Center for Strategic Assessment and forecasts

Autonomous non-profit organization

Home / Defence and security / Equipment and armament: yesterday, today and prospect / Articles
Tu-95 has noted 60-summer anniversary
Material posted: Publication date: 14-11-2016
The legend of the Russian long-range aviation is 60 years old. 12 November 1952 in the air first flew the prototype of the "95-1" under the control of the crew test pilot A. D. Flights. It was the prototype of the serial bomber Tu-95. Tu-95 (NATO: Bear – bear) is one of the symbols of the cold war, the Soviet/Russian turboprop strategic bomber bomber, is the fastest screw plane in the world. The world's only put into service and mass-produced turboprop bomber. Strategic bomber Tu-95 is designed to engage important targets in the rear of the enemy cruise missiles in all weather conditions and at any time of the day. Along with the American strategic bomber B-52 is one of the longest operated military aircraft world, is operated by the air force since 1956.
Building high-speed strategic bomber Tu-95 promoted: first, the wording of new requirements for manned strategic carrier of nuclear weapons by the Soviet air force; second, the emergence of new directions in the development of the layout of the subsonic bomber and the choice of its main parameters; third, the emergence of new economical and yet potent powerplant, created on the basis of turboprop engines.

By the end of 1940-ies, the strengthening of air defense, the arrival in service of new interceptors with transonic speeds of flight, which were equipped with onboard radar, made the very existence of strategic bombers with speeds of 500-600 km/h, not very promising. Required to raise the speed of flight of strategic bombers to speeds that would be comparable to the speed interceptors in the same period.
 

At the same time, the second, and in some cases the most important requirement for a substantial increase in the maximum speed of flight of strategic bombers carrying nuclear weapons were the weapons, which at that time existed only in the form of free-fall bombs. That is why, after we dropped the bomb, the bomber had to leave the area of exposure to damaging factors of nuclear weapons, and in this case, the flight speed was one of the most important conditions for the survival of the bomber and its crew.

The military conflict in Korea was another turning point and something even the catalyst that demonstrated the futility of further piston reliance on strategic bombers. As a result of this war completely stopped the program for the development of the piston long-range bombers, had reduced the production of reciprocating Intercontinental "a new super-bomber" 36 and at the same time, accelerated work on the creation of serial bombers b-47 and b-52, equipped with turbojet engines. At the same time, the UK has started work on its strategic bombers with transonic speed, referring to a series of "V".

In the Soviet Union quickly enough reacted to this development. In 1950 V. M. Myasischev appealed to the government with a proposal to develop a strategic bomber, possessing a maximum speed of 950 km/h and a flight range of over 13,000 km. the Bomber was proposed to be equipped with 4 turbojet engines AM-3, created in OKB A. A. Mikulin. The proposal for the creation of a new bomber was accepted, and the work result was not long in coming. In fact, over 1.5-2 years was created a new strategic bomber.

OKB A. N. Tupolev, having a large amount of scientific research, came to the conclusion that the bomber is best suited for a turboprop engine. In September 1951, the OKB produced 2 versions of the preliminary designs of the aircraft under the symbol "95": with four engines 2-TV-2F (paired TV-2F with a capacity of 6 250 HP each) and four TV-12 (12 000 HP). Both engines were construction. D. Kuznetsov. Already on 31 October 1951 by the state Commission was approved by a full-sized layout. Lead designer of the new bomber was assigned to N. I. Bazenkov.
 
The first prototype under the designation "95-1", equipped with 2 engines TV-2F, was built in 1952, the plant №156. 12 November 1952, the aircraft first took to the skies. In 1954, was ready the second prototype "95-2", this car was already equipped with motors TV 12. His first flight of the bomber was completed on 16 February 1954, the car in the air lifted the crew of a test pilot M. A. Nocticula.

Serial production of the strategic bomber Tu-95 was deployed in 1955. Originally it was supposed to be called the Tu-20, but all drawings of the machine have already been released with the designation of "95", so the plane kept this digital index. Production of the aircraft was deployed on an aircraft factory number 18 in Kuibyshev. Factory testing of new machines continued until January 1956, and on 31 may of that year the aircraft was transferred to the State tests. In August of that year the aircraft was demonstrated to the public, he took part in the air parade in honor of aviation Day. In 1957, the bomber was fitted with more powerful and advanced engines NK-12M, and under the designation Tu-95M strategic bomber was adopted by the Soviet Army. The first Tu-95 was put in the newly formed 106 tbad, commanded by hero of the Soviet Union A. I. Molodchy.
 
Bomber Tu-95 was introduced midwing swept (sweep angle of 35° at quarter chord) wing of the big lengthening (8,8). The aircraft was equipped with 4 turboprop NK-12, which were located on the wing in nacelles that protrude far forward. Aircraft engines were equipped with a coaxial four-bladed screws of opposite rotation AV-60 (with a diameter of 5.6 meters), created in OKB of K. I. Zhdanov. The airframe was made of specially designed aluminum alloy V-95. Bomber had a relatively thin and long fuselage (diameter – 2.9 meters), which gave the car a rapid appearance.
 
Heat stabilized and sealed bomb Bay was in the center of mass of the bomber (when you reset the bombs, the alignment of the aircraft is unchanged). Wing aircraft was equipped with two-piece three-piece flaps and ailerons. Wing and tail of the bomber was equipped with special de-icing system.

Landing gear was tricycle fixed landing from the front Desk. Main landing gear retracted into special fairings that were continuations of the nacelle. In the rear fuselage of the bomber had special safety heel. Since 1961 the Tu-95 began to establish a system of refueling in the air by the method of "hose-cone". The crew of the strategic bomber was in 2 pressurized cabins. The cabin (except for Tu-95MS) were connected by a tunnel with a cart where you could move the crew (in this case it was necessary to conduct the depressurization of the cabin). On Board the bomber was equipped with a chemical toilet, there were here and a galley with a stove for heating and eating. For emergency evacuation of the bomber in the air using a special conveyor with a moving belt, which threw the crew through a hatch in the niche of the front landing gear. The original defensive armament of the bomber was composed of 3 paired artillery installations of caliber of 23 mm.

Before the advent and mass proliferation of ballistic missiles strategic bomber Tu-95 was the only means of delivering nuclear weapons. Throughout the period of operation was created by a large number of modifications of cars that differed in armament and equipment. Pure bomber version (the Tu-95 and Tu-95M) was only produced until 1959. All subsequent versions of the aircraft were carriers of the missile. Serial production of the bomber version of the Tu-95MS lasted until 1992. Thus on the basis of Tu-95 in the late 1950-ies were created and long-haul passenger aircraft, which received the designation Tu-114, and for many years this machine has served as the flagship of "Aeroflot".

Bomber Tu-95 was used as aerial media for a variety of aircraft and as a flying laboratory (the height of the landing gear of the Tu-95 is allowed to hang under its fuselage of any aircraft engine, but even the fuselage of a small airplane). In 1989, on the production strategy of the Tu-95MS was established 60 world records flight altitude and flight speed with a load. In may 1990, this machine set 3 record: altitude in horizontal flight and climb.

The potential that was laid out in the strategic bomber Tu-95, allows the machine to be actively operated by the Russian air force. In 2013 we will start the program for the modernization of strategic bombers Tu-95MS to version Tu-95МСМ. In the course of modernization will be replaced by the avionics of the aircraft, while its airframe and engines will remain unchanged. Tu-95МСМ will set a new sighting and navigation complex, which will allow you to apply the latest strategic cruise missiles X-101. Also on the plane should appear to navigation system on the basis of the GLONASS system.
 

In the framework of the modernization it is planned to update a few dozen strategic bombers, while the rest will be written off. Modernization will extend the service life of the aircraft until 2025, at the same time, experts say that the machine will last until 2030-2040. Currently, the air force of Russia is 32 strategic bomber Tu-95MS bombers, and about 60 cars in storage.


The performance characteristics of the Tu-95MS

Dimensions: wingspan – of 50.05 m, length – accounting period by 47.09 m, height of plane of 13.20 m.
Wing area – sq. m. 295,0
Aircraft weight: maximum takeoff – 187 700 kg empty aircraft – 94 400 kg.
Engine type – 4 NK 12M turboprop (MV), capacity 4 x 15 000 HP
The maximum speed of 830 km/h cruising speed of 710 km/h.
The practical range – 10 500 km.
Practical ceiling – 12000 m
Armament: two 23-mm cannon GS-23 (GS-23L), combat load normal – 7800 kg, maximum – 20 800 kg.
Crew: 7 people.

Sources of information:
-http://www.brazd.ru/av/tu-95.html
-http://www.airwar.ru/enc/bomber/tu95ms.html
-http://ru-aviation.livejournal.com/2461199.html
-http://ru.wikipedia.org

Tags: USSR , aviation


RELATED MATERIALS: Defence and security