Center for Strategic Assessment and forecasts

Autonomous non-profit organization

Home / Defence and security / Equipment and armament: yesterday, today and prospect / Articles
Software kernel on-Board cyberinfrastructure unified strike fighter F-35
Material posted: Publication date: 06-06-2019
An overview of the key components of the "Autonomous logistics information system" (ALIS) unified strike fighter F-35. A detailed analysis of the "bloc support of combat use" and its four key components: 1) human-system interface, 2) the Executive is the controlling system, 3) side of the immune system, 4) the avionics system. Some information regarding the firmware of the F-35 and relatively to the tools which are used for the onboard software. Comparison with earlier models of fighter jets, and also provided perspectives for further development of army aviation.

Hardware system the air force over time become more and more complex. [27] Gradually becomes more complicated and their cyberinfrastructure (software and hardware components that require subtle algorithmic settings). For example, the U.S. air force can be seen as cyberinfrastructure combat aircraft – compared to its traditional hardware components, has gradually increased from less than 5% (the F-4, fighter of third generation) to over 90% (for the F-35 fifth generation fighter). [5] For the algorithmic fine tuning of this cyberinfrastructure in the F-35 meets the latest, specially designed for this purpose software: "Autonomous logistics information system" (ALIS).

 

Autonomous logistics information system

 

In the era of fighter 5 th generation military superiority is measured primarily by the quality of situational awareness. [10] Therefore, the F-35 is a flying swarm of all sorts of high-tech sensors, providing in sum a 360-degree situational awareness. [11] New popular in this context, hit is the so-called "architecture of integrated sensors" (ISA), which includes sensors that independently dynamically interact (not only in calm but also in the contested tactical environment), – that, in theory, should lead to a further increase in the quality of situational awareness. [7]. However, this theory turned into practice, the necessary high-quality algorithmic processing of all incoming sensor data.

 

Therefore, the F-35 is always on Board software, the total size of the source code is over 20 million rows, for which it is often called the "flying computer". [6] Since the current, fifth era strike fighters combat superiority is measured by the quality of situational awareness, almost 50% of this code (8.6 million rows) is very complicated algorithmic processing – for the bonding of all incoming data from the sensors into a single picture of the theater of hostilities. In real-time.

 

Dynamic movement provide on-Board functionality, fighter combat USA, in the direction of software

 

For it on Board the F-35 meets the "Autonomous logistics information system" (ALIS), which provides the fighter skills such as 1) planning (through advanced avionics systems), 2) maintenance (the ability to act as a leading combat units), and 3) capacity (ability to act as a slave combat units). [4] "Glue code" is a major component of the ALIS, which accounts for 95% of all airborne program code of the F-35. The other 50% of program code is ALIS perform to some extent secondary, but also very algorithmically intensive. [12] Therefore, the F-35 is one of the most complex ever developed, combat systems. [6]

 

ALIS is a conditionally avtopilotiruemy system that combines an integrated a diverse set of on-Board subsystems; and also includes effective communication with the pilot, through the provision of quality information about the theater of military operations (situational awareness). The core of the software, ALIS is constantly running in the background, providing pilot assistance in decision making and giving him tips during critical moments of flight. [13]

 

Unit providing combat application

 

One of the most important subsystems of ALIS is "the unit to combat use", consisting of five main elements [13]:

 

1) "Human-system interface" – provides high-quality visualization of the theater of military operations (ergonomic, comprehensive, concise). [12] Observing this theater, the pilot takes tactical decisions and gives the commands, which in turn are processed by the block IKS.

 

2) "Executive control system" (ICS) – interacting with the control units airborne weapons, ensure the execution of military commands through a human-system interface gives the pilot. X also registers the actual damage from the use of each combat command (via the sensor feedback) for subsequent analysis of the avionics system.

 

3) "side of the immune system" (BIS) monitors external threats and when detected, taking the necessary to eliminate the threat of countermeasures. While BIS may have the support of friendly combat units participating in joint tactical operations. [8] For this BIS is working closely with avionics systems through a communication system.

 

4) "avionics System" and converts the raw stream coming from the various sensors data quality situational awareness available to the pilot through the man-system interface.

 

5) "Communication system" – manages on-Board and external network traffic, and thus acts as a liaison between all on-Board systems; as well as between all involved in a joint tactical operation units.

 

Human-system interface

 

To meet the need for quality and comprehensive situational awareness – communication and visualization in the cockpit of a fighter are crucial. Face ALIS and the unit to combat use in particular is the "display subsystem panoramic imaging" (L-3 Communications Display Systems). It consists of a large touch screen high definition (LADD) and broadband. Software L-3 is running Integrity-178B (operating system real-time from the "Green Hills Software"), which is the primary side operating system of the F-35.

 

The architects of the cyber infrastructure F-35 chose Integrity 178B OS, guided by the six characteristic of this operating system the characteristics: 1) adherence to open architecture standards, 2) work with Linux, 3) compatibility with the POSIX API, 4) safe memory allocation, 5) ensuring special security requirements, and 6) support specification, "ARINC 653". [12] "ARINC 653" is an interface application software for use in avionics. This interface reglamentary temporal and spatial separation of resources of aviation computing systems in accordance with the principles of integrated modular avionics; and defines the software interface, which should use application software to access resources of the computing system.

 

The display subsystem of the panoramic imaging

 

The Executive is the controlling system

 

As noted above, X, interacting with the control units on-Board weapons, – ensures the execution of military commands and check the actual damage from the use of each combat team. The heart of IKS is a supercomputer, which is naturally also related to the "side arms".

 

Because the amount assigned to the on-Board supercomputer task is enormous, it has high strength and meets the high requirements for fault tolerance and computing power; it also has an efficient cooling system. All these measures are taken to ensure that on-Board computer system was able to effectively handle huge amounts of data and perform advanced algorithmic treatment, which ensure the effective pilot situational awareness: give him a comprehensive picture of the theater of hostilities. [12]

 

On-Board supercomputer of the F-35 is capable of continuous operation to make 40 billion operations per second, allowing you to multitasking the execution of demanding algorithms, advanced avionics (including the processing of electro-optical, infrared and radar data). [9] In real-time. For the F-35 to conduct all of these algorithmically intensive on the side (in order not to equip every unit with a supercomputer) is not possible because the intensity of the total flow from all of the sensor data exceeds the bandwidth of the fastest communication systems at least 1000 times. [12]

 

For greater reliability, all critical onboard systems of the F-35 (including to some extent the on-Board supercomputer) implemented by applying the principle of redundancy: to the same task on Board could potentially run multiple different devices. Moreover, the requirement of redundancy is to duplicate elements have been developed by alternative manufacturers and had alternative architecture. Due to this, the probability of a simultaneous failure of the original and the duplicate is reduced. [1, 2] including why leading running Linux-based operating system, and the slave – running on Windows. [2] Also, in order to fail over if one of the computers, the unit providing combat application can continue to function (at least in emergency mode), the core architecture of ALIS built on the principle of "a multithreaded client-server to distributed computing". [18]

 

Side immune system

 

In the contested tactical environment maintaining airborne immunity requires an effective combination of resilience, redundancy, diversity, and distributed functionality. Yesterday combat aviation was not a single side of the immune system (BIS). It, aviation, BIS was fragmented and consisted of several, independently operating components. Each of these components has been optimized to counter a particular narrow range of weapons systems: 1) ballistic projectiles 2) missile, homing on a source of radio frequency or electro-optical signal, 3) laser irradiation, 4) radar radiation, etc. When an attack is detected, the corresponding BIS-subsystem is automatically activated and has taken countermeasures.

 

Components of yesterday's BIS was designed and developed independently from each other – different contractors. Because these components typically had a closed architecture, the modernization of the BIS – with the emergence of new technologies and new weapons systems was limited to the fact, to add another independent BIS component. The fundamental drawback of such a fragmented ENCORE consisting of independent components with a closed architecture is that its fragments can interact with each other and are not amenable to centralized coordination. In other words, they can't communicate with each other and carry out joint operations, that limits the reliability and adaptability of the whole of BIS as a whole. For example, if one of the immune subsystems fails or is destroyed, the other subsystem cannot effectively compensate for this loss. In addition, the BIS fragmentation very often leads to the duplication of high-tech components, such as processors and displays, [8] in terms of the "evergreen problem" reducing SWaP (size, weight and power consumption) [16] – very wasteful. Not surprisingly, these early BIS gradually dying away his time.

 

Replaced fragmented BIS comes a unique distributed side immune system – driven "intellectual-cognitive controller" (ICC). IKK is a special program – side Central nervous system functioning on top of the included in the BIS integrated subsystems. This program combines all BIS-subsystem into a single distributed network (shared information and shared resources), and also binds all BIS with the CPU and other onboard systems. [8] the Basis for such enterprises (including enterprises with components that will be developed in the future) is a commonly accepted concept "system of systems" (SoS), [3] – with its distinguishing characteristics, such as scalability, a public specification and open architecture software and hardware.

 

The BCI has access to information of all BIS-subsystems; its function is to map and analyze incoming from BIS-subsystems information. ICC is constantly working in the background, continuously interacting with all subsystems BIS – identifying every potential threat, localizing it, and finally, suggesting to the pilot the optimal set of countermeasures (taking into account the unique capacities of each of the BIS-subsystems). To do this, ICC uses advanced cognitive algorithms [17-25].

 

Thus each plane has its own individual IKK. However, to achieve greater integration (and consequently, higher reliability), ICC all aircraft involved in a tactical operation – are combined into a single, unified network, the coordination of which is responsible "Autonomous logistics information system" (ALIS). [4] When one of the IKK identificeret threat, ALIS calculates the most effective countermeasures – using the information of all of ICC and support from all involved in the tactical operations of military units. ALIS knows the individual characteristics of each IKK and uses them to implement the coordinated response of the countermeasures.

 

Distributed BIS deals with external (associated with the fighting of the enemy) and internal (related to the manner of piloting and operational nuances) threats. On Board the F-35 for the processing of external threats is responsible for the avionics system, and for processing the inner – VRAMS ("intellectual system of informing of the risks of harmful maneuvers"). [13] the Main task of the VRAMS is to extend the periods of operation of the aircraft between required maintenance. To do this, VRAMS collects real-time information about the health of the underlying on-Board subsystems (the jet engine, auxiliary drives, mechanical components, electrical subsystems) and analyzes their technical condition; taking into consideration parameters such as temperature peaks, pressure fluctuations, dynamics, vibrations and all kinds of obstacles. Building on this information, VRAMS gives the pilot in advance how to act to keep the plane in one piece. VRAMS "predicts" what consequences can lead the different actions of the pilot, and also gives recommendations how to avoid them. [13]

 

The standard, which seeks to VRAMS is zero maintenance, while maintaining an ultra-reliable and reduced structural fatigue. To implement this task, the research laboratory are working to create materials with clever structure, who will be able to work effectively in zero maintenance. The scientific staff of these laboratories develop methods for detection of microcracks and other pre-breakdown phenomena, – to advance to prevent possible failures. Also conducting research towards a better understanding of the phenomenon of structural fatigue that using these data to regulate aviation maneuvers with the aim of reducing structural fatigue and thus prolong the useful life of the aircraft. [13] In this connection it is interesting to note that about 50% of articles of the journal "Advanced in Engineering Software" is devoted to the analysis of the strength and vulnerability of reinforced concrete and other structures.

 

A smart system of informing about the risks associated with harmful maneuvers

 

Advanced avionics system

 

The on-Board unit to combat use of the F-35 includes an advanced avionics system, which is designed to address the ambitious goal:

 

Yesterday, avionics systems consisted of several independent subsystems (control of infrared and ultraviolet sensors, radar, sonar, electronic warfare and other), each of which was equipped with its own display. What the pilot had to take turns to look at each display and to manually analyze and compare the incoming data. On the other hand, today's avionics system, which in particular is equipped with the F-35 – represents all data that was previously isolated as a single resource on a single display. Thus the modern avionics system is an integrated network-centric complex data fusion that provides the pilot with the most effective situational awareness; relieving it from the need to perform complex analytical calculations. As a result, by eliminating the human factor from the analytical loop, the pilot can now not be distracted from the main combat mission.

 

One of the first significant attempts to eliminate the human factor from the analytical loop avionics system implemented in cyberinfrastructure of the F-22. On Board of the fighter for the quality of the gluing coming from the various sensors, data, answers algorithmically intensive program, the total size of the source code which is 1.7 million rows. At the same time, 90% of the code written in the language Ada. However, modern avionics system, controlled program, ALIS, which is equipped with the F-35 compared to the F-22 has made significant strides.

 

The prototype of ALIS was the software of the F-22. However, the gluing data now responsible not 1.7 million lines of code – and 8.6 million. At the same time, most of the code written in C/C++. The whole point of this, algorithmically intensive code – to assess what information is relevant for the pilot. As a result, due to the fact that in the picture of the theater of hostilities, there are only fundamentally important data, the pilot now has the ability to take quicker and more effective solutions. Thus the modern avionics system, which in particular is equipped with the F-35, relieve the pilot of the analytical burden, and finally allows him to just fly. [12]

 

The avionics of the old model

 

Inset: Used aboard the F-35 development tools

 

Inset: Backdoors in the F-35

 

The core architecture of ALIS

 

Summarizing the description of all on-Board systems, we can say that the basic the requirements are reduced to the following theses: the integration and scalability; public specification and open architecture; usability and conciseness; resilience, redundancy, diversity, increased resiliency and durability; distributed functionality. The core architecture of ALIS is a comprehensive answer to all these broad and ambitious, controversial requirements that apply to unified strike fighter F-35.

 

However, this architecture, like all genius – simple. It was based on the concept of finite state machines. The application of this concept in the framework of the ALIS realized that all of the components of the onboard software of the F-35 have a unified structure. In combination with the architecture of a multithreaded client-server to distributed computing, automata-based kernel ALIS meets all the above contradictory requirements. Each software component consists of front-end ALIS ".h-file" and algorithmic settings ".cpp file". The generalized structure is given in attached to the article source files (see three following spoiler).

 

automata1.cpp

 

automata1.h

 

main.cpp

 

Summing up, it can be noted that in the contested environment of tactical military superiority have such fighting units of the air force, side cyberinfrastructure which effectively combines the stability, redundancy, diversity, and distributed functionality. The IRC and ALIS of modern aircraft to meet these requirements. However, the degree of integration in the future will also be extended to interaction with other army units, whereas now the effective integration of the air force covers only your unit.

Bibliography

  1. Courtney Howard. Avionics: ahead of the curve // Military & Aerospace electronics: Avionics innovations. 24(6), 2013. pp. 10-17.
  2. Tactical Software Engineering // General Dynamics Electric Boat.
  3. Alvin Murphy. The Importance of System-of-Systems Integration // the Leading edge: a Combat systems engineering & integration. 8(2), 2013. pp. 8-15.
  4. F-35: Combat Ready. // Air Force.
  5. Global Horizons // United States Air Force Global Science and Technology Vision. 3.07.2013.
  6. Chris Babcock. Preparing for the Cyber Battleground of the Future // Air & Space Power Journal. 29(6), 2015. pp. 61-73.
  7. Edric Thompson. Common operating environment: Sensors move the Army one step closer // Army Technology: Sensors. 3(1), 2015. p. 16.
  8. Mark Calafut. The future of aircraft survivability: Building an intelligent, integrated survivability suite // Army Technology: Aviation. 3(2), 2015. pp. 16-19.
  9. Courtney Howard. Intelligent avionics.
  10. Stephanie Anne Fraioli. Intelligence Support for the F-35A Lightning II // Air & Space Power Journal. 30(2), 2016. pp. 106-109.
    11. Courtney E. Howard. Video and image processing at the edge // Military & Aerospace electronics: avionics Progressive. 22(8), 2011.
    12. Courtney Howard. Combat aircraft with advanced avionics // Military & Aerospace electronics: Avionics. 25(2), 2014. pp.8-15.
    13. Focus on rotorcraft: Scientists, researchers and aviators drive innovation // Army Technology: Aviation. 3(2), 2015. pp.11-13.
    14. Tactical Software Engineering // General Dynamics Electric Boat.
    15. Broad Agency Announcement Hierarchical Identify Verify Exploit (HIVE) Microsystems Technology Office DARPA-BAA-16-52 August 2, 2016.
    16. Courtney Howard. Data is in demand: answering the call for communications // Military & Aerospace electronics: Wearable Electronics. 27(9), 2016.
    17. Broad Agency Announcement: Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) DARPA-BAA-16-53, 2016.
    18. Jordi Vallverdu. A cognitive architecture for the implementation of emotions in computing systems // Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures. 15, 2016. pp. 34-40.
    19. Bruce K. Johnson. Dawn of the Cognetic Age Fighting Ideological War by Putting Thought in Motion with Impact // Air & Space Power Journal. 22(1), 2008. pp. 98-106.
    20. Sharon M. Latour. Emotional Intelligence: Implications for All United States Air Force Leaders // Air & Space Power Journal. 16(4), 2002. pp. 27-35.
    21. Lt Col Sharon M. Latour. Emotional Intelligence: Implications for All United States Air Force Leaders // Air & Space Power Journal. 16(4), 2002. pp. 27-35.
    22. Jane Benson. Cognitive science research: Steering soldiers in the right direction // Army Technology: Computing. 3(3), 2015. pp. 16-17.
    23. Dayan Araujo. Cognitive computers primed to change the landscape of Air Force acquisition.
    24. James S. Albus. RCS: A cognitive architecture for intelligent multi-agent systems // Annual Reviews in Control. 29(1), 2005. pp. 87-99.
    25. Karev A. A. synergy trust // Practical marketing. 2015. No. 8(222). S. 43-48.
    26. Karev A. A. multi-threaded client-server for distributed computing // the System administrator. 2016. No. 1-2(158-159). S. 93-95.
    27. Karev A. A. Hardware components on-Board IPU unified strike fighter F-35 // Components and technologies. 2016. No. 11. P. 98-102.

Istochnik: https://habr.com/ru/post/453650/

Tags: USA , aviation


RELATED MATERIALS: Defence and security
Возрастное ограничение