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The danger of complete replacement of the "Dirks" and "Daggers," the new naval air defense missile system "Thor" and "Wasps" of the XXI century
Material posted: Publication date: 03-11-2016
We all know the long and very successful tradition of the Soviet defense design Bureau, which consists in the development of ship modifications anti-missile and anti-aircraft artillery systems, almost completely unified with their ground variants for missiles-interceptors, and in some cases multi-function fire control radar. So, for example, the ship's anti-aircraft missile complex long-range S-300F "Fort" different from the surface ZRDN s-300PS round design PFAR and low bandwidth marine MFR 3Р41 "Wave" (3 at the same time "grab" goals against 6 goals for land 30Н6Е RPN), as well as upgraded missiles 5В55РМ, who in contrast to version 5В55Р has onboard specialized modules of radio communication with the transport-launch containers SPM B-204A. On a similar principle was established anti-aircraft missile and artillery systems (SPAR) "Dirk", "Carapace-M" and SAM self-defense "OSA-M", "Dagger", "Flexible" which received a complete unification of the military with missile complexes "Wasp", "Tunguska", "Carapace-C1", "OSA" and "tor-M1" and "Igla-s".

We can confidently say that it solved all the issues with the interchangeability among the naval and military arsenals of anti-aircraft guided missiles filerecovery complexes. Thus, the combination of these SAM in a tight hold of the ship or carrier strike group allows you to create a powerful layered air defense system-PRO, when, for example, on the far side of goal captured "the Fort," from missile defense cruiser "Moscow" on the average "Shtil - 1" SK St. 11356 "Admiral Grigorovich", and in the middle - anti-aircraft artillery systems AK-630M and SAM "OSA-M" and "Flexible" (for example, IBM's black sea fleet). But according to the latest news, not all in the construction of naval air defense of the XXI century goes as smoothly as we would like.

Combat module of the complex "M-tor" ship class "frigate" (version CSRC for the Naval fleet of Russia)

So, 26 September 2016, came two very important news from the General Director of JSC "Izhevsk Electromechanical plant "Kupol"" Vanila Ziyatdinova, which can be classified as "good and bad". Good is that which is part of JSC "EKO Concern "Almaz-Antey" plant "Dome" starts the program to update hardware and software base anti-aircraft missile self-propelled complexes family "Thor-M2/2KM" to implement the possibility of interception of small elements of hypersonic precision weapons. The family of "tor-M2" may be the first mobile air defense system capable of shooting down targets with velocities up to 1500 m/s, which was previously only available to systems such as s-300PS. Army air defense will have even more missile as full-featured SAI (also know that air defense of Ground forces get "Buk-M3" with the speed range targets up to 3000 m/s). The second news from the Director of "the Dome" is very controversial and appears to be rather bad.

It is noted that a new ship modification "tor-М2КМ" "M-tor", which will gradually replace the various classes of warships SPAR "Dirk" and SAM "Dagger". This kind of information, February 2, 2014, reported the press Secretary of Director General of "Almaz-Antej" Yury Baykov. New combat module (BM) and the launcher will be shipped to the fleet around 2018-th year. What does it mean?

With NK such as patrol ships of the PR. 11540 "Hawk" ("fearless"), as well as large anti-submarine ships PR. 1155/1155.1 "Daring/Daring-II" will be dismantled combat modules 3С87-1 SPAR "Dirk-M", and SAM "Dagger", including cosmelenia revolving vertical launchers 4С95 and antenna positions multifunctional radar illumination K-12-1. Instead, on special pedestals will be installed Autonomous combat control modules onem 9А331МК with RPN-1, and a certain number chetvertnykh anti-missile modules 9М334Д with SAM 9М331Д, depending on the tonnage of the ship. There is no doubt that the process of re-equipment of the ships modular SAM "M-tor" significantly less time-consuming and costly than setting deeply integrated into the design of the "Daggers", but it is hard to imagine the level of combat potential is updated so warships, and especially, after the removal of the "Daggers." Followed by the inevitable decline of the anti-missile potential of the ships, due to the unsustainable location of the antenna post "M-tor" concerning blocking view add-in and the lack of protection of the "dead zone", which is usually carried out SPAR "Dirk-M".

Let's start with the question of the unsustainable location of the Autonomous combat module (ABM) 9А331МК-1, and, respectively, and the radar control system "M-tor". Provided network designs and graphic images you can see the battle ship class "frigate", whose place bow artillery is one self contained module ABM 9А331МК-1, and on either side of him - built-in 4 vertical launchers for 16 missiles collected in 2 anti-aircraft missile module ZRM 9М334Д (8 missiles each). About launchers there is absolutely no question, as the vertical "cold" anti-aircraft missiles 9М331, as in the early turret, SPM, provides all-aspect firing at air targets regardless of location on the deck of the ship, can not be said about the location of ABM. His presence in the nose of the frigate expressed considerable constraints on the sector of the multifunction radar in the rear hemisphere of the ship. Entire review the main-firing radar, "M-Tora" overlap with the add-in architecture of the ship and mast devices, causing about 20 degrees of the azimuth of the rear hemisphere of the vehicle translation direction remain absolutely vulnerable to impact of even one high-speed and rapidly maneuvering anti-ship missiles.

This is to ensure that the ships displacement class "frigate", apparently, will not be back Autonomous combat module 9А331МК-1 with the second "firing" of the radar to work on targets attacking the ship from behind, because, firstly, additional space required for the installation of artillery, and second, empty lots of the add-in also usually busy radar detection of surface targets within the radio horizon, as well as radar fire control of artillery and the SCRC. The antenna posts To the-12-1 complex "Dagger" have the most optimal location on the upper sections of the settings, whereby the radio horizon in terms of detecting approaching anti-ship missiles is extended for another 4-5 km and No SPAR cover type "Dirk", which protect the close air of turn of the vehicle, the new "M-tor" will not be able to beat "star RAID" several dozen anti-ship missiles, some of which can get in the 1.5-kilometer "dead zone" of the complex, and therefore to dismantle them - the decision is completely wrong. If such "modernization" hold on "Peter the Great" and "Admiral Kuznetsov" - get 2 of the flagship with a missing lower-tier missile defense system, which in the end may become decisive.

A much more reliable solution could be the replacement of "Daggers" to the more sophisticated anti-aircraft and artillery systems "Armour-M", followed by upgrading the latter to extend the speed range of the captured targets, as even deeply modernized "M-Torah", is able to intercept hypersonic targets will have a "dead zone" of about 800 - 1000 m from the mothership. Also, a very interesting option would be the modernization of the radar elements of the armament of naval air defense missile system "Dagger", while preserving the revolving PU 4С95.

It is the development of advanced 4-way EME multifunction radar guidance on the basis of active or passive phased array, which can be installed in 4 x swivel antenna posts, located on the top corners of the superstructure of a warship to ensure the most efficient review of the airspace. Each antenna post must have constructive ability to rotate +/- 90 degrees in the azimuth plane: in the end, it will simultaneously 3 antenna arrays to track and capture a large number of targets in a small area of airspace. As you know, all of the existing MRLS, including "Poliment" and AN/SPY-1A/D, have a fixed canvas of LIGHTS on each side of the superstructure, which only 2 of them can work on one missile-direction, which reduces the overall performance of the ship SAM. Version same with moving radar has fundamentally changed the situation. On the basis of modular concept of the complex "M-tor", such modernization might hold for the deployment of four Autonomous combat units 9А331МК-1 at the corners of the superstructure, but the fact is that they are large enough for ships with a displacement of 6,000 tonnes and therefore will require the development of a small antenna post.

Naval air defense missile system "Dagger" and anti-aircraft missile 9М331МКМ "tor М2КМ" are 4-hanulnim, and therefore, for example, any configuration of the sea "Torah" with four multifunction radar, the number of engaged targets is 16 of units 12 to 18 of which can be simultaneously fired in one direction. At MAKS-2013, the Corporation "Tactical missiles" has introduced a new missiles for the complexes family "Thor-M2" - 9М338 (Р3В-MD). The interceptor missile, unlike missiles and 9М331 9М331Д is 1.2 times greater than the maximum speed (1000 m/s), distance - 16 km (from previous versions 12-15 km), better maneuvering qualities, as well as more advanced avionics radiocomando management system. Aerodynamic design and dimensions 9М338 have changed significantly from the scheme "duck" experts "Vympel" came to the normal aerodynamic scheme with a tail location of the aerodynamic rudders and stabilizers.

The major advantage of this missile are much smaller dimensions when folded planes, which allowed about 35% to reduce the transverse size of the new cylindrical transport and launch container 9М338К compared with the modular square TPK 9Я281 system "tor-M1". Because of this plan is almost 2 times increase the overall load of missiles in launcher modules of all recent modifications "tor-M2". Less "Packed" in a TPK, swing rudders and stabilizers was able to achieve not only a method to reduce their size, but by placing a folding mechanism if 9М331 folding mechanism was in the middle of the planes, then 9М338 it is located in the root portion.

In addition, according to the Deputy General Director of "Concern PVO "Almaz-Antey" Sergei Druzin, commenting on previous training interceptions elements of the WTO imaginary enemy, RZV-MD showed the highest accuracy of five destroyed by antiaircraft guided missiles 9М338 goals, three were struck by a direct hit (kinetic interception, "hit-to-kill"). As you know, the usual radio command control can only in rare cases to provide a direct hit "rocket in a rocket", this requires either an active or a semiactive radar homing head, also can be used method of frequency control from the opto-electronic TV/IR sight mounted on the BM family "Thor". Rocket 9М338, as you know, has only the latter, and therefore its high precision complex must also radar vectoring malolientes of the HEADLIGHTS working in the centimeter X-band with a beam width of 1 degree. Even the first modification of Zur 9М331 had a significant amount of cover for attack, and later already on 9М338 can be placed and compact high-energy of ARGON capable of a direct hit to destroy a hypersonic target even under the most severe radio-electronic counteraction of the enemy.
It is not excluded that further the work of the "Almaz-Antey" on the modernization of "tor М2КМ" and "M-tor" to develop new methods of homing (including active radar) will lead to the emergence of more multi-channel marine and military variants, is able to simultaneously intercept more than 6 air targets. And at the moment to talk about the complete replacement of combat units "M-Tora" is a unique and versatile martial qualities anti-aircraft artillery "Daggers" and optimized for all-aspect intercept "Daggers" proven over a couple decades of use, very early.


With all the intensity of the modernization projects of promising naval and land versions of the missile family, "tor-M2U", the plant "Kupol" don't forget about the earlier antiaircraft-rocket complexes self-propelled short-range family of "Wasp". Despite the fact that to reflect the impacts of modern stealth air attack single-channel SRSC "OSA-AK/AKM" almost unusable, their modernization potential remains at a high level, which led to the development of various advanced concepts "Wasps" of the Russian, Belarusian and Polish the design office. In his statement to the media, F. Ziatdinov noted the modernization SRSC "OSA-AKM" to "OSA-АКМ1" that will extend their service life another 15 years.

Self-propelled SAM army 9К33 OSA 4 October 2016 marks exactly 45 years since the adoption of the armament of the Land forces of the USSR, and for this "hot" and complex, with a geostrategic point of view, the period of time the complex had to prove the high technical level and prestige of the products of the Russian defense industry in numerous military conflicts in the middle East, in Africa and in Iraq. First baptism of the complexes of "OSA" was the "First Lebanon war", which was shot down a few strike fighters "Hel Haavir" (Israeli air force), and incredible fear among the Israeli pilots were called for the first time used on self-propelled air defense optical radar guidance with passive television-optical sight, which warning system for radiation therapy "Phantoms" is often silent, and prepare for the flak evasive maneuver was only possible after the detection of a smoke strips from TRD start anti-aircraft missiles 9М33 often at this point the aircraft was already doomed.

Further, supplied to Iraq's air defense 9К33М2 of ZRK "OSA-AK" at the beginning of a massive missile and air attack, the U.S. Navy before the operation "desert Storm", we were able to seize several strategic cruise missiles "Tomahawk". This modification was developed on the basis of the complex "Wasp" in 1975, and even she confirmed the ability of the covering troops and strategic sites from a single shock modern precision weapons. Now some captured complexes "OSA-AK", captured during the fighting Ukrainian military forces, formed the basis of the middle line of the defense of Donetsk and Lugansk National Republics. In the new Russia they cover the largest transport interchange, machine-building and coke plants, as well as military depots in the BCH Donetsk-Makeyevka agglomeration of the blows of the su-25 Ukrainian air force.

Polish modification of the "Wasp-AK" SA-8 "Sting" at first glance, is a licensed Russian analogue of the complex, but apparently has an advanced indication equipment of the automated workplaces of the combat calculation is based on the LCD IFIs, as well as a station for the exchange of tactical information with other BM 9А33БМ "OSA-AK" at the level of the battery and information on air situation from the radar-AWACS and radar detectors long-range SAM system s-300PS, "Buk-M1/2". The appearance of radar detection and tracking, and missile parts remain the same. About "stuffing" SA-8 "Sting" practically nothing is known as to the media and fans this information was not disclosed. It is obvious that the update was carried out in much the same way as in the development of the Russian version of "OSA-AKM".

Modernization SAM "OSA-AKM" to "OSA-АКМ1" the plant "Kupol" is not just in the integration of network-centric equipment data exchange with other air defense units and installation of multifunctional liquid crystal displays, for displaying data with SART and radar guidance, but in the full digitization of all of the circuitry in paths of transmitter and receiver radar signal, as well as in the Converter of the television-optical images for passive operation of anti-missile system. Panel Ziatdinov noted that the immunity "Wasp-АКМ1" will be much higher than that of the previous modification. After updating "АКМ1" remain confident in the competitiveness of African and Asian arms markets. What vector will move the improvements to some of the most famous military self-propelled anti-aircraft missile systems?

As an example the most advanced versions of SRSC "OSA-AKM" you can consider the projects of the Belarusian scientific-production enterprise "Tetrahedron", which is also known modernization AAMS with infrared guidance system "Strela-10M2" to the level of the "Strela-10T" and s-125 "Pechora" level-125-2ТМ "Pechora-2ТМ". These projects include interim modification of the "Wasps" - 9К33-1T "OSA-1T", as well as the most advanced version of T38 Stilet. For the hardware part of these systems almost do not differ, the main differences are observed for missile parts.

SAM "OSA-1T", which is a deep modernization of the complex "OSA-AK" was a completely new three-axle chassis MZKT-69222 terrain with 420-HP diesel engine YMZ-7513.10 on the same chassis-based anti-aircraft missile self-propelled complex "tor-M2E". Due to this, the reserve fuel without refueling (in the two-hour duty on the item) the "OSA 1T" is 500 km, which is 2 times larger than previous systems "OSA", based on the triaxial chassis BAZ-5937 with diesel БД20К300 300 HP
Even despite the fact that the MZKT-69222 is not floating, her best tegometall provides additional benefits in the European theater of operations with a damp and soft ground. Speed parameters in the stowed position remained unchanged at about 75 km/h on the highway.

As for the anti-air potential of new "Wasp-1T", it is much higher than the "OSA AK/AKM". So, thanks to the new hardware and software with advanced algorithms for radio command control standard missiles 9М33М2/3, the probability of hitting targets such as fighter increased approximately from 0.7 to 0.85. Increasing the sensitivity of the receiver and transmitter reflected signal is allowed to work on sverhmasshtabnym goals with an effective scattering surface of 0.02 m2 (the complex can intercept fighter jets like the F-35A, as well as anti-radar missiles AGM-88 HARM and other precision weapons). The range of interception of air targets, compared to the "OSA-AKM" has increased from 10 to 12 km and a height of 5 to 7 km.

According to schedules listed on the advertising page of products, "Tetrahedron", "OSA-1T" capable of intercepting targets flying at a speed of 500 m/s at a height of 6 km in the range from 3500 to 8000 m ("OSA-AKM" intercept such targets at an altitude of 5 km and with a small range of 5 to 6 km). If you talk about destroying anti-radar missiles AGM-88 HARM at the speed of 700 m/s (2,200 km/h), the "OSA-AKM" to perform this task can not, because the speed of HARM will exceed the speed limit of the complex. "OSA-1T" is similar to the intercept target at an altitude of 5 km and dalnostroy the range from 4 to 7 km and Its contribution to enhancing speed limit and precision of interception has also updated the dual-channel counting-decisive instrument the PSA-1 that allows the launch of two missiles at one target.

In addition to the standard single-stage anti-aircraft missiles 9М33М3, can reach speeds of 500 m/s, the ammunition of the family, "OSA-1T" can log in and bikalibernoy high-speed two-stage missiles Т382, developed by the Kiev goskkb "Ray". After the provision of such missiles, as well as minor upgrades of software and hardware, the complex is transformed into a radically modernized version of the T-38 "Stiletto". The ammunition of the new missiles is in 2 chetvertnykh inclined launchers with a cylindrical transport and launch container (TPK). War machine Т381 complex T38 "Stiletto" can carry mixed ammo in a standard triple PU with rockets 9М33М2(3) on one side of the combat unit and PU with rockets Т382 on the other side.

Combat characteristics of "Stiletto" missiles Т382 approximately 35% higher than with SAM 9М33М2. Strategic cruise missiles of type "Tomahawk" or AGM-86C ALCM are caught by the new anti-aircraft missile at ranges of 12 km, attack helicopters and tactical aviation of the enemy up to 20 km, high-precision means of air attack (HDI, guided bombs, etc.) can be affected on the removal of 7 km. If you carefully compare the graphs of the range for the "Stiletto" missiles 9М33М3 and Т382, it is possible to note that the range of cruise missiles at Т382 much more, and the range of work on small elements of the WTO is identical for both missiles. The whole point here is that a weaker rocket engine 9М33М3 does not allow sufficient speed and range for the destruction of low-altitude remote RCDS at a distance of over 8 km and for a two-stage Т382 is achievable. At the same time, the old station performance tracking and targeting (SSTs) do not allow any 9М33М3 or Т382 to capture subtle WTO at ranges exceeding 7 km away. This confirms the difference between the "OSA-1T" and "Stiletto" for the rocket. Go directly to the review SAM Т382.

The first stage SAM interceptor has a diameter of 209.6 mm, and presents a powerful solid start accelerator accelerates the missile up to 3100 km/h (9М33М3 - 1800 km/h). After acceleration to the required speed and "burnout" of the accelerator, the latter is separated, and will cruise engine stage combat by 20 retaining high supersonic flight speed even in the final phase of interception. Fighting stage has a diameter of 108 mm and is by 61% more combat heavy (23 kg vs was 14.27 kg) than 9М33М3 is self-defeat objectives, even with a strong error of guidance of missiles, in the case of active electronic countermeasures. Compact main level with large stabilizers and aerodynamic control surfaces can maneuver with overloads of more than 40 units, making it not be able to Dodge aircraft that aircraft maneuvers with overloads of up to 15 units.

The speed of the targeted objectives in the equipment of the complex T38 "Stiletto" rocket Т382 comes to 900 m/s (3240 km/h), what gets updated Belarusian OSU on an intermediate level between the "tor-M2E" and "Armour-C1"; of course, this applies only to the speed of the intercepted objects, as well as work by objectives in pursuit, as in repelling a massive airstrike "Stiletto" with 2 target TV has superiority over SRSC "tor-M1" - he is also 2-kanalny. Height destroy EHV component of the 10,000 m, "Stiletto" is also not behind the "tor-M2E" is altitudinal range from 5 to 12 km will be most future air combat between the multipurpose fighter of generation "4++" and "5" and the new "ОсыАКМ1" and "Stilettos" good able to maintain our fighter aircraft over its own territory, having the possibility of secretive work with using television-optical sight type 9Ш38-2 or ECO-1T.

SRSC T38 "Stiletto" with a mixed set of weapons (left of the WPK with missiles 9М33М3, to the right of the WPK with high-speed missiles Т382)

If the modernization of the Russian air defense system "OSA-AKM" is designed to upgrade missile units of the Belarusian methodology, "the Dome" will need to develop its own high-speed missiles similar in performance to the Ukrainian Т382, because cooperation with Goskkb Luch today completely stopped. It does not require a long period of time, as well as significant and costly research, as the project bikalibernoy high-speed two-stage SAM interceptor our missile has long been available. We are talking about missiles 9М335 (57Э6), which is the basis of the armament anti-aircraft missile and gun complexes "Carapace-C1". Ballistic quality compact sustainer stage of the rocket is significantly superior to the performance of the Ukrainian Т382: initial velocity 57Э6 reaches 1300 m/s (4680 km/h) and the deceleration speed of the sustainer stage (40 m/s at 1 km trajectory) is significantly lower than the Ukrainian version. Despite the smaller weight and overall dimensions 57Э6 (diameter starting stage -90 mm and marching steps - 76 mm) rocket carries the same heavy rod warhead weight 20 kg working Time starting stage 57Э6 is 2.4 s (Т382 - 1.5 s) during which the missile accelerates to maximum speed, which can hit targets at altitudes of 15,000 m. the Compactness of the missile's unique performance characteristics, has managed to maintain thanks to the absence of the rocket engine sustainer stage with simultaneous giving significant qualities starting accelerator.

Rocket 9М335 used complex "Carapace-C1", also have radio command guidance on the basis of a fully digital element base of OBC and equipment data exchange, and therefore their integration into the control system of the armament of the new "Wasp-АКМ1" is quite feasible. The details of modernization while not much is known, but its potential for "the Wasp-AKM" remains very, very great that is evident in Belarusian "Stiletto". A huge number of armies of the countries-operators of family of complexes "Wasp", the "club" which consists of armed forces of Russia, India, Greece and Armenia, continue to Harbor high hopes for the upgrade the armament of the complexes to the indicators that defend the sky of the XXI century on a par with such systems as "tor-M1" and "Pantsir-S1", and so funding the ambitious programme will last more than one year.

The list of sources

Eugene Tamancev


Tags: Russia , armed forces , AME

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