Last Thursday at the Military Academy of the military defense (Smolensk) held a conference on the development of air defense of ground troops. Representatives of the Ministry of defence and industry discussed the state and prospects of the domestic anti-aircraft systems, and examined some samples of the new technology. The small exhibition during the conference demonstrated various models of equipment and their layout. Of greatest interest is one of the featured anti-aircraft missiles, called "Pine". The fact that earlier this SAM is not shown at public events and past exhibition can be considered his first show.
New short-range SAM "Pine" was created Design Bureau of precision machinery. A. E. Nudelman in cooperation with the Saratov aggregate plant. Like its predecessors, such as "Strela-10", etc., complex "Pine" is designed to provide air defense compounds on the March and positions. When you create a new SAM development organizations tried to provide him with a number of characteristic features that provide the most in comparison with existing systems the combat potential and increase the survivability of the machine on the battlefield.
As noted in the description on the official website of Design office, advanced anti-aircraft missiles short range have some serious drawbacks. Is the high cost of a combat vehicle due to the large number of modern equipment, and the use of active systems of target detection. The last factor makes SAM vulnerable to anti-radar weapons of the enemy. To solve this problem in the nineties of the academician A. G. Shipunov proposed to abandon the use of sophisticated radar detection systems and to use them instead of their equipment, acting on a different principle and do not unmasking yourself an emitted signal.
In addition to the presence of passive detection and high survivability to perspective SAM had to meet updated requirements. So, missiles "Pine" had to hit targets at ranges up to 10 kilometers, and in the list of potential targets of anti-aircraft complex included not only the airplanes, helicopters and cruise missiles, but unmanned aerial vehicles, precision weapons and other small objects. Two important requirements have touched the combat vehicle and launcher. It was required to provide an automatic search, detection and tracking purposes as well as to increase the ammunition on the launcher to 12 missiles.
In the official materials of the complex "Pine" as a basis for the combat vehicle featured a light armored chassis MT-LB. However, all the elements of SAM can be installed on any suitable chassis, wheeled or tracked. On the roof of the chassis, are presented on the published images of SAM, a tower with opto-electronic system and double launcher. Right and left on the tower fixed mounting device, which is installed by six transport-launch containers (TLC) with missiles. By the rotation of the tower is rough-seeking missile in azimuth, by means of tilting blocks TPK – in elevation. Angle horizontal guidance – 178° in both directions, vertical: -20 to 82 degrees. Further flight control rocket is the corresponding complex systems.
For the new anti-aircraft complex is developed by a two-stage guided missile "Pine-R" with mixed control system. Immediately after the missile leaves the container, the control with the radio command system, which displays the ammunition to the line of sight. After that separates the launch motor and enables disturbance-free laser guidance system. A rocket to equip two original warhead with a proximity fuse with a pie chart. Last compensates for errors in the guidance. The missile is created as a product that does not require additional inspections or testing during the service life.
On the tower fighting machine SAM is gyro-stabilized platform with a set of necessary equipment. On it are television and thermal imaging optical system, a laser rangefinder with the possibility of deflection of the beam apparatus missile control laser beam infrared finder missiles and sensors to the climate control. All other elements of anti-aircraft complex electronics are located inside the hulls. This is a digital computing machine, remote, automatic capture and tracking, missile control systems, etc.
In accordance with the technical specifications, the new air defense system "Pine" should have automatic search and attack targets. Allegedly, the system can operate in two modes. In all automatic processes occur without operator intervention, allowing to greatly reduce the reaction time. In semi-automatic mode, the operator controls the operation of the systems, but most of the processes are carried out automatically. Semi-automatic mode is recommended for combat operation in a heavy countermeasures environment.
Missiles and anti-aircraft system itself is protected from interference from several methods introduced at the design level. So, the location of the laser receiver at the rear of the rocket does not allow to distort or drown out the control signal. The noise immunity of the ground part of complex is provided by the narrow field of view of television and thermal imaging channels (not more than 6,7х9 degrees), as well as the use of special computer algorithms to identify the target by its characteristic features.
Anti-aircraft missile complex "Pine" is supposed to produce in the form of ready of the fighting compartment, which can be installed on any suitable chassis. At the same time, unlike in previous complexes of the same purpose, the operator "Pine" is located inside the armored hull and does not rotate together with a tower. At the request of the customer tower anti-aircraft system can be equipped with additional small radar for target detection.
In the basic version, without radar, SAM "Pine", as stated, will have a high survivability on the battlefield. During the search target complex emits nothing, which greatly complicates its detection. During the first two seconds after missile launch works antenna control system of the rocket, then turns off and the control is performed only by laser beam. When necessary, the base machine may be equipped with additional means of reducing visual or thermal signature.
Overall, SAM "Pine" has a fairly high prospects, but its future is not yet clear. According to the chief of the air defense forces land forces, major General Alexei Leonov, the complex "Pine" has not yet passed state tests and has yet to discuss its opportunities and prospects. After that will be considered the question of the adoption of complex weapons. Until refinement and improvement of the systems.
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