Currently quite relevant is the issue of demining the border on the Korean Peninsula. From South Korea demining its own land forces were already underway as the South Korean army and U.S. private companies.
Thus, a significant portion of the mines are mines developed and produced in the USA, will affect their design and operation principles, although anti-personnel mines, except mines directed action, decommissioned U.S. army.
So, anti-personnel pressure mine explosive action M-14 anti-personnel mine is an explosive action with pressure gauge. Its mass is three and a half ounces (about 85 g), width 58 mm, height 40 mm, tetralogy charge weighing one ounce (29 g), body plastic. Pressure on the sensor mines bent plate of fiberglass with the drummer in the middle of the moves, the drummer in the center of the plate hits the detonator.
In the transport position, mine has a metal U-shaped guard that blocks the movement of the target sensor about its own axis. When you remove the fuse, the sensor target is rotated to match an arrow with the letter “A” /ARMED/ or “S” /SAFE/ respectively.
While discovery of a mine must take her in hand, and twirl the sensor target to match his hands with the letter “S” on the mines building. After this key vivinity stub of the detonator M46. In the presence of standard fuse you need to install the fuse.
It should be emphasized that the structure of the American M14 mine involves Fighting of the Charter according to FM 20-32 the neutralization of it by turning the push cap in position "S" and locking cap cotter rod, followed by unscrewing of the detonator through the bottom opening.
The mine difficult to detect by mine detectors — metal parts are copper the primer-detonator and miniature drummer.
Interestingly, the M-14 was made in South Africa and was widely used by its army during the fighting in southern Africa.
Another American mine ― M-2. It is a fragmentation anti-personnel mine action, using as departing up of the projectile 60-mm mortar mine without the tail and fuse with the moderator. Fuse M-1 could be used as a push (advance of the three antennae at the top of the fuse) and tension (pulling through cheques wire tension). The fuse was mounted in a separate tube, which is connected at the bottom with a glass mines.
When the unlocking spring-loaded firing pin or by pressing its shank, or pulling combat checks, it hits the primer-igniter and actuates the lifting charge. A mortar shell tossed up and after a burning time retarder it explodes.
Although this American mine in the 70's was outdated but up to now used in several countries. It was produced in Belgium, Portugal, Iran, South Korea, Israel, and Pakistan.
In Pakistan, where this mine is being done now, instead of mortar, use a manual offensive grenade P1 Mk1 (copy of the Austrian ARGES-69) produced according to Austrian license in Pakistan.
P3 Mk2 anti-personnel mine is a fragmentation of jumping, and, in fact, is a modification of the M2 mines. She has a mass of 1.6 kg and a cylindrical body, which is a fragmental element P1 Mk1 with powder expelling charge. On the inner surface of the shell is placed 3500 steel balls. In the case of garnet mines is the ignition socket down.
In Mina used mechanical Fuze combined (tension and pressure) of the action, a copy of the American M 605, to combat the receipt of which is fastened a tension wire and three push rod. When the human impact on the Fuze, the latter ignites the lifting charge, and a fragmentation element is emitted to a height of 1.3 — 2 m. Simultaneously ignited gunpowder grenades moderator, initiating the main EXPLOSIVE charge.
Manpower affects the steel balls to a radius of 20 m. This mine was used during the war in Afghanistan(1979-1989), and currently in Pakistan to be based Mina R-7(P-7).
Mines M-2 during the Vietnam war were replaced by mines of the same class the M-16, which were later produced in India, South Korea, Greece and Turkey.
Mina M-16 has a double action fuse (tension and compression) type M-605.
The fuse of the M-605, in the case of installation on a stretch action, to completely speak out of the ground than mine M-16 is more visible and, in addition, hampered by the use of fuse as a pressure because it rises above the earth at 6-7 see there was a modification of the mines M16A1 with a new body, which had different types of detonators. However, both mines had the steel case in the center of which was mounted the fuse of the M-605, cited in the deployed position by removing the safety checks that were in the top of the fuse. The mine itself had included four tensioning of the wire length of 12 meters, but ustanavlivaetsya could only be fastened round to check on the body of the fuse.
In addition, a pressure sensor was radiating from the top of the fuse three small pins, which were spring-loaded bushing, bottom tension held the chick.
When pressing on a pressure sensor, or the impact on the tensioning sleeve moves down and pushed the retaining ring at the base of the Fuze and safety balls holding the firing pin dropped into the resulting space. The drummer beat capsule the igniter, showing the force of fire to pyrotechnic retarder.
During combustion, the victim went to the mines,then force-fire powered the lifting charge of black powder (4.5 grams), vybrosivhsego mine body into the air, and at the same time transferring force to fire the pyrotechnic retarders two internal fuses. After the burn-out that occurred at the height of one Mina,force of fire applied to the percussion caps-igniters in turn led to the action chargers-detonators of both internal fuses,which led to the action of a charge of TNT.The min charge M-16 and M-16А1 weighed one pound(454 grams) so the weight was not the weight of two additional tatalovich detonators
Mina M-16А2 distinguished by the presence of one internal fuse, located in the center of the body mines that demanded the displacement of the fuse M-605 away from the city center, but it gave the opportunity to increase the weight of the charge mines and, accordingly, the radius (in accordance with the Charter FM 20-32 ― up to 30 meters, while the M-16 and M-16А1. according to the same Charter, this distance was 27 yards).
It should also identify and highly effective and convenient American mine M-26 with a double-action fuse. This fuse has a very reliable fuse with additional vertically installed pressure relief cotter, rod retaining basic safety pin, which safety position blocks the operation of the pressure and tension sensors objective. Interestingly, in this mine used throw up spherical of the combat element type "baseboll", characteristic of cluster munitions, where such shells are used as submunitions.
This mine, with its easy shape and a good ratio of the total weight and the weight of the charge (1 kg 170 g of Hexotol-Composition B) has the typical American push min switch with an arrow pointing in combat (A — armed) and safe (S — safe) the provisions of the mines.
Currently the only anti-personnel mine used or at least permitted, for use in the U.S. army, is a directional fragmentation mine action modifications M-18 and M-18А1 "Clamor" ("Claymore").
These mines began to be widely used by the U.S. army in Vietnam, where she was faced with the widespread use of Claymore-type directional mines by the enemy.
In the training circular US army TC 5-31 (translated into Russian language ― "Mines and booby traps Patriotic forces of South Vietnam and the principles of application") of the edition of 1969 was written: "One type of anti-personnel mines, which, apparently, will find more widespread use against our troops is mine type "Clamor" and its numerous options. This means defeat personnel, located at a distance of 200 m and do not have such means of protection as body armor. These mines are usually installed on a flat open for observation areas. They are often installed in walls, trees or any other objects. In more than 50% of all known cases, these mines had command control on the wire. The electrical conductors fit deep into hard-Packed soil. In an academic document, it is recommended that the opponent be put in rovik with the cable and positions around sapper-observer peeled garlic to make difficulties for their exploration with the help of service dogs. One of the options mine enemy type "Clamor" ― Mina DH-10 when using the group of three pieces in the explosion can be done in a wire fence passage width of 2 m and a depth of 30-40 m. These mines have inflicted very serious loss, when they were hung on the branches of towering trees or other local objects. Mines hung on trees, used mainly against personnel, armor on moving tanks or armoured personnel carriers."
In this case, under the name "Clamor" Americans understand all types of Claymore-type directional mines and has naturally paid great attention to the development of its own mines of this type.
Later mines M-18А1 had a weight of 1.58 kg, was equipped 682 grams of C4 explosive and striking elements was the 700 steel balls embedded in a plastic plate placed under curved side of the hull mines. This design ensured the defeat soft targets in an average angle of 50-60 degrees at a distance up to 50 meters.
The main use of this is managed mines, when a mine explosion made by the operator from the control panel through the wires by using blasting machines M-57. Initiation of the explosive charge is a detonator inserted into one of the two special sockets on top of the mines and connected wired lines with subversive machine. Second Jack can be used to apply the device for check of serviceability of the connection cable, as backup or to install the fuse tensioning action.
This mine, widely used by Americans in the Vietnam war of 1964-75, and was copied by many countries, created on the basis of its own modifications, as for example the Soviet MES (mine shrapnel directional)-50, Cuban PMFH (Mina Antipersonnel de Fragmentation de Hierro), a Chinese Type 66, No6, Israeli, South African mine Shrapnel No2, Swedish Truppmine 12, P5 Mk1 Pakistan, South Korean K-440.
However, at the present time, and this mine is rarely used in practice, are sufficiently small so that the chances to meet her somewhere in Iraq or in Afghanistan, or more precisely this probability is practically zero, because the American army refused the installation of minefields, and the last minefields under its supervision, located on the Korean Peninsula.
- “Jane's Mines and Mine Clearance 1999-00”
- The Charter of the engineering troops of the U.S. army FM 20-32
- The website “GlobalSecurity” http://www.globalsecurity.org
- The authors of the parts of photos and drawings — the editor of “Jane's Mines and Mine Clearance 1999-00” Colin king and Lyn Haywood (Haywood Lyn)
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