Fig. 1. 130-mm towed gun M-46
Basic tactical and technical characteristics of M-46
Caliber 130 mm
Barrel length without muzzle brake 7150 mm / 55 calibers
Length of threaded part mm 5860
The number of grooves 40
The steepness of the rifling is constant
The stroke length of rifling of 30 calibres
The width of the grooves 6 mm
The depth of the grooves 2, 7 mm
Field width 4, 2 mm
Charging chamber volume / max. powder charge weight no data / 12,9 kg
Maximum initial velocity of the CFC 930 m/s
Maximum pressure of powder gases in the barrel 3150 kgf/ cm2
The maximum range of the CFC 27400 m
The mass of the CFC 33,4 kg
Remote radio controlled fuses AR-5
The powder charge of gunpowder brand DW-3 full and reduced variable in a brass cartridge case
Bushing capsule KV-5U
Accuracy at maximum range (table):
In distance VD/X=1/267
On the side XB=14 m
The loading of separately – tubular
Chambering shot manual using prisojnica (rammer)
The firing rate of 7-8 RDS/min.
The elevation angle -2...+45 deg.
The angle of the horizontal guidance -25...+25 deg.
Mass of gun in firing position 7700 kg
Mass of gun in travelling position 8450 kg
Transfer time from traveling to combat for 3-4 minutes
Crew 9 people
Dimensions in travelling position (gun drawn) 11,7 x 2,45 x 2,55 m
In gun ammunition consisted of high explosive, armor piercing, OssetiaAlania, smoke-televisually shells. High-explosive fragmentation projectile with ogival elongated part and two copper leading bands, and their shape differs from the shells of earlier development and "looks good" even against the newest artillery shell, developed in the twentieth! century.
While foreign artillery specialists currently consider to be the most promising guns caliber 155 mm barrel length of 52 calibre , in the construction of "storecode", developed more than half a century ago, a barrel length of 55 calibres, which allowed us to obtain initial velocity, high-explosive projectile equal to 930 km/h when firing at full charge. Due to the high initial velocity missiles capable of hitting targets at ranges of over 27 km On its tactical and technical characteristics of the M-46 can be put on a par with weapons designed 30 years later, such as 2A36(Hyacinth), and 2A65(Msta).
23.04.1946, the show Committee has issued tactical and technical requirements for the design of 130-mm and 152 - mm guns on a single gun carriage. These guns were supposed to replace the 122 mm gun A-19 152 mm howitzer-gun ML-20.
Fig. 2 130-mm gun M-46, stowed on the limber for towing 130-mm and 152-mm guns, developed in design Bureau of the plant no 172, received index M-46 and M-47.
Ballistic characteristics of the new guns were significantly higher than the existing A-19 and ML-20, respectively.
In September - November 1950 were conducted troop trials of the four M-46 and four M-47. Both systems withstood the test and were recommended for adoption.
At the end of 1950 was adopted the decree of the Council of Ministers on the issue in 1951, the factory number 172 (now JSC " Motovilikha plants) small batch of twenty guns M-46 guns and four M-47.
In subsequent years, the production of guns was continued. By the end of the 60-ies of the last century M-46 was produced in large quantities. At the present time in Russia the production of M-46 terminated.
Device gun M-46
The barrel consists of pipe, casing, breech and muzzle brake with an efficiency of 35-39%.
The breech ring is screwed on the casing.
The horizontal wedge breech opened to the right. Poloautomaticke no, the wedge is opened and closed manually
The recoil brake is hydraulic, the cylinder brake rollback enshrined in the cage of the cradle and rolled back motionless.
The hydropneumatic nakatnika. Anti-recoil devices filled with liquid "Steol-M". The length of the rollback variable. Limit the length of the rollback "STOP"-1350 mm.
Lifting and turning mechanisms sector type (for one sector).
For pickup used the artillery panorama of PG-1, mechanical sight C-71, an artificial aiming point is the collimator K-1, for the illumination in the night time scales of the sight, pan and collimator - a device to "Beam".
A balancing pneumatic mechanism, push type, consists of two speakers located symmetrically on either side of the trunk.
Frame welded box-shaped.
Shield cover consists of a left and right half of the shield and casing. The casing 4 mm thick fitted to a cylinder nakatnika.
Wheels shed with tyre made of spongy rubber (ha) size 1350х380 mm.
In stowed position the barrel is pulled back and secured to the frame. The bed in the raised position are fixed on the front end.
Allow the carriage of guns in an emergency for short distances in combat position (without a rack) at a speed of 5 km/h.
Regular tractor ATS.
Fig. 3 130-mm gun M-46 in the towing position
System M-46 were exported to many countries and participated in several local conflicts, including in artillery duel in the Taiwan Strait in the late 50-ies, in the conflicts in Indochina and the middle East. During the Chinese-Taiwanese conflict out of a cannon M46 was not possible to hit the targets located on the other side of the Taiwan Strait at ranges in excess of 27 km, However, the Soviet military instructors find non-standard solution. Waiting for a fair wind and full heating of propellant powder charges, they were able due to the change in ballistic characteristics to significantly increase the maximum range and cover the target on the other side of the Strait.
Fig. 4 130-mm gun M-46 in the towing position
The manufacture of gun M-46 has been established in Egypt. Foreign arms of the company are constantly working on upgrading guns M-46 and ammunition to it. Ammunition for M-46 produced at least 12 countries, from Northern Finland (PatriaVammas) to South Africa (Denel).
A variety of manufacturers of ammunition for M-46 - only a small indication of how widely this gun is common throughout the world. For example, when using shells with bottom gas generator (as, for example, did the company IranianDefenseIndustriesOrganization) range can be significantly increased up to 37 000 M. Prudently laid by Soviet designers in 1946 robust designs guns M-46, allows the modernization by replacing the 130-mm gun 155-mm barrel, applying to fire standard NATO ammunition.
The company SpaceResearchCorporation (SRC), known for Dr. Gerald Vincent Bull, (the genius of the designer of artillery arms, designed by order of Saddam Hussein superposse huge, able to launch a payload into orbit around the Earth), from the beginning, also participated in the process of upgrading M-46.
China received technical documentation, and specimens 130 mm towed gun M-46 from the Soviet Union in the mid-1950s, and later in 1959 he developed a Chinese copy known as the Type 59.
In 1970, the manufacturer has presented an improved variant of the Type 59 gun. The design of the gun allowed it to transport on two wheels. Modernization has led to the reduction of gun weight by 2.5 tons compared to the original Soviet project M-46.Upgraded gun Type 59 was adopted in the armament of the Chinese army in the early 1970s.
During a cross-border Sino-Vietnamese conflict of 1979 long-range gun Type 59 played a key role in the battles and proved themselves to be very high.
Guns Chinese Type 59 was exported to the Iraqi Army. In the 1980s were used during the war between Iran and Iraq and during the war in the Persian Gulf in 1990-91.
Chinese weapons manufacturers have produced more than 1,000 cannons, the production of which was discontinued in the mid 1980s. A significant number of guns Type 59 currently is still in service with Chinese army.
In the future supposed to replace the Type 59 gun on modern towed howitzer of 155 mm calibre with a barrel length of 45 calibres under the name PLL01.
In the period from 1980 to 1990 the Chinese Corporation NORINCO (ChinaNorthIndustriesCorporation)has developed a number of new 130 mm cannon shells for the Type 59 , including:
- high-explosive extended-range projectile (Extended-RangeHE) with a range of up to 30 km ;
- high-explosive fragmentation projectile with a gas generator (BaseBleedHE) with a range of up to 37 km ;
- active-reactive high-explosive projectile (RocketExtended-RangeHE) with a range of up to 37 km;
- high-explosive extended-range projectile with ready rifling(ERFB/HE) with a range of up to 32 km.
- highly effective incendiary projectile with a range of up to 27.5 km away.
- shrapnel-shrapnel a shell filled with the 10,000 th thousands of bulbs and fragmentation of the body with a range of up to 25 km.
- cluster anti-tank round striking battle with 35 elements with a range of up to 25 km.
- smoke projectile with a range of up to 25 km.
The Corporation also Norincoразработала on M-46 or 152-mm gun GM-45.
Fig. 5 152-mm cannon Chinese GM-45 in the travelling position.
Fig. 6 152 mm Chinese gun GM-45 in combat position.
Chinese artillery experts went even further, and upgraded M-46 called the Type 59 a.m.-1 was installed on self-propelled tracked chassis. 130-mm an experimental self-propelled gun received the name of Type 321, however, the tank was never mass produced because of lack of demand both domestic and foreign customers
Fig. 7 130-mm Chinese self-propelled gun experimental Type 321
The former Yugoslavia offered two options for the modernization of the gun M-46, M-46-86 with the barrel of the 152 mm calibre length of 46 calibres and model M-46-84 barrel with a caliber of 155 mm with a length of 45 calibers.
Israeli company Soltamсумела be interested in his project of modernization of M-46 Indian army, in service of which about 1,200 guns M-46. However, it seems that the Indian designers has developed its own project under the name of Metamorphosis. The Indian project is still under development. It is expected that in the future all guns M-46 the Indian army will be refitted with guns of caliber of 155 mm. Dutch company offers RDMTechnologiesтакже modernization of M-46 by switching to a caliber of 155 mm.
These ideas have been implemented long ago in the former USSR in the form of a 152 mm gun M-47 established simultaneously on one and the same scheme on a single gun carriage M-46.
At present JSC "Motovilikha plants" carries out modernization of existing systems M-46, which includes:
- replacement of 130 mm gun to 155-mm barrel, under standard NATO ammunition;
- the installation of semi-automatic breech and rammer for zasilania shot ;
- the introduction of the automated control system of guidance and fire (these systems is made) using the angle measuring systems, computers and displays;
- revision anti-recoil devices for the purpose of reducing the length of the rollback.
Upgrading M-46 allows you to:
- to increase the maximum range to 28 km;
- to increase the projectile weight to 43.5 kg;
- increase the weight of the powder charge up to 15 kg;
- to use standard NATO ammunition;
- to facilitate and expedite the loading;
- significantly reduce preparation time settlement data for the first shot.
The upgraded gun is heavier than a regular 700 kg.
Fig. 8 152-mm upgraded on the Motovilikhinsky gun factory M-46
And experience the son of errors difficult...
For all its merits, the gun M-46 had (or still has) one drawback.
When designing the constructors of the projectile is known only to them for reasons laid high requirements on the accuracy of the battle when shooting at maximum distance D=27300 m.
When testing is very difficult to obtain the accuracy corresponding to the requirements of the drawing.
The accuracy of the battle on the terrain is determined by the likely dispersion of shells-VD by the distance to the target-X, y field systems the ratio VD/V is preferably in the range of 1/200. The rounds of ammunition for M-46 the denominator of this fraction a bit more, and to hold on to this "little" was not always possible, despite all the efforts and tricks of the polygon.
Change the denominator of a fraction less, at least up to 1/200, there was no one, as the old O. F. the shell was adopted in the first half of the twentieth century when designing new rounds for M-46, designers traditionally laid previously established requirements for accuracy of the battle.
The magnitude of the dispersion of shells on range - VD is taken as the basis of calculation of norms of consumption of shells for the destruction ( suppression) purposes and the increase in VD will result in an increase in the number of shells , and this is an increase of the indicator "cost - effectiveness". "What is written with a pen, not cut down with an ax," according to a Russian proverb, although the constructors of the shells, the plant-manufacturers of shells and Polyanskii understood that the requirements on the accuracy of the battle too high, but to do nothing she could. Dominated by "healthy" conservatism of the military: "why to change something, when and so good!"
No one took into account how much effort, money and energy was spent on re-testing, approval and signing of various decisions at various levels.
The designers have hit the question "Why is it so often fails the accuracy provided by the requirements of the drawing?", answered approximately so: "the reason probably is the lack of gyroscopic stability of the projectile point on the downward trajectory".
If on the site for testing was received "storecode" started intense training. The shots were fired from the firing position located on the first kilometer of the battle field, where remained only one position, as in connection with the construction of the landfill on the highway of new shops and facilities for the production of missile complexes, basic firing positions were placed on eight kilometers ahead. Shoot the M-46 had almost from the territory adjacent suburban areas. The width of the battle fields of the landfill ranged from 2 to 4 kilometers. Lined with cannons from the battle shell flew at altitudes up to 10 km over the territory of the plant, built up with shops and facilities, where there were people, and, were assembled missile systems.
As a rule, tests were planned to take place at lunchtime, in order to protect the production staff in the shops, but due to weather conditions or due to any other reasons, this is not always possible.
Theoretically, during the shooting all the people had to take cover, but in practice these requirements are, to put it mildly, not always been the case. Errors in the pointing of guns at shooting in such conditions could lead to unexpected results, so test out the M-46 was conducted by the leaders of the experiments with extensive work experience.
For security purposes, the first ranging shot was fired by a shell in inert equipment, as well as military Fuze B-429, set to "On" (fragmentation effect) was applied with the cap to prevent premature rupture of the combat projectile on the trajectory in case of accidental collision with birds or during the flight of projectile zones of intense precipitation in the form of hail, heavy rain.
Early morning M-46 was put on the front and on the road and then the dirt transported through carrier or a tank on firing position. The gun was mounted on a platform made of railway sleepers rested openers frames in oak logs, then using a tractor was pulling the gun back under the wheels laid sleepers, which are firmly nailed to the platform brackets. The gun was simply unable to budge. Winter in the dugout next to OP in advance, stoked the stove, then extinguished it. In a closed car with a red flag brought the ammunition and brought into the dugout to ensure the temperature stability of shots. At the same time followed a rigorous training gun for test firing.
Should check: a check wipe-clean barrel, normal line of sight, the pressure in the nakatnika, the amount of fluid in the recoil brake, carefully test the operation of the balancing mechanism when the angle of elevation of the barrel 45 degrees. Established this amount of pressure in the counterbalancing mechanism in which the force on the flywheel was constant, and the barrel moved up and down in the range of 45 plus or minus one degree smoothly without sudden jerks.
Fig. 9 130-mm gun M-46 in combat positions
And it was almost a religious rite. Shooting was conducted, except in rare cases, the chief of the Bureau of tests of the sign Leo Valerianovich. After loading the gun the next shot, setting the calculated lateral deviation of the projectile from the Central directory the ground and aiming the crosshair of a panorama of PG-1 at 1000 meters remote point arc, he put the quadrant with the established 7-50 angle (45 degrees), the elevation at the control platform on risks in the breech. RHO and gunner, which slowly rotated the flywheel lifting mechanism, with bated breath, staring at a slowly moving air bubble quadrant, accompanying his motion with the words: "a Little bit, the thread has moved!!! Again!"
Aiming each shot, sometimes repeated several times. Some sort of sixth sense, Leo Valerianovich determined when to instruct the gunner" Good!", to stop the rotation of the flywheel lifting mechanism taking into account the inertia of the moving barrel. But all these tricks didn't always give the desired results.
Approximately every third batch of shells "fell down", i.e. the accuracy did not meet the requirements of the drawing. The salvation of the factories was only that if you test fired two groups from the party rounds, the result was considered as the arithmetic mean of the two groups preispitivanja shells. The average value of the two groups, as a rule, was satisfactory.
Fig. 10 "Gun!"
About the tests "storecode" says Leonid E. Komissarenko.
Reference: Leonid E. Komissarenko, a former (years 1976-1992) head of special design Bureau - Chief designer of the Donetsk Tochmash plant (from 1979 ON Tochmash).
Leonid Efimovich has considerable practical experience of manufacture of shells and tests for various artillery systems.
From 1958 to 1969 he worked in the shops of the plant: the master, technologist, head of technological Bureau.
Awarded: medal "For labour valour" and others, laureate of the State prize of the USSR 1987 year worked 152mm FFS to the system for the first time as part of the creative team on Msta-S.
Has 21 inventor's certificates, two of which are officially recognized as having major economic importance.
Caliber 130 mm
It will be about 130-mm high-explosive projectile to the gun M-46, noted mystical number "Baker's dozen"-13, bringing to life according to popular belief all sorts of trouble.
All was good projectile, and a range of more than 27 km, and the height of the trajectory over 10 km, and a striking effect on the proper level, and sea-faring and coastal and antiaircraft, and the Indians loved him and the Pakistanis, even Saddam Hussein was granted.
Therefore, for the manufacture of these shells got everywhere we export premium.
One was bad, the required accuracy on the terrain to keep he didn't want.
That said, the other shells are like people: recorded in the field formate VD/X = 1/150 or 1/180 , as it gives on average 1/400, in the worst case 1/250. And the projectiles 13 cm set 1 / 220th, on average, is rising at 1/250, but unfortunately, too much, too often much lower, down to 1/90.
It was: how high dispersion of the whole tested group, and the chunking of individual shells from the group.
Because of the "newdow" almost all the tests were conducted directly in my presence, or employees of our SKB.
Hassle terrible. Once the field researcher will perform the measurements and transmit the coordinates of the points of fall of the shells immediately think the scatter is the total scatter, divide into 4 (get an approximate value-VD) and compute the attitude to distance (VD / V). In a minute you know the result of shooting with an accuracy of plus or minus 10%.
While there, in half an hour Aleksey Dmitrievich Suvorov or Leo Valerianovich sign in a column will calculate the exact result (even calculators).
And so it went on from year to year. So you never get bored. Which depended on the accuracy of a particular party, to install and failed. Only once our mathematician of the CSC, summarizing the statistics for one of the parameters, gave the result: "Nekorrelirovannogo not guaranteed". More accurate estimates I never heard. Most interestingly, when began the epic gear high-explosive shell new high-performance explosive A-IX-2 (high power), I'm ashamed to say, had hoped that won't slip on the accuracy of the Leningrad my friend Evgeny Ivanovich Kalinin, head of special design Bureau of the Leningrad plant them. K. Libknekhta "Carlos" in common parlance) and even urged on him.
And what? The third shot groups when the state tests the performance accuracy could not stand, and the shell with a new explosive material on arms took.
We are with him and likewise agony then in production. Well, where is the justice?
But back to our sheep. The more you shoot, the more chances to catch anything.
Fig. 11 Shooting open sights
In February 1972, "fell" the next batch.
Check the manufacturing technology of shells on the plant, measurements of the geometric parameters nor to no avail.
What is there to think about, shoot right. The plant began to take the shells and cook the control group for presbytery.
On the first cast we with the head of the Department Anatoly Ivanovich Seracini, now, to my great sorrow, deceased. We examine each case, although, frankly, know better than others what for that damn accuracy you need to pay attention. And control groups need to prepare a lot: presbyteria were carried out in threefold amount, and the benefit is lost at least five subsequent manufactured batches of shells, each must be tested shooting.
Besides approaching the end of the month and the short month - February.
Well, let's say, not quite so short, this year 29 days. But the old grandmother allegedly this day, 29 February, not quite trust. But we that year were not only not money, but very far from Dedkov. So just in time for February 29, we and Vilanculos. Until they brought the shells to the landfill, prepared shots, in General, before lunch, managed to shoot well one group of shells into 8 pieces (counting 7+1пристрелочный).
Immediately after lunch they started shooting the second group of shells.
On the word unforgettable Khariton Mitrofanoviču to Laurel, who in his book "Premature ruptures of artillery shells", perhaps, now declassified, writes the following: "February 29, 1972, on the 13th shot (again, 13!) happened incomplete premature rupture of the 130-mm CFC"... etc. with subsequent full parse. What Hariton M. the book had not indicated so that exact time of the event, by my watch it was 13 hours 13 minutes (13 again!).
Began shooting without delay and at the fifth shot caught premature rupture.
The sound of a gunshot and the smoke was unusual, and sound emitted from the barrel of the projectile, none at all.
What is particularly memorable is the loud report of the gun running to loader: "Kickback is normal!"
And after a few seconds the amendment: "No, ne it's normal!".
The pullback was short, as the explosive detonated incompletely in the barrel, the shell casing was destroyed, flew in the form of lumps.
Leo Valerianovich understand it first. The shooting has stopped. Organized searches, all without exception, the personnel test battery circuit trolled through the surrounding area of the landfill and after an hour the bottom part of the case lay on the table at Gennady Vasilyevich Zamuraeva (head of site). The owner of the office was not there and we, the representatives of the plant, sadly beheld smeared with earth shards, hoping that the accident on the conscience of Caragiale. But the hope did not last long.
Then look at the dirty bottom of the projectile? Let me his portrait. Quickly cleared almost the entire surface.
I say almost, because in the centre spot with a diameter of 7-8 mm were not cleansed.
And in this moment, I heard behind as the always intelligent but now and Zamuraeva stern voice: "Hands off!". That said, this same evidence in the hands of the suspect.
Very soon the suspicions turned into a strong belief, because untreated spot was the exit to the surface of the bottom slice of a fairly large cavity in the bottom section. The focus was the fact that a direct open outlet or in the bottom of the chamber or out of the cavity does not have, so that by visual inspection and in-service inspection were not found. When punching it is partially flattened and held in the form of a closed defect through the wall of the housing in the chamber of the shell in the area above the upper copper leading the band.
When fired, the jumper, covering the cavity on the outside, was broken by expanding powder gases and force of the flame from the burning powder propellant charge through the discontinuity flaw in the wall penetrated by TNT equipment. And all there is.
Clear the whole picture was, of course, after all the cuts, metallographic studies, etc., etc. And then I only told Saracino: "Roofing felt, but this housing to the test we picked with our own hands".
Then the interdepartmental Commission a batch of shells rejected. Monthly plan, of course, we failed.
Fig. 12 130-mm gun M-46 artillery Museum (Arsenal) Saint-Petersburg
But this 13-inch caliber and the premature rupture was not the last. Another took place a couple of years at the same Pavlograd test site during testing from equipment of the plant.
I worked in the interdepartmental Commission. Nothing we hadn't found all the dogs hung for a flock of birds, whether on the Kazan srivatanakul, can't remember exactly. The act wrote that the probable cause was the meeting of the projectile with the bird flight path.
But what I remember is certain is his dissenting opinion in the Commission act.
The fact that shortly before this state of emergency when strength tests were marked by deep single-sided prints from the rifling on the centering thickening(ZU), not overlooking, however, on a cylindrical part of the housing of the projectile. On the basis of practical data, it was a clear sign of increased wear of the barrel.
But objectively by measurements of the elongation of the charging chamber increased wear was not confirmed, and, the main argument of polygon - barrel shooting practice was relatively small, only about 700 of the above shots.
But from a sin far away on the sly from the trunk strength tests were suspended.
And here at shooting the gun was obtained premature rupture of the projectile on the trajectory.
It is much later and, not least, because of similar cases in the instructions for categories of the trunks have added the point that premature triggering of fuses could result from the increased wear of the barrel. But then my dissenting opinion to set out these thoughts remained a voice crying in the wilderness, especially because it contained another heresy, remaining such to this day.
I was and remained a resolute opponent of the lowered coefficient of reduction of the shot on an enhanced charge to a full charge, set in those years at the level "2".(That is one shot on a beefed-up equal to two on full charge).
He, in my opinion, should be somewhere about four, and for such powerful systems, like the M-46, and up to five. Then it would be given 700 shots has become, at least 2000 shots on a full charge and the trunk with a clear conscience, to translate into this third category.
Generally, gun barrel, as the East business thin. I, for example, at the time, and not wait for recorded in the said "Instructions for categories of trunks of artillery" criteria of wear of the fillet faces a battle thread. Think not of them today.
Or another example, if we talk about artillery guns. One such was on "the Prospector". D-20, though. All was good and wear on the fields that the rifling is small, and the shooting practice all of, what, 60 shots. But firing it was impossible, moreover, mass-market products to assess all 60 shots were fired shells with experimental zhelezorudnymi ceramic belts.
The Urals themselves from him after that didn't shoot, but at the request of Pavlograd of delivery, in order to assist the brotherly help of the trunk of the third category, have responded very
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