous class-room enough the universal vessels of an escort - destroyers and frigates.

The attention to this ships class, no less than their significance in the general potential of Naval Forces of China, will decrease hardly on a row of condition. We will result some reasons in favour of this assumption. Destroyers and frigates represent big enough and convenient platforms for disposing of complexes of the armament, allowing to solve some primary goals simultaneously - anti-submarine, anti-ship struggle, an air defence. Thus with growth of possibilities of the onboard operated weapon they can be used increasingly for isolation of regions of operations and a disruption of communications of the opponent - the problems which have found reflexion in become widespread American term A2/AD - Anti-access/area denial, and that first of all distresses the USA and their allies. These class-rooms of platforms are independent enough and possess good seaworthiness, cruising range, their displacement and overall dimensions allow to place a wide set of armament for single acts and acts as a part of groups, possessing thus admissible cost. The country builds carrier-based fleet that, unconditionally, demands cover and support groups. Presence in a fleet inventory in the middle of current decade only one, experimental per se, in formation of aircraft of sea basing at all does not mean the vessel of this class-room and difficulty that China will refuse this ambitious problem. Growth of battle possibilities of modern submarines - is used even the term "revolution", - automatically gives a task a reinforcement of means of anti-submarine struggle - not only qualitative, but also quantitative.

Composition and dynamics

In the annual report of the Ministry of Defence of the USA, got out on April, 24th, 2014, the general composition of the Chinese navy fleet was sized up in approximately 77 surface battle vessels, more than 60 submarines, 55 average and big landing vessels, about 85 rocket boats [3].

Thus presented details data about quantity of the battle vessels which can be referred to to the class-room of destroyers of support, according to the same source made: destroyers - 24 units, frigates - 49, korvetov - 8 [4]. Some nestykovku, probablly, it is possible to charge to noted complexities in definition by experts across China of composition and characteristics of the vessels for an estimation about what it is separately mentioned in the text of the report of reconnaissance service of Naval Forces of the USA directions of perfection of Naval Forces of China presented on hearings in US China Economic and Security Review Commission in the end of January, 2014 [5]

It is remarkable that from the specified quantity of 14 destroyers, 40 frigates and 6 korvet, and also 67 rocket boats - a lion's unit of all naval forces of these class-rooms of the vessels, - refer to to forces of fleet of the East Chinese and South Chinese seas, that is in regions of key transport itineraries (strait of Malacca), an island Taiwan and territorial disputes.

The success in modern sea war - and not only, - cannot be attained application of out-of-date systems of armaments and is defined under other comparable conditions by presence of perfect systems of the operated rocket weapon by the vessels. For this reason survey of the surface vessels of Naval Forces of China expediently to make regarding the vessels which are armed systems of the operated rocket weapon.

Additional argument in favour of such approach is change of structure of ship composition. As of 2014 in a fleet inventory there were 16 destroyers URO, 54 frigates URO and 8 korvetov URO (easy frigates) [6]. For last two decades China has undertaken considerable force in a direction of replacement of the out-of-date vessels. From the beginning of 1990th years in Russia 4 destroyers of class-room "Modern« have been got by two series and 10 new types of destroyers and frigates of own construction, some and which I represent alternatives of the same type are put into operation. Type destroyers "Modern" have been ordered in 1996, the first two vessels are put into operation in 1999 and 2001, the subsequent two advanced designs have been ordered in 2002, have entered into a system in 2005 and 2006 Acquisition has been obviously connected with impossibility during this period to solve a problem of equipment of fleet powerful modern battle units forces of the national industry. Thus, according to Office of Navy Intelligence if less than a decade ago the surface fleet of China represented a strange mix of the old, modern, modernised, got abroad and domestic platforms got abroad with a set of various systems of armaments with a wide spacing under characteristics and reliability by the second decade of the XXI-st century of the politician in the field of fleet equipment it was completely displaced towards acquisition of the vessels of the domestic working out equipped with mainly Chinese systems of armaments and the equipment, but with application of the separate systems import or made under the licence and components [7].

Representation about dynamics of composition of the surface vessels of the basic class-rooms is given by tables 1 (destroyers) and 2 (frigates) made on the basis of publication Center for Strategic and International Studies from November, 2014 the Data in column 2014 represent data on the beginning of 2014 (for 2013). Korvety (easy frigates) the design 056 (Jiangdao) in these tables are not presented, as this class-room is new, according to various sources the first 8-9 vessels of a series were a part of fleet in 2013, and by November, 2014 this quantity has increased already to 18. Expected quantity of a series was sized up in not less than 30 units. It is supposed that the data korvety will replace out-of-date frigates of type Jianghu and rocket boats of type Houxin [8].

Table 1. Ship composition of destroyers URO Naval Forces of China during 1990-2014

Таблица 1.jpg

It is made on: Anthony H. Cordesman. Chinese Strategy and Military Power in 2014. CSIS, November 2014, p. 234.

*В the original the quantity in 15 vessels that does not match to quantity on types is specified.

Table 2. Ship composition of frigates URO Naval Forces of China during 1990-2014

Таблица 2.jpg

It is made on: Anthony H. Cordesman. Chinese Strategy and Military Power in 2014. CSIS, November 2014, p. 234.

Thus, China conducts resolute modernisation of the large surface battle vessels, inferring from a fleet inventory the vessels of out-of-date types and developing building the vessel of new series. At a current stage the conclusion from a fleet inventory of tens old battle units leads to visible abbreviation (destroyers) or to deduction at some level of quantity of arranged Naval Forces of the country of the vessels. However it is deceptive statistics - in the near future feeding into of new modern destroyers and frigates indemnifies quantity decrease, and in a qualitative sense changes have already occurred.

The following statement represents survey of taktiko-technical datas of each type of the vessels of observed class-rooms.

Characteristics of the vessels of basic types [9]


Type 051

To rather recent time in the Chinese Navy in this class-room of the vessels made the destroyers Type 051 Luda created on the basis of the vessels of the Soviet design 56. In total 17 vessels in 1970-1990 in some series (Luda - type 051, 051DT, Luda II - type 051G, Luda III - type 051GII), differing have been built by armament. By 2014 they have been inferred from a fleet inventory.

All destroyers possessed displacement in 3700 tons and have been armed by two launching sites on three containers of anti-ship medium-range missiles HY-2 (С-201) - analogue Soviet П-15, and eight-container launching site ZRK HQ-7. Two launching sites on four containers had some vessels, and last series had launching sites of PKR С-801.

The artillery has been presented one or two two-gun ammunition installations of the pass of 130 mm, also there were four paired ammunition installations of the pass of 37 mm or 57 mm, two three-gun 324-mm of the torpedo tube, two 12-gun the anti-submarine bomb-throwing gun. Type 051 Type 381 and Type 360 (Thomson-CSF Sea Tiger) or Square Tie, RLS detection of air targets type 517 or Hughes, as well as SUO Wasp Head (Wok Won) or Sun Visor In Type 343 or Rice Lamp, navigating RLS Decca 1290 companies Racal, and also active GAS Pegas 2М and Tamir 2 or GAS variable diving depth DUBV 23 have been equipped by the battle informational-operating system ZKJ-4B/6, two navigating RLS Racal RM-1290, RLS detection surface and air targets. Two anti-ship helicopters Z were based On destroyers

9.Fire control ZRK came true by means of SUO Type 345 (Castor II workings out of French company Thomson-CSF), and 30-mm of ammunition installations by means of SUO Type 34

Thus, originally the fleet was equipped with the vessels created not as specialised carrying agents of the operated weapon, and were worked overtime and modernised artillerijsko-torpedo platforms.

From the middle of 1990th years tryings have been undertaken to change qualitative composition of destroyers at the expense of construction of the vessels of types 051B and 052.

Type 052

In 1994-1996 two destroyers of type 052 Luhu have been put by full displacement of 5700 tons into operation. It were the first rather modern destroyers of Naval Forces of China. Vooruzhennie consisted from two-container PKRK YJ-1 (С-801) (under other data - YJ-82 (C-802); probablly, supplied information refers to to modernisation in 2004 when the quantity of launching sites has been increased to 16 - four blocks on 4 containers) and ZRK HQ-7 (Crotale) - one PU with vosemju directing. In a vessel stern are arranged a hangar and VPP on two helicopters Z-9A (the licence version of French helicopter Dauphin-II) with system of maintenance of take off and landing Safecopter. The helicopter can carry 2 anti-submarine torpedos - Italian А244 or American Mk.46. Мод.2., the French hauled down hydroacoustical station of type HG-12 and the magnetometer. For defeat of the surface purposes the helicopter can carry anti-ship a cancer

Besides it destroyers had one two-gun ammunition installation of the pass of 100 mm and four two-gun antiaircraft ammunition installations of the pass of 37 mm, of 324 mm (string shots Yu-2) and two 12-stvolnymi anti-submarine bomb-throwing guns were equipped with two torpedo tubes of the pass. On destroyers gas turbines have been used: by the first vessel of a series - American GE LM2500 power of 55 thousand in h.p. got bypassing embargo through Thailand, and on second - Ukrainian GT25000 power of 48,6 thousand in h.p.

In the capacity of diesel components GEU, both on first, and on second the vessels, have been used the Chinese licence versions of German injection engines MTU 12V 1163TB83 by cumulative power of 8,84 thousand in h.p. the Combination of the Ukrainian gas turbine and the licence German injection engine was applied and on the subsequent Chinese destroyers.

Emintsy type 052 are equipped French RLS detection type 360 (DRBV-15 SEA TIGER), an air target providing detection at range to 110 km, and surface - to 38 km, and battle it is informational-controlling system ZKJ-4B/6 (French Thomson-CSF TAVITAC), SUO Thomson-CSF Crotale both a control system rocket and gun-fire VEGA, BGAS DUBV-43.

Type 051В and 051С

In 1999 the type destroyer 051B Luhai by displacement of 6000 tons and armed 16 (4 blocks on 4 containers) PU PKR С-802 and eight-container PU ZRK HQ-7 (Crotale) has been put into operation. The type in this alternative has not gained the further development, however J.A.Vedernikov assumes [10] that by the vessel use of vertical launching sites was volplaned, but because of unavailability of new systems were restricted to construction of one destroyer. Emersion in a fleet inventory in 2006-2007 of two destroyers of type 051C Luzou, mechanically being the cases analogous to type 051B Luhai, with increased to 7100 t displacement, but equipped already six eight-shooter PU Russian ZRK «С-300Ф» ("Reef Thf") and two anti-aircraft complexes Type 730 which has been carried out on ideology of a complex "Burning mountain-falanks" with disposing of aim systems in one block with ammunition installation that became a world-wide trend for such systems can be acknowledging of this version. For the Chinese fleet it is possible during this period for a time to consider such set of armament as considerable step as in respect of a radical reinforcement of possibilities of anti-aircraft potential of the vessel, and in respect of technological development of military shipbuilding stra

As a result of constructive changes in the central unit of the vessel the quantity of launching sites PKR has decreased to 8 (two blocks on 4 containers). However Ju. V.Vedernikov's assertion about absence of helicopter armament [11] is hardly correct to the full that follows from the analysis of photos of a destroyer. Disposing of four vertical PU ZRK regarding the case which are usually taken away under a helicopter hangar, hardly admits possibility of conservation of a place for the helicopter in internal premises. But the helicopter platform admits its basing.

Launching sites ZRK «С-300Ф» ("Reef Thf") place in nasal (2 modules) and fodder (4 modules) vessel units. Each module contains 8 rockets, the general ammunition load makes 48 ZUR 48Н6. Range of fire makes 5-150 km, RLS a complex accompanies to 12 purposes, the quantity of simultaneously raked purposes makes 6 [12].

It is necessary to notice that RLS managements it is carried out as the station, capable to work only in certain sector [13], its block is placed on a superstructure in a vessel stern. Thus, possibility of full implementation of battle potential ZUR in VPU is represented doubtful at such circuit design of prompting.

Besides PKR and ZRK, the type armament 051B consists from two-gun 100 mm of the art installation, four paired antiaircraft ammunition installations of the pass of 37 mm, two torpedo tubes of the pass of 324 mm (string shots Yu-2), two helicopters Ka-28 or Harbin Z-9C. The vessel osnoshchen RLS detection of air targets Rice Shield, RLS detection surface and air targets Type 360S, RLS managements of a gun-fire type 344.

The type 051С, besides ZRK «С-300Ф», is equipped 8 PU PKR YJ-83, having range of fire to 120 km, a mid-flight turbojet, active radar-tracking GSN, a cruising speed of 0,9 M, a battle unit is powerful 165 kg. It is informed that the rocket can be applied on ground targets. Also the vessel is armed by one one-gun ammunition installation of the pass of 100 mm, 90 shots having rate of fire a minute, and intended for struggle with surface and air targets; two semistvolnymi antiaircraft ammunition complexes type 730 of the pass of 30 mm with rate of fire of 4600-5800 shots in a minute and effective range of fire of 3 km. The anti-submarine armament consists of two torpedo tubes of the pass of 324 mm with string shots Yu-7 with range of fire of 7,3 km, a speed of 43 knots and a battle unit is powerful 45 kg. There are two 15-stvolnyh installations for shooting of windows.

The type 051С is equipped three-co-ordinate RLS detection of air targets of Fregat-MAE-5 with operating range of 120 km on airplanes and 50 km on PKR, capable to accompany to 40 is more whole simultaneously; RLS detection of surface purposes MR36; zagorizontnoj RLS target designations for PKR "Mineral-me"; two RLS a domestic production type 347G fire control ZAK type 730 [14].

Type 052В and 052С

Approximately in emersion in a type fleet inventory 051С with vertical PU ZRK of long-range act in the middle of 2000 two new types of other series - 052B and 052С have been built. Both types were based on identical the case and energy installation, the type 052В has become operational in 2004, type 052С - in the end of 2005

The type 052B displacement 6500 t on armament composition is close to type destroyers 956E/EM, having onboard 2 launching sites ZRK "Calm" with one directing (48 ZUR), 4 launching sites on 4 containers PKR YJ-83 [15], a hangar for the helicopter, two bomb-throwing guns type 75 with range of fire to 1,2 km, other armament is analogous to type 051С: 100-mm one-gun AU, two 30-mm ZAK type 730, two torpedo tubes. A series was restricted only to two vessels, second has become operational in the end of 2004 the Reason looks obvious to the further conversion of destroyers of this type.

Considerably bolshy interest represents type 052С which became first Chinese eskortnym the vessel approached on architecture of armament to American DDG51 with system Aegis. Basic difference from all predecessors was equipment of the vessel multipurpose RLS with the phase-aerial a lattice with completely electronic scanning, mechanically carried out in the form of four stationary antenna modules in a superstructure.

The vessel displacement 6600 t is equipped with 8 installations ZRK HQ-9 on 6 rockets in everyone. Thus bulk PU - four, - is installed in a new unit of the case, and only 2 - in fodder superstructures on the centre, used for a helicopter hangar. Thus, unlike type 051С, there is a place for helicopter disposing.

Other difference in armament is PKR YJ-62 (C-602), placed in two four-container PU [16]. Other armament is identical to the predecessor - 052В.

The sixth vessel of this type on January, 9th, 2015 has been injected into a fleet inventory - Xian [17].

Type 052D

With creation of destroyers of this type the Chinese fleet has taken a step from building of the usual vessels equipped specialised rocket complexes to creation own multipurpose "idzhisopodobnogo" of vessel of the American sample, capable to carry out more a wide range of problems, than it was inherent previous eskortnym in the fleet vessels, including drawing of blows by rocket gliders on the long-shore purposes.

The head vessel in a series has been put into operation on March, 21st, 2014, on the end of the year was informed that second in a series - Changsha, - passes trial runs, and 6 vessels are in various stages of building [18].

According to the experts, the design "052D" becomes last modernisation in family of the Chinese destroyers of the third generation. Now in China works on creation of the battle vessel of the fourth generation are conducted.

In comparison with the design 052C vessel sizes are a little increased because of new composition REO and new weapons systems. Displacement makes 7500 t though according to other sources it comes nearer to 10000 t.

The propulsion system - combined the injection engine-gazoturbinnaja (CODOG), consists of two gas-turbine engines QC-280 total power of 28 megawatt and two injection engines Shaanxi (the Chinese copy of injection engine MTU 20V956TB92) total power of 8840 h.p. By the type vessels 052D for the first time on the Chinese destroyers have refused disposing of revolving installations of the vertical start-up developed under concrete rockets, and have counted on more functional universal installations of vertical start-up of modulno-cellular type on 8 antiaircraft, anti-submarine or tactical rocket gliders everyone (all on the given type of the vessels of 64 rockets). 4 modules UVPU (a universal vertical launching site) are arranged in a vessel fore-deck before a superstructure, others 4 - in a superstructure stern before a helicopter hangar. In universal VPU the vessel anti-aircraft missiles HHQ-9B of the big range, protivokorabelnye rockets of new generation YJ-18A, anti-submarine rockets CY-2 with the battle unit, representing string shot Yu-8 can take place. In the capacity of possible equipment the rocket glider for blows on ground targets is underlined also.

The basic ammunition pass is presented 130-mm universal completely by the automatic single-barrel installation H/PJ-38 of the Chinese manufacture which are a clone of Russian installation AK-130-MР-184, intended for shooting on land and to air targets, including subsonic rocket gliders. As well as on other modern Chinese destroyers, by the vessels two 30-mm ZAK type 730 are installed. Important feature of armament it is possible to consider a reinforcement of an air defence at the expense of installation ZRK short-range FL-3000N c as 24 rockets TY-90 with range of fire of 9 km. On ideology and modification the system is analogue ZRK RAM. The anti-submarine weapon is presented by two tryohtrubnymi torpedo tubes for shooting by string shots Yu-7 and four 18-stvolnymi jet bomb-throwing guns. In a destroyer stern the airfield and a hangar for anti-submarine helicopter Ka-28 or Chinese Z-9C is arranged.

The vessels are equipped new RLS type 346 with the active phase-aerial a lattice which geometrical sizes notably surpass sizes RLS from the HEADLIGHTS type 438 installed by the vessels of type 052C, and also RLS long-range detection Type 518 L-ranges.

Type 956Э and 956ЭМ

As a part of Naval Forces of China, besides the vessels of own construction, is available four destroyers Russian (however first two - with use still the Soviet heritage) constructions of the design 956 "Modern". The first vessels of this type have become operational the Chinese fleet in 1999 ("Hanchzhou", a bort side. № 136) and per 2000 ("Fuzhou", № 137), they have been carried out on the basis of the design 956 domestic Navies Northern PKB in 1997 Has been developed for Naval Forces of China export alternative - the design 956Э which, in the core, matched to base working out. On a destroyer disposing of Russian helicopter Ka-28 with its time storage in a slip hangar has been worked. Unlike the base design the Chinese vessels also have equipped with new main coppers КВГ-3 (by the vessels of the Navy of Russia - KVN-98/64-11), the new automated complex of radio communication Р-782-5КЭ. For an execution of an order of Naval Forces of China the pracess stock on put for the Navy of Soviet Union in 1988 was used To destroyer "Important" (factory №878) and in 1989 to a destroyer "Thoughtful" (the manager. №879). Completion of these of two eskadrennyh torpedo boats has begun on Open Society "Ship-building yard" building berths Northern shipyard "in 1997 [19]

The subsequent two destroyers have been completed under the changed design - 956ЭМ on which Chineses have refused a unit of ammunition armament not so much, having expelled from composition of armament of the base design fodder 130-mm AU as it notes J.V.Vedernikov [20], how many having redesigned a stern for equipment by more rational composition of armament.

The vessels differ considerable displacement in 8000-8500 tons even in comparison with destroyers of type under construction now 052D. All four vessels are equipped protivokorabelnyj by a complex with rockets 3М80 "the Mosquito", placed in two massive 4-container PU on vessel bort sides. A basis of anti-aircraft armament is ZRK М-22 "Hurricane", and the armament of air defence of a short-range zone is discriminated - 4 art installations АК-630 are installed by the design vessels 956Э and 2 ZRAK "Dagger" by the design vessels 956ЭМ. As a part of armament also the anti-submarine helicopter, torpedo tubes, 2 РБУ-1000 and mines. Mechanically on the design 956ЭМ have extended a superstructure in a stern at the expense of what began possible to make a hangar for constant basing of the helicopter (on 956Э - slip) to place on each edge on one ZRAK "Dagger" [21].

Ammunition load ZRK makes 48 rockets, however an essential deficiency is the launching site counted on 1 ZUR, an interval between start-up ZUR of one PU makes 12 seconds Range of fire ZRK makes 25-32 km (on others given - 40-50 km).

According to J.V.Vedernikova, the vessels of the design 956 form themselves «Russian line» destroyers of the Chinese fleet, the homogeneous which shock joint, possessing powerful shock (32 PKR) and anti-aircraft (192 ZUR) potentials, is capable to act in an ocean zone.

Considering a time of emersion of the vessels of the design 956E/EM in the Chinese fleet, it is possible to assume that Naval Forces of the country in the conditions of equipment courts with the systems of armaments restricted under characteristics needed acquisition of a quantity shock - according to the lights, - the vessels, capable to be a deterrent for the potential opponent. As a push to it events of March, 1996 have served in Taiwan strait when the administration of the USA has sent in this region two carrier groups then practical implementation of the contract while the beginning of negotiations about acquisition of the vessels is dated 1992 [22] has begun

And now - later 15 years from the moment of feeding into in a system of the first destroyer of a series, - in state-of-the-art reviews about conversion of the Navy of China are separately noted presence of these vessels in connection with possibility at the expense of presence zagorizontnoj RLS to strike blows protivokorabelnymi rockets on longitudinal separations over 200 km. [23] to it it is necessary to add technical datas of rockets unusual in comparison with mass modern types PKR 3М80 "Mosquito". PKR has a launching mass to 4,5 tons, a cruising speed of flight of 2,35 M, a flying speed at the purpose of 2,8 M, weight of a battle unit of 300-320 kg, flying range depending on alternative to 90-100 km (3М80Е), to 120 km (3М80Е1), to 140 km at flight at low altitudes and to 240 km at flight on the combined path for 3М80МВЕ [24]. Probablly, the range estimation in the American sources is based on possibility of increase in range at the expense of the optimisation of a profile of flight realised in the rocket 3М80МВЕ.


The vessels of the given class-room are presented now by several out-of-date types of a series 053 which high rates are replaced with the vessels put into operation type 054А (type 054 has been built all in number of two units and represented transitive alternative). A basis of out-of-date park frigates make type 053H2G and 053H3 (accordingly 4 and 10 units in a fleet inventory as of 2014).

The type 053H2G was under construction in the early nineties and the vessels are injected into composition of Naval Forces in 1991-1994 Full displacement the length makes 2250 t, of 111,7 m, cruising range of 4000 miles at speed of 18 knots. The vessels are armed by 6 launching sites PKR YJ-1 with range of fire of 40 km or more modern PKR with range of fire to 120 km, ZRK HQ-61 with PU on 6 rockets with range of fire to 10 km (analogue ZRK of "Si Sparrou"). The artillery is presented double-barrelled 100-mm by art installation (range of fire of 22 km, weight of gear of 15,9 kg), four paired 37-mm AU. There are two bomb-throwing guns type 87 and installations for statement of handicapes, the helicopter (Jane’s Fighting Ships 2004-2005 contains the direction on presence of two helicopters on 053H2G and 053H3 - p. 128 and 129 that is doubtful taking into account dimensions of a quantity of the vessels (width of an order 11, a size of hangars and disposing on each side hangars of two 37-mm AU).

The type 053H3 represents the further development 053H2G and has the identical case, the same displacement and dimensions of a quantity. The vessels were under construction from the end of 1990th years, in a fleet inventory were inducted into the period since 1998 and prior to the beginning 2000. The main difference from the predecessor is installation ZRK HQ-7 (Naval Crotale) with eight-container PU, other armament is almost completely identical to the predecessor.

Frigates had warning systems of air targets type 517 (Knife Rest) and the air and surface purposes type 360 (French «DRBV-15 SEA TIGER»), a shipping season - Decca 1290 companies Racal, fire control type 343G, type 345 (Castor III) and type 341G Rice Lamp.

Type 054

Frigates of this type (Jiangkai) have been built (are floated in 2003, feeding into in a fleet inventory in 2005) in number of 2 units and were transitive alternative before start of the big series of more modern frigates type 054А (Jiangkai II), put into operation since 2008 They have displacement in 3900 tons and are armed by two four-container launching sites protivokorabelnyh medium-range missiles YJ-83 (С-803), and also ZRK HQ-7 (the Chinese modification of French ZRK of small range Naval Crotale), one 100-mm (French Creusot-Loire Т-100) art installation and four 30 - mm ammunition installations (Russian АК-630), two trehstvolnymi 324-mm torpedo tubes and by one anti-submarine helicopter Ka-28.

The propulsion system was made under the licence of the ex-German concern "SEMT Pielstick" which equips with these installations the French frigates URO La Fayette. Fire control ZRK osushchestvljatsja by means of SUO Type 345 (Castor II French working out-concern Thomson-CSF), and 30-mm of ammunition installations by means of SUO Type 347G.

Type 054 vessels are equipped the battle is informational-controlling system ZKJ-4B/6, automated data line HN-900, satellite-communication equipment SNTI-240, two navigating RLS Racal RM-1290, RLS detection surface and air targets Type 360 (French Thompson-CSF DRBV-15 Sea Tiger), RLS detection of the surface purposes (under other data - navigating) MR-36A, SUO artilleries MR34, is active-passive HOOK МГК-335.

Type 054А

The head vessel of a series has been injected into a fleet inventory in January, 2008 - Xuzhou (530). This design name "dray horse" of the Chinese Naval Forces, considering characteristics of the vessel and quantity of units in a series. It is informed also that Naval Forces of China are considered by type 054А as the first large surface vessel of fleet, which is made "correctly" (in the original - got right) [25].

Displacement in comparison with a frigate type 054 has increased to 4050 t. The main development in comparison with the predecessor is presence of a universal vertical launching site in which 32 rockets of various class-rooms take place. Standard equipment of this installation are anti-aircraft missiles of complex HQ-16. The complex is created on the basis of Russian ZRK "Shtil-1" and uses rockets 9М38, providing a vessel air defence at range to 25-32 kilometres (under other data - to 50 km) [26]. There is an information on possibility of use given VPU for disposing of anti-submarine rockets.

The vessel is armed by two launching sites (on four containers) protivokorabelnyh rockets YJ-83, 76-mm art installation АК-176, antiaircraft semistvolnymi 30-mm art installations type 730, two torpedo tubes for shooting by string shots Yu-7, two shestistvolnymi bomb-throwing guns type 87, one helicopter, two 18-stvolnymi installations for statement of handicapes (windows).

Tип 054A four RLS SUO ZRK type 345 (МR-90 Front Dome), providing management of shooting of two ZUR simultaneously, SUO ammunition installations type TR47C and type 347G, is active-passive GAS (MGK) are equipped RLS detection of the air and surface purposes type 382, RLS detection of the surface purposes MR-36A, by two navigating RLS Racal RM-1290, zagorizontnoj RLS target designations for PKR type 344 ("Mineral-me").

! On January, 6th, 2015 the next vessel of this type - Huanggang (it is floated on April, 28th, 2014) which 17th is in a series has been injected into a fleet inventory. It as it was informed, was the fourth frigate of type 054А, equipped hauled GAS with the changeable diving depth, allowing to expand a zone of detection of submarines to 20 km. The given development contacts concern of command of Naval Forces of China in insufficient possibilities of the vessels on detection of submarines of the probable opponent. Carrying agents GAS of this kind also are destroyers type 052 and korvety type 056. The assumption was thus come out that Naval Forces prepare the battle units for probable opposition to Japanese diesel submarines of design Soryu [27].

Other visible change is replacement 7-stvolnogo ZAK type 730 on 11-stvolnuju type 1130 (national designations accordingly H/PJ-12 and H/PJ-11). Under messages of the Chinese sources, the system is evolution ZAK type 730 and has allowed to increase rate of fire to 10.000 shots in a minute. Before the system has been installed only on aeroplane carrier Liaoning. Chineses declare ability of system to annihilate flying up with a speed М=4 PKR with probability of 96 %.

Besides, the increased term of feeding into in a fleet inventory of 17th vessel of a series - from 628 days for the previous frigates of this type till 363 days for Huanggang, - admits assumptions of considerable volumes of the new or modernised systems onboard the vessel [28].

Frigates type 054А have gained certain popularity during participation in antipiracy missions in gulf of Aden, in which course weak places of some systems have come to light, mainly Chinese manufacture though in general expert estimations were positive and about considerable problems of the information did not arrive [29]. Besides, frigate Xuzhou has been directed to Libya in 2011 for maintenance of evacuation of civilians. However for the first time directly for evacuation the battle vessels of China were are used on March, 29th, 2015 when frigate Linyi took aboard 122 citizens of the Peoples Republic of China and two foreign specialists, having evacuated them from Aden in Djibouti. Next day, on March, 30th, 2015, frigate Weifang has accepted aboard 499 Chinese citizens [30].

Korvet type 056

The vessels of this design refer to also to the class-room of frigates, using and the name easy frigates. They are the vessels of a foreshore zone, having full displacement 1365 t, length of 89 m, width of 11,6 m, settlement of 4,4 m, cruising range of 2000 miles at speed of 18 knots and the restricted composition of armament.

Extraordinary high rate of building of these vessels is noted. A series has been begun by feeding into in a fleet inventory in February, 2013 of a leading ship - Bengbu (board number 582), and by the end of the year Naval Forces had already 8 vessels. Thus 4 shipyards are involved in building. In March 2015 it was informed on feeding into in a fleet inventory of 19th vessel of a series - Xinyang (according to Jane’s; according to other sources - 21st vessel of a series). Thus, about 10 battle units are annually inducted into a system.

Assumption Jane’s Fighting Ships 2014-2015 (p. 148) [31] about interconnection of possible quantity of the vessels in a series with replaced types - out-of-date frigates Jianghu and rocket boats Houxin, looks a little doubtful. Concerning replacement of out-of-date frigates such assumption is natural, but concerning built by a considerable series to the beginning of 2000th years of rocket boats (for 1995 - 6 units in a fleet inventory, for 2000 - 20, for 2014 - 20) [32] the big care would be pertinent.

The vessel armament consists their two dual PU PKR YJ-83, 8-shooter PU ZRK short-range HQ-10 (AJK-10) with range of fire of 9 km, 76-mm of art installation H/PJ-26 with range of fire of 16 km, two 30-mm of dual automatic remotely operated guns with the automatic or manual prompting, two 324-mm of three-trumpet torpedo tubes, there is a platform for basing of helicopter Harbin Z-9C [33].

The vessel is equipped RLS detection surface and air targets type 360, navigating RLS type 760, RLS fire control type LR-66, RLS maintenance of flights of the helicopter type 754, two modules REB, installations of start of windows. It was informed on presence buksirumoj GAS.

Besides, Signal Magazine, analysing representation of the design of the vessel in 2011, specified in presence of two shestistvolnyh 252-mm RBU type 87, informing that installations have been finished by China from Russian 5-stvolnyh РБУ-1200 with increase in range of fire with 1200 to 3200 m. Also the attention that decrease of range of fire of 76-mm AU in comparison with 100-mm about 20 km to 15 km is indemnified by rate of fire of the instrument - 120 shots in a minute against 15 has been paid. One AU a korveta/frigate type Jiangdao four times surpasses two AU out-of-date frigates type Jianghu. It is Less instrument calculation - 2 persons against 6, as well as weight - 16 t against 49 [34].

Additional platform for PKR: rocket boats type 022

One of features of surface fleet of the Peoples Republic of China is presence of a considerable quantity of rocket boats in which composition independently stand more than 60 catamarans type 022 Houbei built since 2004

It is remarkable that working out of the case of the vessel has been carried out on a basis before created - in 1993, - joint venture with participation of private company AMD Marine Consulting based in Sydney and Chinese Guangzhou Marine Engineering Corporation. Joint venture Seabus International Co. Has got down to designing of aluminium high-speed catamarans and salvage ships for coastal areas. However the production engineering got thus has been used in due course for designing of the rocket boats which design is based on the civil version of patrol boat AMD 350 [35].

As a result of Naval Forces of China of 42,6 m and width 12,2 m, displacement 225 t, crew at 12-14 the person, a speed 36 (under other data - to 46) the knots, assumed (proceeding from the data about AMD 350) cruising range of 300 miles arrange a boat in length. The armament is made 4 PKR and one 30-mm by art installation.

Thus, already one only the type of rocket boats of the Chinese fleet is an inexpensive platform for expansion about two and a half hundreds protivokorabelnyh rockets in foreshore waters.

Trends in equipment by armament and development

Primary composition of operated rocket armament on eskortnyh the vessels of Naval Forces of China was and there is a presence antiaircraft and protivokorabelnogo complexes. However qualitative characteristics of this armament are strongly discriminated on types of the vessels. Anti-submarine guided missiles practically it was not used in the capacity of osnoshchenija (JU.V.Vedernikov mentions about experimental PLUR CY-1, installed on an out-of-date destroyer).

To armament of all vessels which can be referred to to the class-room eskortnyh, protivokorabelnymi rockets it is possible to explain aspiration of China intention to provide possibility to any surface battle units not only struggle against directly resisting basic battle vessels of the probable opponent, but also ability to create its threat amfibijnym to forces, sea lines in whole (not only the direct opponent).

From the above-stated data about quantitative composition of destroyers and frigates Center for International and Strategic Studies (CSIS) gates out some types which can be referred to to the modern. As criterion ability to carry out some operational tasks acts, including at least in two aspects of operations these abilities should be [36] at high level. In table 4 the data about composition of destroyers and frigates from tables 1 and 2 is cited, thus referred to CSIS to modern are gated out by colour.

Table 3. Modern, on classifications CSIS, destroyers and frigates URO Naval Forces of China as a part of the vessels of the given class-rooms during 1990-2014

Таблица 3.jpg

Remarks: all destroyers are recognised in report CSIS in table 9.10 (with. 245) modern, but in the list to the table types - and not all are specified particularly recognised modern.

It is made on: Anthony H. Cordesman. Chinese Strategy and Military Power in 2014. CSIS, November 2014, p. 234, 245.

At all respect CSIS it is impossible to agree with the led classification to the full, it has essential defects.

Probablly, due to a misunderstanding are not switched on in the list modern type 052D and type 051C - both are equipped by installations of vertical start-up, ZRK the big range with considerable boezapasom rockets that favourably gates out them among all eskortnyh the vessels of Naval Forces of China.

Easy frigates type 056 are not switched on. On the one hand, this type of the vessels has the restricted set of the weapon, but it is necessary to take into consideration the vessel class-room, its displacement and problems assigned to it. Besides, the vessels, which series to be now in construction, automatically, apparently, refer to CSIS to the category of the modern.

Incorrectly, in our opinion, destroyers of types 051В and 052, frigates 053H2G and 053H3 are referred to to the category modern. A typical set of systems protivozdushnoj defences of these vessels make rocket complexes HQ-7 (Naval Crotal) and 4 antiaircraft automatons (double-barrelled 37-mm or shestistvolnye 30-mm). ZRK HQ-7 has small range of fire, is incapable to force aircraft of the opponent to act out of a zone of practical application of rockets "air-surface" of small range, and at work on PKR in case of failure ZAK of a short-range zone does not leave a time for act, has small combat-ready boezapas (8 rockets), operating range and a battle missile unit do not allow to act if necessary on the surface purposes with the same efficiency, as ZRK average and big range. The ammunition systems of a short-range zone installed by the vessels, do not provide effective defence from PKR. AU type 630 are the out-of-date version of the Soviet complexes АК630 which had restricted abilities on destruction flying up PKR. R.Angelsky and V.Korovin ascertained that «despite high rate of fire last (to 6000 vystr./mines) and use for fire control of fire control radars with RLS, a survival probability of the vessel armed with them remained low», the kill probability of the purpose gears with contact fuses was sized up also as low [37]. Developing since 1980 on replacement АК-630 a complex "Dagger" (rocket-ammunition, ZKBR - the surface-to-air missile system of a short-range boundary) has been taken into service in the USSR in 1987, in export alternative - "Chestnut", - type 956 EM was installed on two destroyers of Naval Forces of China.

In conditions of modern level of means of air attack, mass application of the operated weapon, such characteristics cannot admit modern in any way. We will note that it is a question of the vessels of the big dimensions of a quantity which displacement allows disposing of more effective weapon.

Thus, taking into account set up, the quantity of the modern vessels eskortnogo the class-room in Naval Forces of China should be reduced to offered in table 4.

Table 4. Modern, on classifications of authors (O.Valetsky, O.Ponomarenko), destroyers and frigates URO Naval Forces of China as a part of the vessels of the given class-rooms during 1990-2014

Таблица 4.jpg

Remarks: easy frigates type 056 are classified as modern in the core because of an under construction series; the armament composition does disputable reference of the vessels in the given class.

If concerning PKR with which all Chinese destroyers and frigates are equipped, the basic line of perfection is evolution of characteristics of the rockets placed in specialised is exclusive under them containers (except, on visible, a destroyer type 052D) air defence development has undergone considerable changes.

Owing to necessity to resist to massive affecting PKR, KR and rockets "air-surface" of other class-rooms, these changes are especially appreciable. Table 5 shows such changes in composition of antiaircraft armament on an instance of several destroyers.

Table 5. Separate characteristics of a ruler of destroyers type 052 (/B/C/D)

Таблица 5.jpg

(R max - an extreme range of shooting of system; it is made on Jane’s Fighting Ships 2004-2005 for 052, 052B, <> for 052C, 052D in this connection there can be some different interpretations on systems; for 052С the quantity in a fleet inventory is specified in 6 units taking into account feeding into in a fleet inventory on February, 9th, 2015 destroyer Xian)

As appears from the resulted data, in evolution of destroyers of China the increase in displacement and installation long-range ZRK with the considerable ammunition load, capable to carry out area defence or joints of the vessels, instead of separate battle units was observed. Transition to the circuit design of configuration and the equipment, close to DDG51 Arleigh Burke, has occurred to the appreciable spacing interval characterised by a difference between feeding into in a system of the first vessels in series 052С and 052D (accordingly, 2003-2004 and 2014).

The basic martempering type 052D in comparison with 052C, by an estimation [38], are:

Installation of more powerful 130-mm AU of the basic pass instead of 100-mm;

Use of more perfect system of data exchange: the Chinese analogues Link 16 instead of Link 11/TADIL-A;

Larger and made RLS with the active phased lattice: Flat AESA instead of Convex AESA;

More capacious and universal VPU on 64 (meshes) instead of VPU on 48 rockets of the surface-to-air missile system.

However the given comparison regarding VPU has a little iridescent character and it is necessary to note that thus PKR on 052D take place, judging by architecture of the vessel, in UVPU, reducing it boezapas ZUR. Difference VPU of the vessels on capacity in 16 meshes appears thus a little run a level, leaving the basic advantage universality, considering assumptions of disposing PLUR and KR.

Nevertheless, both types - 052С and 052D, - represent a major landmark in military shipbuilding of the Peoples Republic of China. It is remarkable that with feeding into in a system on February, 9th, 2015 the sixth vessel of type 052С - Xian, the Chinese Naval Forces taking into account being in a fleet inventory since March, 21st, 2014 of the first destroyer type 052D Kunming by quantity of the vessels with the systems similar American Aegis, have surpassed Naval Forces of Japan, incorporating 4 destroyers of type Kongo and 2 types Atago (analogues of matching alternatives DDG51 Arleigh Burke) [39]. Thus in October 2014 it was informed that 6 vessels type 052D are in various stages of building, 4 more will be ordered or volplaned to construction, and the second vessel of series Changsha passes trial runs [40].

Comparison type 052D with Arleigh Burke, alternative Flight I (actually DDG51 Arleigh Burke) which was a part of Naval Forces of the USA in July 1991 g, and the most perfect alternative for today Flight IIА - in August, 2000 (DDG71 Oscar Austin) [41], will be not in favour of the Chinese destroyer. In respect of the basic armament it is necessary to pay attention to a considerable difference in number of meshes in universal VPU - 96 (Flight IIА) at the American and 64 at the Chinese. Also it is not necessary to underestimate presence of two helicopters of heavier class-room at DDG51 against one at 052D. Among other advantages of the American vessel the best seaworthiness, thought more over design of the case in respect of maintenance of a radar-tracking visibility, more powerful GAS, the characteristics of airborne systems of management confirmed in practice and armaments [42] are called.

At an estimation of battle potential of destroyers and the frigates of Naval Forces of China equipped ZRK of average and big range, it is necessary to take into consideration possibility of shooting by anti-aircraft missiles of complexes on the surface purposes. Such universality ZKR has been realised in the USSR at modernisation of the basic complexes of air defence of fleet of the end of 60th years - М-1 "Wave" and М-11 "Storm" in which the radio command guidance system was applied. Complexes М-22 "the Hurricane" which alternatives arm some series of the vessels of Naval Forces of China (956E/EM, 052В, 054А) [43] had the same possibility also. Taking into account frigates type 054А the given complex in alternative HQ-16 is the most mass in Naval Forces of China, excepting air defence systems of a short-range zone.

In the USSR the destroyer "Modern" has been put in 1976, floated in 1978, but was a part of fleet only with end of tests ZRK in 1982 of Naval Forces of China have gained the first analogous vessel in 2000

Originally in a complex the rocket 9М38, 5,5 m having length, diameter of 0,4 m, scope of rudders of 0,86 m, a launching mass of 660 kg, weight of a battle unit of 70 kg was used. The complex provided defeat of the air targets flying on speeds to 840 km/s, at ranges to 25 km (rocket gliders - to 12 km) and altitudes to 15 km, a kill probability of one ZUR the airplane made 0,81-0,96, a rocket glider - 0,43-0,80.

Rocket application 9М317 from a complex "Buk-M1-2" allows to increase range to 32 km, altitude of interception to 25 km (it is presented to 2003). In 2009 the complex "Shtil-1" with the rocket 9М317МЭ for VPU has been presented. Range is increased to 50 km, rocket sizes have not changed almost, the weight makes 581 kg, a battle unit - 62 kg. A shooting interval - 3 seconds (for М-22 "Hurricane" - 12 seconds, for the vessel with two PU - 6 seconds), a time of reaction 5-10 sek [44].

It is clear that battle units of anti-aircraft missiles are optimised for act on air targets, but also and it is obvious that in case of need applications ZUR on the surface purpose of the rocket of complexes "Calm" ("Shtil-1")/HQ-16 with battle units in weight of 62-70 kg (the comparable weight has and BCH rockets of a complex "Reef"/HQ-9) have absolutely other battle worth, than rockets of complex HQ-7 with a battle unit is powerful 14 kg and range of fire of 13 km [45].

Modern air defence weapons of the Chinese fleet - first of all installed on the vessels under construction now, - allow to create to joints of fleet or groups of the vessels echelon defence. Thus the long-range boundary line of defeat of air targets is removed on considerable range that is separately underlined in recently got out (on April, 10th, 2015) report Office of Naval Intelligence (Naval Forces of the USA) about a condition of Naval Forces of China. In the report to be resulted the schematical diagramme of ranges ZRK of fleet, but oddly in it complexes HQ-7 and HQ-9 [46] though in the report text the attention and on HQ-16 is paid are mentioned only. Taking into account the circuit design name - Figure 2-3. Naval Surface-to-Air Missile Ranges, - the presented information can be regarded as incomplete. We will result more matching to a condition of air defence weapons of the surface vessels of Naval Forces of China alternative.

Table 6. Extreme ranges of defeat of air targets ZRK Naval Forces of China (except ZRAK)

Таблица 6.jpg

As appreciably eskortnyh the fleet, under construction China now, is orientated on the future carrier groups it is important to note certain rationality available several air defence systems by the vessels of a carrier group with various ranges of defeat. As about one of alternatives, 4 destroyers of other types and 2 frigates type 054А were informed on possible composition of the vessels ohranenija an aeroplane carrier in number of 4 destroyers type 052D. It is necessary to note that on the qualities and taking into account a series of the vessels it is impossible to expel bolshee quantity of frigates of the specified type as a part of prospective Chinese AUG. Thus, such AUG can be covered at least 448 ZUR which unit will interfere with access of aircraft of the probable opponent at range of application of mass types of weapons "air-surface". Approximate alternatives of distribution ZUR are resulted in table 7.

Table 7. Possible alternatives of ammunition load ZUR of the vessels ohranenija AUG Naval Forces of China.

Таблица 7.jpg

Alternative 1 of composition of the vessels is resulted on: Luyang III / Type 052D Multirole Destroyer (<>).

For type 052D in the given calculation use under ZUR only units UVPU from total in 64 meshes is supposed.

To protivokorabelnym rockets the great value is attached in Naval Forces of China very much. In the majority of alternatives of the large-scale military conflict Chineses will be forced to act on the sea theatre saturated with the surface vessels of military and civil appointment. For maintenance of mass nature of application that is necessary including for overcoming of air defence of joints and groups of the vessels of the opponent, and also decrease in probability of success of the opponent on destruction of delivery vehicles PKR, Chineses are aimed to disposing of this class-room of rockets on the greatest possible quantity of platforms.

The attention to this type of weapon is in a sense traditional. China has begun heading PKR in the late fifties as a result of deliveries and the technological help of the USSR. In 1960 the first assembly line to start manufacture of Soviet transonic rockets P-15 "Termites« with range of fire of 80 km has been organised and a battle unit is powerful 340 kg. However in September the Soviet personnel has curtailed the activity, nevertheless, in November, 1960 China has carried out the first successful missile launching. In 1964 licence version П-15 has passed factory tests, in 1965 its first start-up has been successfully conducted. In the end of 1967 the rocket under name Shangyou-1 has been approved to manufacture and taken into service in the late sixties. Further more than decade China experienced difficulties in creation own PKR, derivatives from the mastered Soviet alternatives. Despite progress in this area last years, remaining dependence on foreign production engineering - especially Russian and Ukrainian inzhiniringovogo assistance [47] is noted.

As well as on many other positions, China continues purchases PKR simultaneously with tuning up of manufacture of more and more perfect rockets of own working out. In it uncertainty in otechestvenno to technics is looked through, desire to get system with unique characteristics (already mentioned at the description of destroyers type 956E/EM PKR "Mosquito") and also to get access to modern samples of foreign manufacture.

Now to the most mass PKR surface fleet is YJ-82 and YJ-83, while the most perfect YJ-62.

YJ-82 Represents solid-fuel PKR with range of fire to 42 km, in the speed М=0,9 and a battle unit it is powerful 165 kg. The rocket in target area carries out flight at altitude of 5-7 m.

YJ-83 Is advanced version YJ-82, has arrived on fleet armament in 1998-1999 In the rocket the turbojet of domestic production CTJ-2 instead of installed on export alternative PKR (С802) French TRI 60-2 is used. At the rocket range of fire to 180 km (data on ranges are discriminated on sources) for the speeds М=0,9 is increased. The weight of a battle unit - to 190 kg is a little increased also. It is the basic rocket of the surface vessels of Naval Forces of China.

In September, 2005 for the first time has been presented PKR C602, representing the predecessor increased on dimensions of a quantity, but with the stated operating range to 280 km, presence of possibility of prompting on GPS and more powerful battle unit it is powerful 300 kg. In alternative YJ-62 for Naval Forces of China range of fire of the rocket in the bulk sources as pay attention Dennis M. Gormley, Andrew S. Erickson, Jingdong Yuan, it is underlined as 280 km that refers to to the export version for which observance of restriction of an extreme range in 300 km for conformity to the international agreements on extending of rocket production engineering though China and is not full participant Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR, 34 countries) is necessary. Real range of fire makes an order of 400 km. Such range defines necessity of a satellite shipping season, and is informed on possibility YJ-62 to use GPS or the Chinese navigating system Beidou. The rocket has a flying speed on mid-flight section М=0,6-0,8, and flight in target area carries out at altitude of 7-10 m. the Rocket destroyers type 052С are equipped.

The newest PKR China - YJ-18 - presumably is a copy Russian 3М54Э Club with the stated flying range of 180 km for the speed М=0,8 and speed М=2,5-3 on a section of 40 km before the purpose. The rocket, probablly, can be installed in universal VPU destroyers type 052D.

Except PKR, it is supposed that on type 052D can be installed and subsonic rocket gliders of sea basing DH-10 with range of fire more than 1500 km and a battle unit it is powerful 500 kg [48].

Calls certain questions - despite force in the field of building of the modern battle vessels, applied by China, - the conceptual policy concerning a configuration of armament of destroyers and frigates throughout an observed time span. On the one hand, it is natural that China could provide fleet modern to systems much after the USSR, further Russia, and the USA, and that possibilities were restricted. But we will pay attention to the following.

It was possible to present scales of the future application of the operated weapon following the results of not only operations in 1991 in Iraq is the consequence made before technological jump, - but also by a finishing unit of war in Vietnam and on the arabo-Israeli wars was faster. The prospect of massive application of guided missiles on the vessels demanded the matching weapon of protection.

In the USSR ZRK small range "Dagger" (range of fire to 12 km) with installations of vertical start-up, in particular, has been created. The complex was long lead up, it was not installed on first in a series by the big anti-submarine vessels of the design 1155, but fodder (the complete set switched on also a nasal complex) VPU gained the vessels already since the fourth in a series - "Admiral Zaharov" (in a fleet inventory since 1983). Some vessels in 1987 have made friendly visits to ports of India, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Southern Yemen, Malaysia [49].

However even earlier, in 1986, Syria and Greece was on a visit visited by a rocket cruiser "Glory" of the design 1164, armed ZRK the big range "Fort" with 8 vertical PU (boezapas 64 rockets), injected into a fleet inventory in the end of 1982 In 1985 the vessel carried out in Mediterranean sea tracking for AUG the USA with aeroplane carriers America and Forrestal. ZRK "Fort" was the first multichannel complex of fleet of the USSR, capable simultaneously to accompany 12 and to rake to 6 air targets [50].

Thus, already in first half 80 the trend of development of architecture of rocket armament eskortnyh the vessels, the maximum rationalisation attained in DDG51 Arleigh Burke, put into operation as it was above specified was obvious, in Its 1991 universal VPU allowed to use rockets of different types, installations were compact, in the long term (already stepped) in one mesh it is possible to place a package less dimensional (4) rockets, increasing boezapas, diversifying battle possibilities. Taking into account that fact that the Chinese ship builders as a result have come to following to such circuit design - as well as the whole world, - it is possible to assume that China has missed a considerable time and has spent many resources for designing of intermediate alternatives and building of obviously becoming outdated vessels. There are some bases to assume, what even under construction now China eskortnye the battle vessels concerning configuration and armament composition not to the full consider experience of the best world obraztso.


Dynamics of development surface eskortnyh the vessels of Naval Forces of China and separate types of the vessels - carrying agents of the operated rocket weapon (rocket boats) for last 20 years allows to draw following conclusions.

  1. To eskortnomu fleet very considerable attention, in a sense not smaller, than to shock systems of armaments VS of China is paid.
  2. Resistant to quantitative growth eskortnogo fleet, and at the expense of building of the new vessels, instead of modernisation of the available is observed.
  3. Last series of the vessels are under construction the big series that was uncharacteristic for 2000th years, and in bolshej to a measure are standardised on armament composition that testifies about found optimum (taking into account possibilities) configurations of the battle vessels of certain class-rooms.
  4. In some stages the quantum leap in equipment of the vessels by new systems of armaments is made, the ideology of designing is approached to the world standards, but with delay of application of the conceptual solutions borrowed world leaders in the field of military shipbuilding.
  5. All vessels of the class-room a destroyer, a frigate, korvet are equipped protivokorabelnymi with rockets without dependence from the nomenclature and battle possibilities of other armament.
  6. China is the unique country having mass fleet of rocket boats, updated rather recently.
  7. There is rather considerable a dependence on foreign production engineering, first of all in key areas - systems of armaments, dvigatelestroenii.
  8. Real battle possibilities of systems, their qualitative characteristics remain not clear, acknowledging in operations with rare exception was not.
  9. The quantity of the operated weapon and its characteristic, nevertheless, on eskortnyh the vessels and rocket boats, is capable to create - and creates, judging by concern and reaction of the USA, - strategic threat to any probable opponent.

As well as many estimations of the various parties of development of China, the resulted estimation appreciably it is based on the assumption of linear progress in the relation an improvement of the quality as research and development, and production technologies of armaments. However from positions of the middle of the second decade of the XXI-st century it is visible that achievement of technological level comparable to conducting world players by China in the field of military technology has not occurred. Despite abbreviation of technological rupture, a row of instances in concrete areas of technics force to refer to carefully to estimations of quality of modern systems and forecasts of the future development of a situation in this area.« The European specialists have visited in 2007 on EM Guangzhou (the design 052B) and have made following conclusions. At first sight the vessel matches to XXI-st century level.

Here both a monoblock superstructure, and outwardly wide application of production engineering of maintenance malozametnosti "Stealth". However at more attentive studying of a destroyer knocks great volume of applied production engineering of 50-60th years. It and old, still Soviet obshchekorabelnye systems, absolutely primitive system of ventilation of the through alleyways which are passing along bort sides through a superstructure from a nose in a stern. According to experts, at such ventilation in case of its fault the full gassed condition of the vessel a smoke from a fire or the newest toxic liquids will occur more sweepingly, than the crew will have time to put on individual means of protection. Detailed consideration of radio armament has shown that cable routes of the majority of systems have no protection against possible electromagnetic affecting and consequently are rather compact and simple.

Therefore the majority of experts consider that while the Peoples Republic of China cannot build quite modern yet and balanced on battle and to engineering systems the vessel. »[52] it testifies that effective research works in the field in the Peoples Republic of China are not conducted. However, normals existing in China and gosty at all do not match to prospects for the development of a science and technics. The majority of experts consider that than Heavenly Empire in present conditions to design and create an atomic bomb and a space mother missile is easier, than to develop ordinary vysokoekonomichnyj a turbojet for a passenger air liner.» [53]

Nevertheless, to underestimate the level attained by China even taking into account the such given reason estimations inadmissibly. The relation of the USA to growth of military potential of China, including the surface battle vessels of the basic class-rooms, is rather indicative. At those resources and force which are put by China in the military building, N.Novichkova and V.Nikolsky's at some instant resulted estimations can to become simply irrelevant and then it is necessary to remember A.Hramchihina's numerous forestallings of the woken up dragon.

The general conclusion made N.Novichkovym and V.Nikolsky, is unfavourable for Naval Forces of China: «But the most unpleasant for Chineses - except wingless missiles at them is not present the qualitative samples of the sea weapon and armament. That are available, are the copies created with a lag in 10-15 years, with the worst characteristics in comparison with originals. Naval Forces of China, for example, do not have automatic artillery pieces of all passes, string shots and mines of own working out.

After survey one of specialists has stated such estimation to work of founders EM Naval Forces of China: «For them even design destroyers 956Э will remain still for a long time orbiting space crafts …»

Considerable surprise have called gazovodonepronitsaemye the doors which design can lead to their distortion and falling out at battle faults or during a whole gale. Many weapons systems (324-mm THAT, RBU and a row of others) have only hand drives that is especially amazing for the vessel with considerable saturation capacity rather modern radio electronics.

Peracute, but very indicative certificate result N.Novichkov and V.Nikolsky, and it is worthy of it to quote literally:

Thus J.V.Vedernikova's made in 2008 in survey of technological achievements in building by China of destroyers the conclusion, that «… that in the present, by an outcome of the first decade of the XXI-st century, ship-building and military-industrial complexes of China have quite mastered exhaustion of modern samples of the weapon and armament for the vessels» [51], today, after approximately 6 years, can be called in question.


[1] Friedman D. Next 100 years: the forecast of events of the XXI-st century / George Friedman; [the lane from English A.Kalinina, V.Naritsy, M.Matskovsky]. - M: eksmo, 2010. - p. 122.

[2] US Department of Defense. Annual report to Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2014. April 2014, 18.

[3] US Department of Defense. Annual report to Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2014. April 2014, 7.

[4] US Department of Defense. Annual report to Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2014. April 2014, 77.

[5] US Department of Defense. Annual report to Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2014. April 2014, 86 (Appendix A. January 2014 ONI Testimony).

[6] Anthony H. Cordesman. Chinese Strategy and Military Power in 2014. CSIS, November 2014, p. 234. Ronald O'Rourke. China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities-Background and Issues for Congress. December 23, 2014, p. 29.

[7] Ronald O'Rourke. China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities-Background and Issues for Congress. December 23, 2014, p. 25.

[8] Ronald O'Rourke. China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities-Background and Issues for Congress. December 23, 2014, p. 29.

[9] Data in the given section are based on various sources, switching on, but without being restricted,

Jane’s Fighting Ships 2004-2005,,,, J.V.Vedernikov «the Chinese destroyers: the general and private aspects of evolution» (,

[10] J.V.Vedernikov «the Chinese destroyers: the general and private aspects of evolution», with. 3 (

[11] J.V.Vedernikov «the Chinese destroyers: the general and private aspects of evolution», with. 4 (

[12] Type 051C / Luzhou Class Guided Missile Destroyers, China (

[13] On the basis of the analysis of the photos placed: J.V.Vedernikov «the Chinese destroyers: the general and private aspects of evolution», with. 3. (

[14] Type 051C / Luzhou Class Guided Missile Destroyers, China (

[15] Site <> for this type cites other data on rocket YJ-83, rather than for a destroyer type 051С: range of start-up to 200 km with possibility of reception of a target designation in flight.

[16] Luyang-II Class / Type 052C Destroyer, China (

[17] PLA commissions sixth Type 052C destroyer - Want China Times, 2015-02-15 (

[18] PLA looks to add more Type 052D destroyers, 2014-10-13 (

[19] Data of a site

[20] In the same place an introduced error - «by means of replacement of four automatons" АК-630М "by as much battle modules ZRAK" Chestnuts "» - replacement was on 2 modules heavier and dimensional ZRAK; J.V.Vedernikov «the Chinese destroyers see: the general and private aspects of evolution», with. 6. (

[21] Eskadrennye design torpedo boats 956ЭМ (Rossija/Kitaj) (

[22] J.V.Vedernikov «the Chinese destroyers: the general and private aspects of evolution», with. 5 (

[23] Anthony H. Cordesman. Chinese Strategy and Military Power in 2014. CSIS, November 2014, p. 242.


[25] Gabe Collins, Morgan Clemens, and Kristen Gunness. The Type 054/054A Frigate Series: China’s All-Purpose Surface Combatant. P. 4 - The Study of Innovation and Technology in China, Policy Brief 2014-10, January 2014.

[26] Type 054A (Jiangkai II) Class Frigate, China (

[27] Huanggang frigate, China's latest anti-submarine weapon (2015-01-20) (

[28] Chinese Navy (PLAN) Commissioned its First Upgraded Type 054A Frigate with new H/PJ-11 CIWS (Monday, 19 January 2015 10:55) (

[29] Gabe Collins, Morgan Clemens, and Kristen Gunness. The Type 054/054A Frigate Series: China’s All-Purpose Surface Combatant. P. 2 - The Study of Innovation and Technology in China, Policy Brief 2014-10, January 2014.

[30] China Brief. Jamestown Foundation. Volume XV, Issue 7, April 3, 2015, p. 1.

[31] Ronald O'Rourke. China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities-Background and Issues for Congress. December 23, 2014, p. 29.

[32] Anthony H. Cordesman. Chinese Strategy and Military Power in 2014. CSIS, November 2014, p. 235.

[33] Jiangdao Class (Type 056) Corvette, China (

[34] China Looks to the Future With New Corvette. By James C. Bussert, SIGNAL Magazine, May 2011 (

[35] Insight: From a ferry, a Chinese fast-attack boat. By D. Lague, Jun 1, 2012 (

[36] Anthony H. Cordesman. Chinese Strategy and Military Power in 2014. CSIS, November 2014, p. 244.

[37] R.Angelsky, V.Korovin. Complexes of a short-range boundary. «Technics and armament», № 6, 2014, p. 21.

[38] Luyang III / Type 052D Multirole Destroyer (

[39] PLA commissions sixth Type 052C destroyer, 2015-02-15 (

[40] PLA looks to add more Type 052D destroyers, 2014-10-13 (

[41] DDG-51 ARLEIGH BURKE-class (

[42] Luyang III / Type 052D Multirole Destroyer (

[43] R.Angelsky, V.Korovin. Antiaircraft rocket complex М-22 "Hurricane". «Technics and armament», № 1, 2014, with. 9, 11.

[44] R.Angelsky, V.Korovin. Antiaircraft rocket complex М-22 "Hurricane". «Technics and armament», № 1, 20124, with. 10, 13.

[45] For example, Jane’s Fighting Ships 2004-2005, p. 124.

[46] Office of Naval Intelligence. The PLA Navy. New Capabilities and Missions for the 21th Century, 2015, p. 15-16.

[47] Dennis M. Gormley, Andrew S. Erickson, and Jingdong Yuan. A Potent Vector. Assessing Chinese Cruise Missile

Developments. - Joint Force Quarterly, Issue 75, 4th quarter 2014, p. 100.

[48] Survey on PKR is made on Dennis M. Gormley, Andrew S. Erickson, and Jingdong Yuan. A Potent Vector. Assessing Chinese Cruise Missile Developments. - Joint Force Quarterly, Issue 75, 4th quarter 2014, p. 99-103.

[49] J.V.Apalkov. The vessels of the Navy of the USSR. A directory in 4-ч volumes. A volume III. The anti-submarine vessels. A unit I. Anti-submarine a cruiser, big anti-submarine and patrol ships. - SPB: «Galeja the Print», 2005. - With. 53-61.

[50] J.V.Apalkov. The shock vessels. A directory. - m: "Morkniga", 2010. - With. 62-69.

[51] J.V.Vedernikov «the Chinese destroyers: the general and private aspects of evolution», p. 7.

[52] Naval Forces of China today and tomorrow - a unit II. Whether claims of Heavenly Empire for leadership at world ocean are real? Nikolay Novichkov, Vladislav Nikolsky - «the Military-industrial courier», № 21 (438) for May, 30th, 2012

[53] In the same place.

Oleg Valetsky, Oleg Ponomarenko

Tags: China , AME

RELATED MATERIALS: Defence and security
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